Psych 210 week 2
Psych 210 week 2 PSYCH 210
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Hiruni Notetaker on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYCH 210 at University of Washington taught by McDermott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
genes and hormones ● SRY gene on the Y chromosomes determines whether an embryo will go on the pathway to becoming physically male ● female and male embryos possess both wolffian and mullerian ducts ○ Wolffian ducts: precursors of the male reproductive tract ○ mullerian ducts: precursors of female reproductive tract ○ mullerian ducts are shut down by the SRY gene. males, testes produce anti mullerian hormone causing female ducts to regress ○ absence of anti mullerian hormone allows mullerian ducts to persist and develop into female anatomy ● embryo at 12 weeks= external genitalia. starts out as same structure. slit in embryo= cloacaovered by membrane ○ cloaca flanked brethral fold andgenital swelling ○ outer folds become scrotum in males and outer labia for females ○ genital tuberclat front end. ○ presence/absence of testosterone is what determines sex. genital tubercle becomes penis in presence of testosterone or external portion of clitoris in females ○ absence of SRY and testosterone=female genitalia ○ male genotype but female phenotype in some chromosomal differences ● male gonads descend from kidneys. shortly before birth they reach the scrotum. female gonads stay there until birth ○ undescended testicles lead to increased risk of cancers and fertility issues biological differences between the sexes ● male brains are about 10% larger proportionate to overall body size difference. connections b/w left and right hemispheres are stronger in women; connections within each side of brain are stronger in men ● women’s brains are better at connected the two hemispheres, talking to each other ● male brains connection within each side of the brain are stronger but not between the two sides ● men use right amygdala more vice versa in women ● men produce more serotonin women produces more dopamine ○ low serotonin=higher level of depression ○ men are more vulnerable to alcoholism because of lower levels of dopamine gendered behavior ● no difference in overall intelligence/cognitive capacities ○ high levels of testosterone=increased lateralization ○ low levels of test=increased bi lateralization chromosomal anomalies ● Klinefelter syndrome (XXY, XXXY) ○ male, tall, low testosterone → small genitals, low sperm count. due to presence of Y chromosome, SRY is activated. ● Turner syndrome (XO) ○ absence of X chromosome. female, short, lack ovaries, need assisted entrance to puberty ● XYY syndrome ○ male, genital anomalies, low cerebral development. high concentrations of people with this syndrome in prison. presence of extra Y chromosome might attribute to autistic characteristics ● TripleX syndrome (XXX) ○ female, cognitive deficits, low fertility intersexuality ● gonadal intersexuality:ovarian and testicular tissue, infertile, look like women ● androgen insensitivity syndrome (ais): XY fetus experienced large amounts of androgens, partial masculinization of genitalia. genital ambiguity. testes release testosterone, but body doesn’t respond to it. secondary sex characteristics go to default, which is female ● congenital adrenal hyperplasia lack reproductive tract. xy females. shallow vagina, infertile gender identity ● is a spectrum, fluid. not a dichotomy. a continuum ● vectors of gender models ● sexuality differences ○ men: stronger sex drive, permissive of casual sex, etc etc ○ are these genetic or societal ● gender difference arise a young age ● gender differences push people into the roles of society? transgender ● non suicidal self injury female to male/male to female genital mutilation ● transgender people are so diverse that they are especially vulnerable to attack and psychological abuse ● mullerian duct dissolving makes the wolffian ducts disintegrate ● autogynephiles are heterosexual, they just get aroused by looking at themselves dressed up in clothing of a gender that is not their biological gender ● cross dressers are different because they get dressed up in the opposite gender to performance reasons sexual attraction ● masculinity and femininity is a dimension of attractiveness ○ babyfacedness considered attractive ● male attractiveness: sharper jaw, ● female attractiveness: shiny hair, soft skin, rounder jaw ● symmetry makes a person more attractive, sexy and healthy. it increases the perceived attractiveness of bodies as well ● relative slimness or fatness (BMI) influences judgments of attractiveness ○ bmi preferences are generally culturally determined ○ rural zulus in south africa give highest ratings to women with bmis of 20 to 40 ● waist to hip ratio is related to bmi. unconscious cues of levels of fertility, health, etc ○ men are viewed at more attractive with smaller ratio: .9 WTH ● people generally find faces of people from their own ethnic group more attractive than faces from other groups ○ pervasive effect through all cultures ● women perceive men with deeper voices to be more attractive ○ more testosterone, more fertile ● men perceive women with higher pitched voices to be more attractive ● unconscious olfactory mechanisms influence sexual arousal ● personality traits like trustworthiness, warmth, humor: attractive ● highly attractive people suffer by being judged by their looks, they use their attractiveness as a crutch, part of their identity, they can get away with more, teacher assumes they are doing much better even if they’re not, unconscious bias towards attractiveness. can hinder those who make it a large part of their identity ● seeing a face before makes us judge