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Notes for Test 1

by: Lindsey Spitzer

Notes for Test 1 CRJU 323 001

Lindsey Spitzer
GPA 3.4
Violence in America
Leslie G. Wiser

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Here are the notes that I have with the material covered for the first exam. Let me know if you have any questions!
Violence in America
Leslie G. Wiser
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Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice

This 17 page Bundle was uploaded by Lindsey Spitzer on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CRJU 323 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Leslie G. Wiser in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Violence in America in Criminology and Criminal Justice at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 09/22/15
Violence in America Material for test 1 Lindsey Spitzer August 26th 2015 Why is violence bad 0 Violence behavior by persons against person that intentionally threatens attempts or actually inflicts physical harm o Intention recklessness negligence blameless inadvertence 0N TEST 0 Generally inferred unless known from confession o 0 Physical harm 0 Any harm at all What kind of harm 0 Defining violence does not crime 0 What does define crime The law 0 Crime actus reus mens rea 5 additional principles 0 Causation concurrence between the guilty mind and the criminal act with a causal link 0 Resulting harm individual harm or societal harm o The principle of legality the conduct must be defined as a crime 0 The principle of punishment the law must specify a punishment 0 Necessary attendant circumstances circumstances necessary to make the bad act a crIme Criminal Violence how the law is made 0 Consensus Model 0 assumes that members of society by and large agree on what is right and wrong and the law codifies these agreedupon social values 0 quoty all made me something I m not a crimina 0 Conflict Model 0 People with political and economic power make laws protect 0 quotsocial reality is socially constructed by those with the capacity to socially define a condition as problematic 0 Mass media have the capability to influence the public s perception I 1980s crack epidemic I Halloween sadist I 1980s serial killing I Criminology o The scientific study of the making of laws the breaking of laws and society s reaction to it 0 Focus why criminal behavior occurred 0 The causes of individual crime 0 The components of a criminogenic society I Static factors those that cannot be changed I Dynamic factors those that can be changed 0 Criminogenic needs crimeproducing factors strongly correlated with risk 0 Relies on scientific theory 0 quotthe front end of the criminal justice systempipeline Criminal Justice 0 Multidisciplinaryapproach o Sociology political science psychology history and geography 0 Four themes 0 Conflict between personal liberty and community safety 0 Law enforcement courts and corrections are part of an interacting system the back end of the pipeline 0 Decisions that are legal and ethical o Reliance on scientifically gathered and evaluated information evidence based approach How is criminal violence studied 0 Criminal law makes some violence criminal violence 0 Criminal law is different conceptually from criminology 0 Compare an aggravated assault and homicide what is the difference I Whether the person lives or dies his intention was the same but the results would be different Reidel and Welsh s Tripartite Approach to Violence 0 Patterns of violence 0 Attempt to explain violence based on those patterns 0 Different causes imply different solutions 0 Presumed causes may be identified at different levels I Individual I Group I Organizational I Community I Social structure or cultural 0 Explore solutions interventions to specific types of violence that are consistent with both observed patterns and explanations o What interventions have addressed specific types of violence 0 What specific causes were the interventions attempting to modify Public Health 0 Violence has a huge effect on health and health services 0 Many victims have no health insurance and no means to pay 0 Has been successful with its focus on prevention scientific approach potential to coordinate multidisciplinary and multisectoral efforts and role in assuring the availability of services for victims 0 Smallpox 0 Motor vehicle injuries 0 Polio Public Health addressing the violence problem 0 Public health violence emerges from a complex causal system 0 Public health views the problem differently 0 Criminal justice views interpersonal attacks as crimes and assigns blames 0 Public health 0 Intentional injuries 0 Seeks to repair the damage and reduce future attacks rather than assign blame 0 Part of a higher Criminal Justice Perspective 0 Criminal justice prevents crime through 0 Deterrence the inhibiting effect that punishment has on potential offenders in the public general deterrence I Specific deterrence seeks to prevent future criminal acts by the individual punEhed o Incapacitation offender is restrained from committing any further crimes against the public during the period of confinement 0 Rehabilitation any postconviction treatment aimed at reducing an offender s likelihood of committing crimes August 28th 2015 Criminal Justice 0 Tackles causes differently o Focuses on offender s intentions motivators backgrounds etc Public Health uses a riskbased approach 0 Risk factors statistical or conditional probabilities 0 Empirical and pragmatic practical seek risk factors to change them Has a four step riskbased approach 0 Four Stages of a RiskBased Approach 0 Surveillance collect analyze interpret and report