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Lecture notes throughout 9/17

by: Kelsey Dhonau

Lecture notes throughout 9/17 Psy 350

Marketplace > Purdue University > Psychlogy > Psy 350 > Lecture notes throughout 9 17
Kelsey Dhonau
GPA 3.4
Abnormal Psychology
David Rollock

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About this Document

These are all the lecture notes from class taken through 9/17. Very detailed and didn't miss any slides.
Abnormal Psychology
David Rollock
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Kelsey Dhonau on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psy 350 at Purdue University taught by David Rollock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Test 1 08252015 Profession Degreetraining Expertiseactivities Clinical psychologist PhD or PsyD Grad Psychotherapy clinical School Internship assessment teaching PostDoctoral supervised neuropsych testing work research PhD Moderate severe Counseling psychologist PhD or PsyD Grad Psychotherapy School Internship vocational amp clinical PostDoctoral work assessment teaching research Mild moderate Psychiatric worker MSW Graduate School depending on training PsychotheraIDY Case management etc prescribe medications Psychiatrist MD Medical school Medications some Residency psychotherapy some research Psychoanalyst certi cation usu Psychoanalysis amp MD in USA psychoanalytic Psychoanalytic institute psychotherapy Psychotherapy EdD MFT Problem assessment amp Religious leadership intervention within training etc basically specialized contexts can be anyone don t need any schooling or training What is abnormal 0 Deviant unusual nonnormative eg sexual activity with children food binges followed by vomiting 0 Irrational does not make sense in cultural context eg loose associations bizarre gestures 0 Maladaptiveharmful dangerous to self or others interferes with self care eg neglect to self care selfmutilation suicide 0 Painfuldistressing subjective sense of discomfort or distress ashbacks to trauma in PTSD fear in paranoia Do these de nitions allow us to say that any given behavior always represents an illness or indicates a psychological disorder NO Three Key Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior Perspective Cause of Necessary Professionals Abnormality Treatment SpiritSupernatural Control by Drive out evil Priests sensitive supernatural forces amp nurture persons elders forces good forces Somatogenic Somatic bodily Correct body Physicians amp Biologicalmedical processes gone andor other experts in wrong physiological somatic processes processesca re Psychogenic Disturbed Change behavior Training in social acquired through feelings habits by talk new science amp human behavior or attitudes experiences behavior learning psychologists PerspectivesParadigmsModels Need for perspectives to approach fuzzy concept of abnormal in a systematic way Systematic ways are paradigms o organize thinking re what is it lmportance of perspective and context ali means social amp cultural issues are central to understanding abnormal behavior 827 Some HistoricalConceptual lssues SpirituallquotSupernaturalquot Model 0 ln EuropequotThe West 0 Demonic possession as cause of abnormal behavior 0 Logical need for prayers amp spiritual interventions 0 Tx drive evil spirits out by making body inhospitable 0 Rise and fall of moral therapy in late 1800searly 19005 0 In other traditional societies eg West Africa 0 Placate or nurture good spirits 0 Healing amp rest for less bene cent spirits Some contemporary amp related issues 0 Tensions between folk medicine amp other approaches 0 Moral issues amp culpability eg addictions paraphilias Some Limitations amp Questions with SpirituallquotSupernaturalquot Model 0 WHOSE Spirituality 0 Radical divergences in spiritualsupernatural systems Meaning of problem behaviors vary with core beliefs n Eg contact with ancestors vs demonic activity a Place of unrelated sociopolitical concerns Individuals moral culpability for problems in some systems a Eg addiction anxiety depression lt insufficient faith 0 Training of appropriate professionals oTraining dependent upon beliefs systems 0 Emphasis on behavior problems vs other spiritual matters 0 Better Tools for relevant knowledge production 0 Efficiency amp success rates in treating many problems by opposing evil spirits Other means to establish agreement Social resources 91 SomatogenicquotMedical