Dance Outline Chapter 2
Dance Outline Chapter 2 Dance 101
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Mackenzie Shapiro on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Dance 101 at University of South Carolina taught by Diane Valle in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 493 views. For similar materials see Dance Appreciation in Dance at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Dance Outline Chapter 2 1 Shiva and Dance in India a b C The Gds dance Shiva Gd of creation and destruction is classically represented as Nataraja lord of the dance A Bronze icons shown in temples show a four armed deity ringed by re B One hand he holds a drum symbolizing the sound that kindles creation C Other hand cradles a ball of re symbolizing destruction and renewal D His right leg bent at the knee crushes to earth the demon of ignorance E Raised left leg is swung around his body signi es the release of cares Vishnu takes human form to recue the world when its threatened 2 Religious and Traditional Dance a Tradition of religious dance is found in Africa south of the Sahara and throughout the western hemisphere A Yoruba speaking people preserved and extended the religious practices of their ancestor In some ceremonies the goal is to quotmake a Gd with one s bodyquot The initiate who has been trained dances to invite a particular Gd to visit the world of the living When the invitation is accepted the Gd takes procession of the initiates body and beings dancing so that everyone recognizes the deity During this time the initiate remains in a trance Yoruba A Speak of being mounted by a Gd B Mounted experience that brings spiritual and material bene ts to the individual and entire community 3 How and Why People Dance a b c d Basic vehicle of dance is the body Attitudes are powerfully shaped by religious belief The in uence of Indian dance has been felt as far away as china japan and south paci c Yoruba from west Africa implanted a tradition of religious dance in the Caribbean and the Americas The JudeoChristian world has been ambivalent about the religious uses of dance f Ancient Hebrews were surrounded by people who quotdance was a means of in uencing the invisible powers and of establishing contact with themquot A Sought to distance themselves from the practices of their neighbors B Their ambivalence was passed on to early Christians C Removed from consecrated ground dance in the west ourished as a secular arena for social interaction and as the basis of secular theater D The split in the Christian world view between the sacred and the secular may be related to Christianity s denial of the body as something holy 4 Judaism and Dance F r39 39 39LQ a Right kind of dance and wrong kind of dance b After the Lord closed the red sea on the Egyptians Miriam sister of Moses led the surviving Hebrews in the dance of thanksgiving Exodus 1520 King David once danced before the Ark of the Covenant ll Samuel 614 when his wife mocked him for it she was punished Psalm 149 exhorts quotLet them praise His name with dancequot When Moses came down from mount Sinai the fact that they were all singing and dancing is especially noticed This was the wrong kind of dance Ecclesiastes remind us there is a time to dance Exodus 3219 Talmud says the angels dance in heaven Jews must dance at weddings Religious rituals of ancient Hebrews were in uenced by their encounters with pagans A Pagans lived in land that the descendants of Abraham claimed by the divine right B The Lord of the Hebrews couldn t be envisioned in any image let alone one that danced References to dance in the Hebrew scriptures seem both modest and restrained 5 Ambivalence Towards Dance Greek and roman a b Greek and roman Like the Mycenaeans and the Minoans and the Egyptians before them Greeks danced for religious ceremonies A To insure fertile elds and women B Prepare for war and celebrate victories C At weddings and funerals D Overcome depression and cure illness E Could threaten the established order Dionysus nature Gd came from the east Zeus owed his survival to dance A His father was trying to kill him e Dancing gures adorned the earliest pottery Evidence shows they never sang or chanted without moving their bodies g Dionysus led dancers in the spring festival at Athens A Choral competitions then into dramatic competitions B Now no one knows what they looked or sound like h Romans sent their sons and daughters to dancing schools i 150 BC guardians of public morality ordered these schools closed but the ban was unsuccessful j the republican Cicero held that real men do not dance unless drunk or insane k pantomimetheatrical dance became popular in Rome the testimony of Lucian reminded his readers that dancing is as old aslove m the New Testament story of Salome and John the Baptist makes it clear that the association of dance ith love lust and violence was proverbial 0 h 6 Philosophy with Dance a Plato A Agreed with Socrates that every educated man should know how to dance B Pyrrhic weapon dance was acceptable to Plato because they made manifest to the dance in order that rules the cosmos C Banished professional actor dancers from his ideal republic to be safe b Purpose of art to reveal the good the beautiful c Steps stayed close to the ground and group dancing was safer than solo performances d Aristotle A Bene ts of professionalism outweighed the drawbacks B Said all Greek citizens should attend dance C Also feared a life completely devoted to dance D Urged that profession of dancer be reserved for slaves ex slaves and foreigners 7 Christianity and Dance a Offered itself as a ful llment of the word that has been revealed to the Hebrews and as a cleansing of the moral lth that has polluted Roman society b Earliest followers