Lecture notes from day 1
Lecture notes from day 1 Biology 1114 Robin Taylor
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Adaptation is not intentional what are the directionsoriginal Directional I O Disruptive Stabilizing Four other means of change in population genetics besides selective 1 Genetic Drift small populations only happens within small populations with so many traits But are subject to small random events and maybe only 5 of the ten plants leave offspring then only 2 plants of 10 leave offspring and those two plants with traits that they naturally have help them to better survive their environment and go on to reproduce GO from SMALL to SMALLER 2 Bottleneck start out with large population something dramatic event random occurs eg disease volcanic eruption some survive less genetic representation and reproduce Large population again but less genetic representation may be disadvantaged Genetic makeup too similar species might not survive another dramatic random event More FRAGILE 3 Founder Effect small group of new species come into an environment and reproduce and leave behind their trait that spreads ex Rare genetic mutation for Mexicans quotel frioquot CCM1 gene cavernous malformation family came over one of the two from the couple had the gene and passed it on to future generations until many had it from the common descendent original couple from Spain 4 Pleiotropy condition of a single gene controlling more than one and possibly unrelated phenotypic traits ex one gene codes for thick hair and brown color for hair Novel genetic traits arise by chance then 1 The interaction of all abioticnonlivingwater light etc factors determines what organisms survive 2 The interaction of organisms determines what organisms survive Evolution occurs at two levels Microevolution a change in allelic makeup at the population level Macroevolution speciation a change in species from one into another or one species becomes two species Speciation 1 Allopatric 3 steps 1 separation by geography space or barrier 2 Sympatric only 2 steps 2 Reproductive isolation 3 Genetic divergence by accumulation of changes no gene flow Which is more common allopatric Which is more interesting to biologistssympatric How does geographic separation occur dispersal competition gets to fierce for resources so if has the means to find other areas with resources will find ex dandelions Coconut needs saltwater carried away from parent plant and deposited somewhere else Berries bird eats berries with seeds pass through bird defecation deposits seeds far away Tomatoes are fruits because has seeds and comes from a flower so are eggplants etcEXAM QUESTION Adaptive radiation geographic speciation on a grand scale when islands appear after a mass extinction ex Galapagos Finches Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Pre zygotic before zygote forms most common because organisms don39t want to mate and waste energy to produce offspring that is not viable or fertile as an adult Ex Habitat land vs water apple vs hawthorne Temporal active day vs night breed in different seasons Behavioral courtingsinging Mechanical flower shape and color genitalia Gametic sperm and egg can39t fuse Post zygotic development of offspring hybrid and not viable or fertile as adult Cordyceps species specific keeps on species from being too dominant danNinian fitnessindividual launches its genes into the next generation and next generation etc by reproduction relative measurecompared to what your neighbor are produces Will be negative if not reproducing within species it39s genes need to have representation for darwinian fitness even if individual doesn39t mate themselves Siblingshave 50 of your genes and can reproduce on your behalf Isolating mechanisms Prezygotic based on energy expenditure Sympatric speciations at least half of all plant species arose by sympatric speciation unlike animals plants can reproduce vegetativer do not need sperm and egg quotSpeciesquot is biological reality and a unit of evolution In taxonomy above same species species that can longer mate lead to diversity Species that are defiined by their ability to reproduce with one another How do we describe species not just individuals in same species who can mate and produce viable and fertile offspring ex dogs wolves and coyotes wolvescanis lupus coyotescanis latrans dogs canis familiaris genus pluralgenera every species occupies its own individual nicheexam question Niche the multidimensional time activity choice habitat choice mating choice food choice etcquotplacequot a species occupies in the ecological quotlandscapequot Possibility potentiallikelihood lions tiger ligers father in lion tiger lionstigon father is tiger infertile offspring postzygotic dogs and wolves produce fertile offspring Mimulis lewisii bees pollinate them M cardinalis birds pollinate them will reproduce in greenhouse not in nature very uncommon will encounter each other not that can39t Species definition 1 If you can39t mate OR 2 If you can mate but can39t reproduceOR 3 IF you can mate and reproduce but you can39t produce robust fertile offspring You ARE NOT the same species What important biological phenomenon does quotnot the same speciesquot imply DVERSTY How to determine species Two most used definitions 1 Biological Species Concept based on reproduction 2 Morphological Species Concept based on morphologybased on physical traits characteristics BSC Limitations very hard to bring two individuals together to see if the two organisms will reproduce in nature MSC Based on physical features called characters Most commonly used method for determining species easy to capture kill and examine LIMITATIONS one individual39s perception of acceptable samespecies traits of same species may not coincide with another person can39t see things beyond physical traits that separate species 0 ex eastern and western meadowlark different song natural selection can result in similar traits in different species with similar ways of life in similar environments Convergent Evolutiontraits converge and become similar 0 examplefish have fins because water is denser in air and helps them move similar environments