Modelquot of abnormal behavior If viewing abnormal behavior like physical illness then underlying processes can be seen at levels of o 1 SYMPTOM discrete identi able abnormal process that may signal a larger problem 0 2 SYNDROME pattern group of regularlycooccurring symptoms wo reference to origin 0 3 DISORDER syndrome with a clear coherent pattern re ecting a larger condition but with unknown etiology o 4 DISEASE disorder with known etiology Examples of levels of SomatogenicquotMedical Modelquot Symptom sneezing hallucinations Syndrome sneezing watery eyes hallucinations delusions Disorder a quotcoldquot schizophrenia whateverthat is Disease a speci c cold virus schizophrenia E cause were known gtUUI 39 Etiologies of Abnormal Behavior in SomatogenicquotMedical Modelquot DISEASE ORGANISMS virusesother pathogens 0 Syphilis as cause of general paresis late 18005 BIOCHEMISTRY imbalances in brain or other bodily chemicals Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia NEUROANATOMY structural changes in brain or other parts of central system 0 Brain injury cortical deterioration l dementia GENETICS inherited quotweaknessquot or disposition Some Key bene ts of a SomatogenicquotMedical Modelquot Understand previously misunderstood patterns 0 Eg quotAlzheimer s Diseasequot as biologically distinct from normal agingother cognitive decline Eg agreement that Bipolar do likely genetic Potential for early amp reliable diagnosis dx amp treatment tx by identifying biological markers 0 Eg early identi cation of PKU l avoid later mental retardation Foundations for effective new tx Eg discovery of major tranquilizers 19505 deinstitutionalizations of SMI seriously mentally ill patients 19605 0 Thru 19th century abnormal behavior stigmatizing norms for home care through more insane asylums for poor 0 Industrialization l changed family structures for caring later warehousing of pts in state facilities 0 19505 discovery of major tranquilizers 19605 Kennedy admin meds l possible to deinstitutionalize l creation of CMHCs for outpatient care Some Key Criticisms of a SomatogenicBiologicallquotMedical Modelquot REDUCTIONISM Not all abnormal behavior can be reducted to or treated as mere physical processes 0 Problems often extend well beyond just brain abnormalities eg schizophrenia anorexia PTSD affected by expedenceskMs MENTAL vs PHYSICAL ILLNESS Originscoursestx of many abnormal patterns differ from medical problems 0 Eg paranoia phobias or other non psychotic disorders 0 SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY If abnormal behavior is just faulty physical processes then quotmentally illquot should not be held responsible for their behavior O Eg alcoholism and drinking and driving 0 CURRENT LACK OF UNDERSTANDING ETIOLOGY few conclusive casual links between biological conditions and speci c abnormal behavior 0 93 Eg no blood test for scz Some Implications of Class Exercise Ambiguous words abnormal condition 0 O O O Meanings amp feelings rather than biology Meanings salient l audiences stage of life Abnormal condition l inappropriate context for focus on basic biological urges Abnormal feeling awkward l nervous behavior laughter I relieve tension defuse energy generated by incongruity Evidence for Psychogenic Model 0 Meaning social context as triggers shaping direction of any energybiological processes Psychogenic Models Abnormal behavior as result of disturbances O O O 0 Thoughts inc meanings amp other cognitive activity Feelings inc positive amp negative emotions amp moods Behavior inc social amp privateinternal activity as well as habits other quotpsychologicalquotbehaviora internal experiences and phenomena Freud s Structural Theory ID Inborn based on biological needs Repository of libidinal energy 0 Pleasure principle satisfaction through Direct grati cation Primary process thinking wish ful llment o Unconscious EGO Develops of out id to meet the needs of the id in the quotreal worldquot 0 Reality principle satisfaction through 0 Grati cation by indirect means 0 Secondary process thinking logical planful thought Largely conscious SUPEREGO o quotMORAL ARMquot of the psyche based on assuming the moral values of the samesex parent Develops 0 out of fear 0 out of love for parents 0 around ages 37 Partially conscious consciou supereg preconsci ego unconsch Freud s D STAGE AGE EROGENOUS CONFLICT l FIXATIONS ZONEACTIVTY key examples Oral 01 Mouthsucking Weaning