of Christ were concerned with living a pure life that required denial of bodily desires The early church fathers believed in a body that could perform sacred dances to Gd NeoPlatonic Could point out scriptures against dance but couldn t ignore the dances of David and Miriam and dance of Psalms and the book of Ezekiel In their scriptures Paul admonished them to glorify Gd in your body Matthew and Luke quoted Jesus as saying quotWe have piped unto you and ye have not dancedquot Fathers baptized dance by re ning and spiritualizing it Dances approved by fathers group dances While shunning the dances of the Pagans Christians danced as a congregation during ritual prayer mystical practice healing and cleansing and scripture and doctrine Symbolic enactments quotdance of the blessedquot and quotthe dance of the angelsquot The circlering dance was seen as a heavenly dance of the angels which was a celebration of the resurrection Dancers sang hymns and psalms Augustine self proclaimed expert on temptation A Denounced wild dancing B Damned it with quotlet those who dance dancequot C Suggested that all dance may be puri ed of all eshly taint by following the example of St Cyprian the Martyr D Would have approved of the discreet dancing of the Byzantine Church mosaics Condemnation of the wrong kinds of dance became a function of the church council The issue was control Christian worships goal was salvation Singers and paintings had to follow rules but dance was unpredictable Bans on dancing were frequent between 12001500 On church oors in France Italy England and Germany labyrinths were laid out in colorful stones Congregants followed a leader into Satan s path and at the end of the ceremony they arrive in Jerusalem or heaven Pelotaball dance The Pelota was performed in Auxerre France as late as 1538 Other kinds of Christian dance movements of the priest around the alter plays staged on porches of cathedrals and processions of choristers 15th century 6 young boys dressed as angels and danced before the high alter Can still be seen today separated human activity into two realms sacred and secular 8 9 10 z a line was drawn bw the life of the spirit to which men should aspire and the material world from which men should try to free themselves preChristian festival dances were energetic with lots of whirling and stamping In time this contributed to the creation of a purely secular dance in tradition in western Europe acDancing during carnival before lent also tested the limits of church control Church officials condemned it as early as the 7th century During the black death 13481351 processions of agellants appeared on the continent and in England A Thrashed themselves with leather rope trying to end the plague B Whipping was carried out while they moved in a circle of dance af 1374 people appeared in Aachen Colgne holding hands and dancing bystanders said they were processed by demons Many of the choreomaniacs suffered from convulsive ergotism condition contracted by eating bread made from rye our contaminated by the ergot fungus ai Causes cramps and muscle spasms aj By the 17th century this was recognized as having natural causes ak Protestant Reformers banished all displays of wealth poetry and music were allowed dance was not al The labyrinth in Auxerre Cathedral was torn up in 1690 aa ab ad ae ag ah Western Dance a Around 12th century Provence western style couple dancing began b Men and women may break from formation of the circle hand touching helps for a guide c Unprecedented in JudeoChristian tradition Worship a Shakers protestant visionaries placed dance at the center of their worship The Hasidic movement sought a more personal form of worship through ecstatic dancing in the synagogue From the renaissance on dance in JudeoChristian societies typically expressed secular rather than religious concerns b C Africa Among the Yoruba of west Africa dance is grounded with movement directed downward toward the earth Yoruba cosmology recognizes tow realms of existence 1 Tangible world of living and 2 Invisible realm of Gds and ancestors The dancing body is the place where the two realms meet Tth 42593 ltcrgnn Some ceremonies are to induce possession Praise song called oriki is addressed to certain deities Moment of possession can be signi ed by sudden change of movements or a loud cry In the Yoruba pantheon there are over 400 Gds or Orishas A Cool predictable beings like Osun a river goddess B Hot capricious Gds such as Sango former king who wields a lightening bolt At shrines Orishas are praised with oriki and fed and offered sacd ces Seasonal festivals held in their honor In return for devotion an orisha will protect you and drive away disease ensure healthy children Deities that are not worshipped quotdiequot Sango the thunder Gd loves to dance A Was a king of Oyo but so headstrong that his people dethroned him B He tried magic and bolts of lightening killed his kids and wives but one C He hung himself D Now worshipped as giver and protector of children the scourge of adulterers The priests of Sango carry beautifully carved wooden dance wands with images of his rapt followers F Sango priest dresses in robe and baggy trousers and sings he praises and moves to drumming G As possession becomes closer the priest strips off his outer layer of clothing steps become irregular rising on the ball of his feet and twisting his torso H When possession occurs he cries out I Movements change to abrupt energetic and angular l39 Osun cures the sick and blesses her followers with children A Dance is owing like the river she is associated with B Short steps close to the ground arms make circles from their shoulders while their hands revolve at the wrist C Dance doesn t change much when possessed Yoruba