it as more attractive than if we are seeing it for the first time ○ coolidge: revival of arousal caused by presence of novel partner ○ habituation: less satisfaction as duration of relationship increases ● women attracted to masculine faces around the time of ovulation ○ men tip lap dancers more during time of ovulation ○ subconsciously more attractive? pheromone? ● asexuals may experience romantic attraction and desire for psychological intimacy, this is unrelated to sexual performance and physiological function sexual arousal ● arises from external and internal stimuli ○ presence or behavior of an individual or from within as a result of fantasies ● fantasy promotes arousal ○ men fantasize more than women do ○ develop sexual power in females, ○ females fantasize about homosexual relations more than men do ● activity in anterior cingulate cortex which is also activated by other emotionally rewarding stimuli is associated with sexual arousal ● testosterone influences arousability in boys and girls entering puberty ○ levels of testosterone in adult men are high enough to have little effect on arousability ○ both testosterone and estrogen influence sexual activity in women ○ men in relationships have lower testosterone than when having left one ● sexual response cycle developed by masters and johnson, divided in four phases ○ excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution ○ excitement: uterus rises, vagina lubricates, labia engorge, clitoris erect ○ plateau: upper part of vagina expands, orgasmic platform forms, clitoris retracts under hood ○ orgasm: uterus contracts, anal sphincter contracts, orgasmic platform contracts ○ resolution: labia engorgement declines, clitoris descends and shrinks, uterus descends, orgasmic platform relaxes ○ excitement: erection begins, testicles rise ○ plateau: bulbourethral glands contract, testicles engorge and fully elevate, scrotal skin thickens, penis is fully erect, ○ orgasm: urethra contracts, seminal vesicles contract, vasa deferentia contract, prostate contracts ○ resolution, loss of erection, testicles descend ● g spot orgasm ○ both clitoral and vaginal orgasms involve the same pattern of muscles contracting ○ clitoral stimulation= outside of clitoris receives the blood flow, vaginal orgasm= deeper areas of clitoris and vagina show more blood flow during orgasm ● motivation for sexual relationships ● physical attraction and romantic love ● desire for ○ status, security, profit ○ conform, rebel ○ arouse jealousy ■ sexual jealousy ■ emotional jealousy ○ have children moral judgments about sex ● the morality of heterosexual behavior by the relationship within which it occur ○ likely to view sex that takes place in the context of an affectionate/intimate/committed relationship as being morally acceptable ● most people feel sex is morally acceptable in confines of relationships ● more women than men see premarital sex as morally wrong ○ older people see premarital sex as wrong ○ higher education = less likely to see premarital sex as wrong casual sex ● due to the availability of contraceptives and abortions, women today are more likely to engage in casual sex than women in the past ● as percentage of men go down at a college campus, higher percentage of women having sex. more women than men lose out on sexual power because ratio is imbalanced ● the willingness to engage in casual sex is ociosexuality ○ no need to feel sexually competitive to land attention or relationship on campuses with higher percentage of men ● hooking up ○ common on campuses where women are the majority ○ in the context of alcohol use they are more often ○ can be pleasurable or abusive ○ more women than men hope for a relationship after a hookup ○ more women than men discussed a relationship ● casual sex is more acceptable in the gay male community ○ gay men not restrained by women’s reluctance in casual sex ○ pregnancy not a concern ○ gay men less likely to be concerned about public opinion on casual sex love cements sexual relationships ● romantic love appears to be a nearly universal human experience ● stenberg’s theory of love is comprisdassion, intimacy, commitment ○ those three=consummate love ○ infatuation=passion ○ empty love=commitment ○ liking=intimacy ○ companionate=intimacy + commitment ○ romantic love=passion + intimacy ○ fatuous love=passion + commitment ○ empty love is the first stage of arranged marriage ○ fatuous love could be a whirlwind romance ● attachment styles ○ secure ■ attachments marked by trust and others will provide love & support ■ securely attached as children and have basic self confidence and trust ■ easy to enter into intimate relationships ○ anxious/ambivalent ■ fear of abandonments/feelings needs aren’t being met ■ unrealistic fear of being deserted, seek emotional merger that may drive the partner away ○ avoidant ■ defensive detachment from the other ■ uncomfortable with adult intimacy ○ Thoughts of self and of partner: positive = secure ■ thoughts of self negative and thoughts of partner positive: preoccupied with relationships ■ thoughts of self positive thoughts of partner negative: dismissive or intimacy strongly independent. may not know if they can trust others but at least can trust themselves ■ thoughts of self negative and thoughts of partner negative: fearful of intimacy, socially avoidant, not worthy of love they feel like, they can’t trust other ○ parents who respond to young child’s needs have kids with positive responsive to parents. confident in parent’s love, seek to contact him or her ● love across time ○ passionate love (infatuation) starts relationships and exists for a brief time ○ companionate love makes it succeed and survive ●
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