Dependency indulgence Anal 13 Anuselimination Toilet training Stinginess compulsiveness Phallic 35 quotPenisquotmasturbatio OedipalElectr MORALITY n a Homosexualit Y boys are jealous of father Latency 512 none in particular none in consolidate same particular sex identity Genital 12 Genitalsintercourse Societal mores Sexual lmpulsivity Homosexuality comes from absence of father doesn t threaten you about your penis or is weak 98 Training and competence necessary to treat forms of abnormal behavior varies with social and cultural views of distress In a quotsomatogenicquot or quotmedical modelquot approach abnormal behavior could be labeled a syndrome only ifwhen there are symptoms that cooccur regularly in a pattern Long after a traumatically stressful event that made everyone anxious one student cannot stop worrying and feeling emotionally upset unlike her friends This might indicate problems with her limbic system According to Sigmund Freud the most common source of abnormal behavior is poor resolution of con ict between biological drives and social norms or realities Evidence of the strong in uence of the quotmedical modelquot on current thinking about abnormal behavior includes all of these EXCEPT elimination of legal responsibility for behavior traceable to clear biochemical or genetic roots alcoholism Classical Freudian Approach to Development of Symptoms amp Defenses 0 Con ict ID IMPULSES vs SOCIAL RULES 0 Neurotic Anxiety Mediation by EGO via some combination of 0 Symptoms sign of forbidden wish trying to be expressedsatis ed Anxiety conversion perversions psychosis 0 Defense Mechanisms effort to divert or minimize energy or object of a forbidden wish Repression forgetting act like it never happened displacement projection sublimation Some Major Criticisms of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach QUESTIONABLE EVIDENCE for unobservable constructs amp untestable processes 0 Eg test for quotOedipal con ictquot ALTERNATIVES TO CONFLICTS as mechanism for normalabnormal development 0 Eg bicycle riding Irrational fear of animals HIGHLY DETERMINISTIC BUT NOT PREDICTIVE o Eg who will be gaylesbian Cigarette smoker STRINGENT REQUIREMENTS FOR PSYCHOANALYSIS o Eg age verbal ability reality contact time SOME MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS of Classical Psychoanalytic Approach HARD PSYCHIC DETERMINISM abnormal behavior as not random but the result of de nite psychological antecedents even if not well understood First internally comprehensive THEORY OF UNCONSCIOUS MENTAL LIFE inc societal conditions that shape eg social needs for order curbs on particular id urges ABNORMAL amp NORMAL BEHAVIOR ARE ON CONTINUUM l EVERYONE warped to some degree by common early experiences amp biology CONFLICT as basis for abnormal behavior sex amp aggression as most likely to cause con ict and ANXIETY as crucial symptom First major TALKING TREATMENT with a clear guiding theoretical basis PSYCHOANALYSIS Key underpinnings from theory Theory Aspect Theoretical Element Implications for TX Structural Drives are basic Drives are unconscious Overt behavior l Unconscious mental life Must gratify drives 0 Focus Unconcscious Asses amp access unconscious through unguarded routes amp recurring behavior Developmenta I Con ict society vs drives l development Early Experiences Fixations I speci c sx 0 Identify original trauma l liberate energy l reduce sx Focus childhood Additional Drives don t quotgo away l anxiety amp new areas of expression Con icts will surface in relationship with neutral therapist PSYCHOANALYSIS Treatment Process Goals Recover Information about quottrue Underlying UNCONSCIOUS Causes of Problems 0 Free Association 0 Projective Tests 0 Dream Analysis 0 Hypnosis o Nurture Insight 0 Repeated confrontation l Observe patterns 0 Patterns Interrupt hidden meaning drive 0 quotWork throughquot the Problems PSYCHOANALYSIS Transference Transference 0 Analyst presents neutral face to analysand 0 Strong feelings develop toward analyst during tx transference o Feelings therefore must represent unconscious life 0 Psychoanalyst quotanalysis of transference Positive vs Negative transference 0 Positive allows acceptance of parentlike support 0 Negative hostility resistance to interpretations o Analyst39s Countertransference 910 PSYCHOANALYSIS Procedural Development 0 Some Key Features will cover changes in theory later 0 Training analysis of psychoanalystsintraining 