communities participate in dance dramas called egungun Elaborate costumes that go from head to toe They are treated as if they are the ancestors come back to life Fierce and aggressive for famous warriors gentle for matriarch of a Hneage Egungun masks only reveal their power when they are danced The egungun masker conceals his identity Carved head pieces with human and animal feathers Masks are property of prominent families or secret societies Each year more is added to the costumes w Some turn completely inside out while spinning x Ancestors are usually male y Women are kept away from where the masks are prepared 2 Women chant the songs aa In the town of Abeokuta a military outpost an egungun festival recalls the anarchic years following the fall of the Oyo Empire ab When the masks go to the streets young men reenact a mock battle acNigerian Christians practice a form of ecstatic worship in what are called aadura churches A These churches represent both teachings of English Protestant missionaries and Yoruba religious practices Singing of hymns and dancing in the pews White robed worshipers invite the possession of the holy spirit When the spirit descends on them they begin speaking in tongues ad India Dancing body occupies a place of honor in religious worship Hinduism says the realms are actually one Belief in the underlying unity of existence and a determination to exclude no aspect of life in the search for the meaning of life Body is a tool for achieving greater insight and understanding Two main forms of dance Bharata Natyam and Kathakali 1st is solo for highly trained female 2nCI is a dance drama where performers enact stories about heroes deities and demons Natya Shastra treatise that describes and analyzes the techniques employed in the Sanskrit plays of that time Mudras language of hand gestures Vedas contain prayers hymns and ritual formulas for sacri ces Sacri ces had to be performed with extreme detail Rasas emotions universalized to reveal what is common in everyone s experience Natya Shastra indenti es 8 rasas love humor pathos anger heroism terror disgust and wonder and serenity Must be distinguished from transitory feelings The goal is collaboration between performer and spectator 7 movements of the eyebrow and 9 movements of the eyelid Gds can be invoked by rites Rites include prayers and bathing clothing feeding and entertaining the consecrated image with offerings Devadasis women who were married to the Gd of the temple and had to please them through dance T Most famous temple dedicated to dancing shiva is at Chidambaram POP Damp owgt 1 7lt Pomp 2 S NKXE lt c Dancer stands with knees bent feet sideways and arms extended One day a year a picture of the Gd is paraded around for the entire population Later years some devadasis were court dancers Sacred prostitution was practiced 1927 temple dancing was banned Rukmini Devi established a school in Madras that attracts musicians and dancers who want to combine religious devotion with the performing arts AA AB New Classical dance became known as Bharata Natyam quotdancers today are usually women of middle and upper class AC Dr Kapila Vatsyayan says the Indian dancer uses the body to suggest an abstract universal form AD a DOquot Fi quot320 7th 0 3 AE wmeom Bharata Natyam wrapped in sarilike garment of brightly colored silk highlighted in gold over leggings of the same material on her waist fails a fan pleated apron that opens when she bends bare feet joined heel to heel edges of her feet are outlined in red paint circet of bells around her ankes hair ears neck and nose with jewelry abstract and expressive dancer is also the choreographer poetry is drawn from the allegorical genre of Indian literature dancer mimes each character Krishna the divine over Rodha his beloved and Radha s female friend she is judged by her interpretative skills and the emotional response of the audience The dancer Balasaraswati heiress to a long family tradition of music and dance was a key gure in the revival of bharata natyam Instruction and training begin at an early age Kathakali All mae dance drama The poetic verses were written in Malayalem Two singers recite it Began performing in public areas open to any caste 1920 s support for this dance lessened Poet Vaatho Narayana Menon established an academy of the dramatic arts in 1930 so that future generations could see this dance Enter the academy at 11 or 12 for a minimum of 6 yrs 3 a 42593 39I39Ul N ltltEltC aa Daily massage where teacher walks over the oiled body Physical discipline is seen as a prerequisite to mental and spiritual discipline In Kerala young men and women learn the arts of offense and defense Instruction takes place in a gym called Kalari a windowless rectangular building Trainees salute its guardian deity by reverently touching the oor with the right hand and then raising it to the forehead During training they learn to center all their actions and reactions in the lumbar region Costumes are elaborate but feet are bear Acrobatic leaps spiral turns vigorous leg extensions Costume and makeup can take up to 3 hours 30 yards of white cloth are wound around the oins then a bell shaped gown then several bulky jackets then a headdress Gds kings and heroes have green faces bordered with white paste and eyes outlined in black Evil characters have red beards and white mustaches Characters that are nasty but have good qualities have partly green faces and red mustaches Most males have 3inchlong ngernails on their left hand Performer reddens his eyes with juice of a crushed seed No sounds on stage Narakasaura Vadham peacock dance Begins shortly after sundown and ends at sunrise Metal lamp is set up in front of the stage 9 hours
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