health data 0 Risk Group Identification analyze data identify people at greatest risk of disease or injury and the places times and circumstances associated with increased risk 0 Risk Factor Exploration explore causative factors 0 Program Implemental and evaluation design implement and evaluate preventive interventions based on understanding of risk factors and the population at risk 0 Risk Factors 0 Structuralcultural social and economic environment I Example density of low income areas 0 Criminological Commodities Items that increase the likelihood of violence and the seriousness of injury guns alcohol drugs 0 Situational specific types of interactions and settings in which the risk of violence is elevated Public Health Prevention 0 Primary Prevention targeting and altering one or more critical risk factors Attempts to prevent first offenses 0 Example community based projects that target kids before they commit crimes 0 Secondary Prevention attempts to identify and change key stages in the development of disease death or injury that left unaltered would likely lead to more serious consequences 0 Tertiary Prevention attempts to intervene after an illness has been contracted Explaining Violence 0 Analysis of violence 0 Put the interaction in the center of analysis not the individual 0 Problems with focusing on individuals 0 Most young men 0 Poor people 0 Minorities 0 Children of divorce 0 They do not become violence criminals affluent people do commit crimes 0 Often examine only illegalstigmatized violence violence carried out by state agents is usually characterized as good violence 0 Normal Interaction facetoface says that most of us want to get along 0 The Central Reality continuum of tensionfear 0 Fear of I Deathinjury I Tension of confrontation itself is most central feature 0 Confrontation violence is easier when the victim is depersonalized distance makes it easier snipers pilots artillery o Conventionalized Gesturing verbal acrimony polite blustering August 31 2015 Measures of Violence 0 Application of Measures of Violence O 0 Measures of violence are social indicators Social indicators quotenable us to access where we stand and are going with respect to our values and goals and to evaluate specific programs and determine their impact Bauer 1967 Instrumental in the allocation of funding Data are available on the internet Three Major Sources 0 Uniform Crime Reports UCR 0 National Incidentbased Reporting System NIBRS 0 National Crime Victimization Survey Crime Rates 0 Raw numbers vs crime rates 0 Rates have five components I Amount of the crime in question I Population at risk for that crime I A constant multiplier eg 100000 I Location I Time span Formula 0 Crime rate amountpopulation100000 0 Columbia homicides for 2012 8 I Crime rate 8 130484100000 I Homicide crime rate 613 per 100000 Crime Rates 0 The multiplier can be any number so long as it is consistent 0 There must be a match between the characteristics of the entities in the numerator and the denominator I Raceethnicspecific homicide victimization rate I Age I Gender I No data on the number of strangers in a population 0 Issues with respect to nonresidents and census undercounts UCR FBI began a program in the late 1920s to collect national crime data More than 17000 state county local and tribal law enforcement agencies report to the UCR program covering 95 of the population 0 There are now mandatory reporting requirements I In South Carolina the State Law Enforcement Division SLED is the state s coordinator UCR Crime Categories 0 Part 1 offenses quotHierarchy priority of Incidents I Criminal Homicide I Forcible Rape I Robbery I Aggravated Assault I Burglary I Larcenytheft except motor vehicle theft I Motor vehicle theft I Arson Hierarchy Principle example if someone assaults you and steals your car only 1 crime is reported The crime reported is the higher priority crime As far as reporting goes if someone commits more than one crime the higher priority crime gets reported to the FBI even if the suspect is going to be charged with all crimes committed 0 Return A Crimes known to the Police 0 O O O Offenses reported or known Founded or unfounded complaints Number of actual offenses founded complaints Total number cleared by arrest or exceptionally cleared I Cleared by arrest where an arrest was made I Exceptional clearances administratively closed because of circumstances beyond the control of the police suicidedeath of the offender extradition denied confession but prosecuted elsewhere and prosecutor s declination Number of clearances for persons under 18 Count number of founded complaints on Return A and send to SLED Offender information on Return A I Age I Sex I Race 0 White 0 Black 0 American Indian 0 AsianPacific Islander I Ethnic origin 0 Hispanic or nonHispanic 0 Supplementary Homicide Reports 0 000 O Situation code indicating combinations of I Single or multiple victims I Single multiple or unknown offenders Age sex ethnicity of all victims and offenders in the event Weapons used Victimoffender relationships Other felony crimes associated with the homicide 0 Counting Incidents 0 Most crime types are counted per incidents I Departments have the ability to either count the number of incidents or the number of victims provided that the incident is coded correctly I CPD Records Unit stats reflect the number of incidents for all crime classifications I SLED and FBI stats reflect the number of victims for murder forcible rape and aggravated assault categories while counting the number of incidents for all other categories 0 NIBRS o The same detail contained in the Supplementary Homicide Reports was desired for other serious crimes 0 Group A Offenses 46 