0 Time for analysis 0 Classical psychoanalysis o Posture Lying downnot facing analysis l regression 0 Talking Mostly by analysand minimal by analyst o Technigues tap into primitive unconscious life 0 Focus uncovering unconscious con icts esp childhood sexualaggressive roots 0 Modern 0 Posture sitting up angled facing therapist 0 Focus Discussion of support of coping by ego than roots of idbased con icts An Alternative Psychogenic Perspective Humanistic Approaches CONTRARY TO FOCUS Unique aspects of human life quotPessimismquot of Freud 0 Freedom choice amp personal Humans gtgt CONFLICT amp growth BIOLOGICAL URGES Human health amp potential rather than pathology Mechanistic views of Behaviorists o Subjective values amp experiences Humans gtgt STIMULUS RESPONSE vs external events biology or HISTORY outer or impersonal in uences LJ39gtLJLJII I Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow 19081970 5 levels of needs basic advanced quotSelfactualizationquot Esteem from self and others Belongingness and love Safety security order stability Physiological food water 0 More basic needs must be at least partly satis ed before moving up 0 Failure to live up to quotpotentialquot due to 0 Failure to get more basic needs met 0 Lack of couragefear that growth will lead to situations from the individual will be unable to handle SelfActualizing People Are 0 Open direct spontaneous playful creative Independent amp nonconforming ln touch with their spirituality amp in harmony with life 0 Peak experiences transcendent times when quoteverything falls into placequot feeling quotin the zonequot Able to establish deep intimate relationships Concerned with the problems of others amp society based on highly developed ethical sensibility Are not Perfect 0 Just very comfortable with selves l sense of wellbeing 0 Finished growing Prototypical Humanistic Clinical Approach Some Basic Rogerian Concepts Humans who are quotFREEquot 0 Do not need to distort information from environment 0 THEREFORE Make goodoptimal choices Behave effectively 0 ACTUALIZING TENDENCY 0 Basic tendency of all organisms to maintain amp enhance themselves 0 SELFACTUALIZING TENDENCY 0 As organism begins differentiating its own phenomenological existence from rest of the world It becomes a true quotSELFquotquotIquot The actualizing tendency focuses on that quotSELFquotquotquot Rogers PhenomenologicalExperiential Differentiation of the self In the Presence of Unconditional Positive Regard l I will love you no matter what I Congruence with Experience amp Reality l I know I suck at track always come in last I Accurate SelfConcept III Fully functioning life amp SELF I quotSELFACTUALIZATIONquot 915 Abnormal In the Presence of Conditional Positive Regard l I will love you if I Incongruence with Experience amp Reality l You re not trying hard enough because you re getting D s and F s I Selective Selfconcept l The TAs suck its their fault I m doing bad I Protection of poorlyexplored self Continuing search for positive regard I Distress General Contributions of Humanistic Approaches o Emphasize importance of individuals39 subjective views 0 Esp values amp selfconcept amp choices 0 Client as expert on own issues not therapist 0 Views of HEALTHY human personality 0 Basis for current quotPositive Psychologyquot ideas 0 Empirical validation of importance of therapist values amp competence to provide 0 Unconditional positive regard o Accurate empathy o Genuineness General Criticisms of Humanistic Approaches Many major constructs amp processes not empirically testable Truly Selfactualized individuals probably m quotNaivet quot about quotnatural goodnessquot of human nature 0 More like a philosophy than a psychology Humanistic Approaches to TX 0 Rogers ClientCentered Therapy aka Person Centered Therapy 0 Emphasizes unique individual qualities 0 Therapist s role create conditions for growth less emphasis on technique or speci c sx Genuineness amp Congruence transparent quotrealquot Unconditional Positive Regard quotnonpossessive warmthquot Accurate Empathy appreciation wo getting lost 0 Therapists approach since client is expert on m needs amp unique potential therapist as facilitator Nondirective Re chve Note utility when focus on values not sxbehaviors Psychogenic Models of Abnormal Behavior Three Major Behavioral Approaches 1 Classical Conditioning 0 Neutral stimuli come to elicit conditioned responses by informational