TRAITS Homologous similar trait result from common ancestry Examhuman and bats mammals that have same bone structure between arm and wing not bird because not mammal Analogous similar trait that results from evolutionary convergence ie independent evolutionary origins ex birds and bats not both mammals The Newest means of deciphering relationships Looking at their genotypes hyraxus and elephant more closely related than hyraxus and field mice Above the species level how do researchers describe these proposed relationships The Goal of Systematics want true relationships not just false physical traits want to know who is actually related to whom not just who likes whom Monophyly what all biologists systemisists are interested in Paraphny Polyphyly every species occupies a niche eyelash mite are not parasiticcommensalism NPR New species of hominim South African cave rising star Local cave explorers found some fossils Found a jaw and skull in the dirt Found 1500 bones after looking again with a small camera and toothpicks to get the bones Small brain under five foot and skinny Have feet like us so walk around Homo naledi Found in a difficult place to reach must39ve been placed them No age of the fossils No one can say where they fit into evolution mutations are most often neutral or deleterious OSU Researchers found 2 genetic mutations that independently are neural but together have a synergetic effect help one another to lower risk of heart attack Andes community have genetic that have a mutation that does not affect human growth hormone produce normal amounts but the receptor for it advantages stay warmerless surface area don39t need as much oxygen or food mutation is contact sensitive Achondroplasia dwarfism Chromosome 4 dominant genetic trait anopthalmia absence of one of both eyes microanophthalmia disorder in which one or both eyes are small NPR sounds and evolution of the human brain based on sounds brains are finely tuned to pay attention to sounds listening is almost universal sound hearing goes even for primitive species auditory cortex of the brain is not spread out like visual cortex so faster response NPR ferns cistocardium looks weird looks like a normal fern Has a parent from a rocky place and another a forest Genetic shows parent species are very different 60 million years of evolution and can still mate Crowd survey will be on exam 5 criteria to be alive an organism must be at east a single cell reformulate energy from the outside world to Maintain its internal environment assemble the molecules it needs a to survive b to grow c to reproduce 5 reliably replicate itself passing on to its offspring heritable traits PPNT If infertile you still fit the 5 traits because something went wrong and in normal circumstances you would be able to reproduce First life are bacteria prokaryotes about 36 billion years found with radiometric dating Stromatolite Viruses 1 cannot replicate either alone or with or another THEY REQUIRE OTHER ORGANISMS cannot produce energy for activity Have no metabolic structure Genes in coats P99 UTl is correlated to E Coli First life on earth how old is earth 46 billion oldest fossils 36 billion How do we know radiometric dating Life originated from where 1 Primeval seas 2 Oceanic Vents 3 Extraterrestrial Where did life evolve in the shallow seas learn geological record in book 5 mass extinction 1 The largest A Permian250 million years ago Caused by a process occurring involving plate tectonics or continental drift B proposed in 1912 by Wegner C lost over 90 percent marine species and 50 mammals 2 Volcanic activity 3 Chixulub impact crater KT boundary extinction A 65 and a half million years ago B Evidence Iridium C marine species lost 4050 D small mammals became more diverse Wha happens after extinction speciation on a grand scale Darwinian fitness is an individuals fitness relative to its neighbors in population Early Prokaryotes cyanobacteria were are photosynthetic therefore produced Motility in prokaryotes 50 can move by way of a filament Prokaryote dispersal Most HARMLESS Many BENEFICIAL A few cause 50 of all human diseasepathogenic Cholera Vibrio cholerae Many wish they had water even as nice as our toilet water Mediumwater means of transfer cause diaherrea comes out of host and gets into water system TB Mycobacterium tuberculosis Medium air means of transfer breathing air Chlamydida largest STI chlamydia trachomatis Medium mucosal membranes means of transferencesex MRSA stapholoccocus aureus Medium Surface of skin and when gets into blood stream means of transferrence touch nococomial diseases hospital acquired diseases Neisseria Gonohoeae curable Mediumsexually Transfersex Escherichia coli UTl Medium fecal mater Transference from anus to urethra Bacteria are promiscuous Transfer of DNA conjugationdirect Transformationpicked up from environment transduction phagevirus Bactria and artifactual selection through mindfulness of us creating antibiotics and not taking them as long as recommended kied weak ones and left strong ones next round is stronger and stronger etc From prokaryote to eukaryote Endosymbiotic theory mitochondria in all cells and have their own DNA and reproduce Plastids including cholorplasts have their own DNA and reproduce Some bacteria engulfed each other and lived within each other instead of being killed off Thought cyanobacteria was engulfed protist Mixtricha paradoxa 3 bacteria spp live on surface provide motility one lives inside consumed by other Protists the most complex eukaryotes What level is the term protist Domain eukarya Kingdom own kingdom Animal likeprotozoans plant likealgae fungus likemolds ex malaria During evolution genomes grow How One of the most important genetic mutations duplication Paralogous same gene that have been duplicated in same animal and have same function Orthologous genes same gene that is passed through generations and can see the manifestation of the gene not exactly the same mutated and changed and selected on sharing genes with fungi50 BUT there is a constraint on single cells and their size The cell39s outer boundary must allow 1 osmosis 2 diffusion As volume grows not enough surface area SA squared