pairing with unconditional stimuli Eg Pavlov s dog quotlittle albertquot Operant Conditioning Reinforcement history in uences the probabilities of later behavior Eg Puzzle Box superstition Modeling Observing the behavior of others may produce learning by imitation Eg TV violence copycat crime cowooNo Basics of Classical Conditioning 1 Unconditioned Stimulus UCS food I Unconditioned response UR salivation 2 Unconditioned Stimulus plus Conditioned Stimulus UCS Food CS Sound I Unconditioned Response UR Salivation 3 Conditioned Stimulus CS sound I Conditioned Response CR SaHvann Some factors that limit amp Control Classical Conditioning Processes Acquisition early pairings of the CS and UCS must be 0 quottemporally contiguousquot close enough in time to each other to be related 0 informational CS should signal approach of UCS Extinction loss of ability of CS to elicit CR due to disruption of pairing or information associated with CS Stimulus Generalization capacity of stimuli similar to the original CS to bring about the CR 0 Discrimination process by which organism learns to emit the CR 0 In presence of speci c CS BUT o ot to other similar stimuli 917 John B Watson Behaviorism Apply Pavlov s ndings to make psychology a true natural science Term rst used Psychology as Behaviorist Views It 91913 Watson 1920 thinking as nothing more than sub vocal speech though retracted 1929 Watson amp Rayner 1920 little Albert demonstration of how basic emotions rage fear love could be conditioned l model for phobia compare name to Little Hans Mary CoverJones 1924 behavioral treatment of little Peter s fear through exposure Main Ideas of Watson s Behavorism and Classical Conditioning Watson 1924 p 104 The individual as tabula rasa Focus on observable behavior not unconscious or otherwise in accessible internal processes Environmental determinism like fried but unlike Rogers no free will Learning by conditioning as primary process of psychological development unlike Freud s biology is destiny closer to Rogers conditional regard ls classical conditioning enough to account for all major learning Limitations Finding unconditioned responses Sometimes Response Stimulus rather than the other way around eg 0 Learning to swim o Thorndike s puzzle box 0 Skinner s pigeons pecking a key Some application issues Classroom arrangements to facilitate learning Changing Response Probabilities Shaping via operant conditioning Stimulus Provided Stimulus Provided to organism to organism Action Positive Negative Add Positive punishment reinforcement goal Increase desired Decrease behavior undesired behavior REMOVE Extinction Negative response cost reinforcement goal Decrease Increase desired undesired behavior behavior Several Key Factors in Operant Conditioning o Reinforcement History 0 Affects likelihood a behavior will be emitted 0 Does not cause behavior 0 Most learned behavior is shaped by successive approximations Punishment can change behavior effectively but can back re if excessive Speed amp strength of learned behavior is a function of schedule of reinforcement o Passage of time 0 Frequency of correct behaviors emitted Some Medications of the Effects of Modeling 0 Perceived SIMILARITY of model and learner Perceived CONSEQUENCES for model 0 Translation of model s behavior into PA39ITERNS THAT CAN BE IMITATED Some Contributions of Behavioral Approaches Useful precision specifying quotabnormal behaviorquot 0 Behavior IS the problem 0 What conditions maintain it Environmental determinism Minimal speculation re unobservable processes 0 Eg Watson amp Rayner 1920 conditioned fear in quotLittle Albertquot 0 Basis for very successful tx for speci c DO amp strategies for managing maladaptive behavior 0 Eg Mary CoverJones 1924 exposure treatment of quotLittle Peterquot Some key Dif culties with Behavioral Approaches 0 Insuf cient explanation for origins of some learned abnormal behavior 0 Eg limits to classical conditioning theory of phobias Do not alone describe or prescribe treatments for abnormal behavior patterns that cannot be speci ed in terms of overt behavior or reinforcement contingencies o Eg behavioral tx can reduce dating anxiety but not resolve issues of whom to date relationship changes 0 Behavioral treatments may be ineffective if applied 0 mechanically 0 without attention to emotional interpersonal andor cultural dimensions of therapy


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