Volumecubed ON THE other hand world39s largest single cell organism Alga has large volume and smaller surface area Single cells gain more genetic info as cells duplicate and are usually constrained by size Cells colonize and specializing and taking quotcarequot of one another Tissues organs etc The mechanism natural selection Material DNA Result Biotaall life Every Species has a unique genome Unique sequence of basepairs Every cell in a multicellular organism will have the same sequence of base pairs RBC do not have DNA But epithelial cells Mutation only source of novel alleles most powerful source of modification eg duplication but variety fastsexual selection Meiosis independent assortment crossing over Skin color at least 3 different genes animals by definition are multicellular appeared during Cambrian explosion refers to life taking off The Burgess Shale Fauna Discovery 1909 British Columbia Canada Described in Wonderful Life movie Three Hypothesis of Cambrian Explosion Many Bilateria suddenly appear 545521 million years ago 1 Increases in available oxygen 2 new predatorprey relationships 3 evolution of Hox gene complex Ediacaran Hills of Australia discovered first animal fossils 570 mya Scientists characterize animals by body plan Therefore there are about 35 phyla Domain 3 Kingdom4 Phylum35 Basic animal discriminators Body plan symmetry 1 Radial could take a knife and run it through the organism any way and the left half will exactly match the right halfsea jelly 2 Bilateralonly cut one way humans 3 Asymmetry no symmetry sponges Symmetry implies Tissue layers sponge0 bilateral 2 Radial3 Body cavity sponge0 False body cavity pseudocelom True celom Segmentation Trends 1 No segments 2 2 Many segments 3 fewer segments IF AT As soon as there was life natural selection started as a process We know this logically because life formed in an environment that varied Lecture 2 Selectionpersistence MC questions should be conceptual novel and dif cult Grey wolf gtdomesticated dog processevolution mechanismarti cial selection agenthumans Arti cial selection has its downfalls Can lead to defects in the arti cially selected animals health problems unintentional consequences that occur when selecting for other traitsby product quotartifactual selectionquot ex drug resistance mechanisms natural selection driven by nature no human affect by their need to survive in their environment The response of the organism or trait is continued survival or persistence Snow shoe rabbit feet adapts to the snow environment heat water snow dark TEST QUESTION fusiformnarrow head big belly narrow at tail seals penguins sh sharks in response to the medium only to aquatic animals serotinous conesdrop seeds when in contact with re agent re Bee Orchid agentreproduction looks like female bee and the drive of the male to mate pollinates the ower NATURAL SELECTION HAS NO GOAL if it were goal driven there would be no extinction THE AGENTS OF NATURAL SELECTION HAVE NO GOAL 4 section of selection artifactual subsetarti cial natural subset sexual selection agents have no goal nor mechanisms Lecture 3 Recap all organisms Process Evolution change over time descent with modi cation Mechanism Artifactualunintended effect of mindful selection human agents Naturewater density scarcity temp of water fresh vs salt vs brackish Light vs dark Hot vs humid vs arid vs cold Natural selectionmindless no intent Arti cial selection mindful intent selection Humans humans are subject to natural selection even though we impose arti cial selection on other organism Evolution is mindless in response to mindless agents Timeis a measure by which we can observe evolutionnot an agent sexual selection mindless called female choice predationmindless natural urge Read about bacterial resistance NPR Snowshoe Hare 8 September 2013 Cheeseburger of predators generaly don39t live more than a year Fur changes with the light cues light is one of the most reliable and steadfast agents at mercy of the weather so if snow comes early and melts early they are mismatched color brown fur with white snow climate change can hares adapt as fast as climate is changing Strategy various traitsphysical and behavioral in organisms manifest that contribute to their survival and reproduction lt SEEMS active and directed because selective agents exert pressure directionally BUT the agents themselves are mindless and operate on mutations that occur by random chance Darwin39s Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection Alfred Wallaceupcoming scientist collected organisms and came up with natural selection and evolution Wrote to Darwin and they presented together to the Royal Society Wallace didn39t want credit quotThe Origin of Speciesquot Linnaeus taxonomy Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species all organisms have a genus and species name KNOW HIERARCHY Correlates to country state city zip street house number last name rst name Malthus Resources are limited Competition of food Darwin39s Observations Observation 1 individuals reproduce as many offspring as possible malthus 2 populations are mostly stable malthus 3 essential resources are limited malthus 4 individuals of a populations vary 5 some variation is heritable and can be passed on farmers knew this lnferences 1 many born die due to competition 2 those individuals with heritable traits that aid in struggle for limited resources and promote survival and reproduction will leave more offspring 3 over time heritable traits promoting survival and reproduction will accumulate decent with modi cation Theory culmination of many tested and accepted hypotheses that support one another and hat together are grand in scope which invites more hypotheses to test FALSIFIABLE countervailing evidence could falsify it but no one has found anything Seed photo what39s wrong Seeds a39plenty Gives impression that evolution is intentional What makes evolution seem intentional Every organism posses a genotype that manifests in its phenotype Selection pressure operate on the individuals but populations evolve selective pressure operate on Things change directionally
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