crimes in 22 categories 0 Group B Offenses 11 less serious offenses o Abandoned the Hierarchy Rule I UCR uses the Hierarchy Rule to count only the most serious offense for an incident in which several offenses were committed 0 National Crime Victimization Survey 0 Based on interviews with victims 0 Two Steps I Screening questions to determine whether the respondent has been a victim within the past four months I If any member of the household has been a victim then a complete victimization report is completed 0 Uses a nationally representative sample 0 The government is calling you instead of you calling the government September 2nd 2015 Incident Report 0 Filled out by responding officer 0 May be amendedupdated by a Supplemental Report 0 Approved by a Supervisor usually a sergeant o Validated by the Records Unit 0 Redacted before public dissemination o A data source for the Crime Analysis Unit 0 Differs from an Information Report or a Field Interview Violence in Other Times and Places 0 Early United States 0 Violence is part of our history Our country was formed through violent rebellion Our country was preserved and slaves were freed through civil war Our country expanded through violence against indigenous people Dwelling among aristocrats was accepted 0 Feuding happened 0 Native Americans 0 Series of treaties were signed then broken 0 Indian Removal Act 1830 forced Cherokee members off their land 0000 o Slavery 0 Labor intensive crops with a labor shortage tobacco and cotton 0 Breakdown of the Indentured Servant system 0 Emergence of slavery an unstable system I Fear among white southerners that the slaves would rise up in rebellion I Plantation owners knew that slaves were not happy with servitude I Slave productivity was inefficient 0 Nat Turner Rebellion Virginia Civil War 0 Emancipation Proclamation I Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest refused to accept the surrender of black Union soldiers executed the prisoners 0 New York City draft riots I Irish immigrants refused conscription I Murdered black men blaming them for the War PostCivil War 0 Lynching of blacks by white mobs was used to repress blacks during reconstruction KKK 0 Social and economic repression I Passage of poll taxes I Literacy requirements for voting I Legal segregation o Blacks found themselves economically dependent and politically powerless o Lynching declined because the fear it used in repression was no longer needed quotMiburnquot 0 Mississippi Burning 0 Three civil rights voter registration workers were murdered in 1964 by the KKK members of the local sheriff s department and members of the Philadelphia MS PD 0 FBI investigated and found the bodies 44 days later 0 Led to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1965 o Convicted seven on relatively minor charges in federal court Bandits of the Wild West O 0000 0 Poverty led to a rise in gangs organized for robbery and murder including former Confederate soldiers The Eastern press romanticized these gangs Weak law enforcement allowed them to proliferate Former Confederate soldiers found sympathy among southerners Small landowners and merchants blamed the railroads and banks for their troubles The gangs took on a Robin Hoodlike image Changing in America 0 1908 I 100 cities with gt50000 I Corruption rampant I No systematic way of enforcing laws nationwide o Prohibition 0 18th Amendment to the Constitution Volstead Act I Prohibited the manufacture transportation and sale of alcohol in the U5 I Liquor was favored because beer was bulky and needed refrigeration to keep from spoiling 0 Therefore consumers switched from beer to highpotency alcohol an unintended consequence of Prohibition o Toxic forms of the unregulated alcohol were consumed causing paralysis blindness and death 0 Organized crime 0 Illicit alcohol was a major source of revenue for criminal gangs 0 The objective tasks of production distribution and sale are a complex set of interrelated tasks Must be accomplished in secret to thwart law enforcement Must maintain discipline of illegal workers Increased costs must be passed on to consumers o Paying workers more because of risks 0 Chicago Gangs o In the 1920s there were 1300 gangs in Chicago 0 Capone headed the Southside Italian Gang 0 Criminal enterprises that controlled racketeering gambling prostitution 0 St Valentine s Day Massacre o Capone ordered the murder of members of Bugs Moran s Northside Irish Gang I Moran s gang hijacked Capone liquor shipments I Elimination of competition I Capone s image suffered from word of his involvement 0 Prohibition resulted in I Organized crime s growth in influence I Corruption of law enforcement I General disrespect for the law I Risk of consuming toxic substances I Violence to eliminate competition 0 How violent are we now compared to the 19th century 0 Use the murder rate best chance at accurate numbers 0 Impossible to determine accuracy because of unreported crimes 0 Number of infanticides 0 Number of blackonblack and whiteonwhite crimes 0 Recent Trends 0 Growing impersonal nature of homicide 0 Increase in the number of quotstrangerquot killings o Arrests for homicide occurred in 93 of cases in 1960 o In 2008 only 63 of cases were closed with an arrest 000 September 4th 2015 Violence in other places 0 In this century it is clear that the US is more violent than comparable technologically developed countries 0 Comparative crime data file compiled by Dane Archer and Rosemary Gartner 110 nations 44 cities from 1900 to 1970 0 UN 0 World health organization 0 Generally data relating to homicides is more reliable than other crimes 0 Finland 0 High homicide rate compared to other European countries 0 September 9th 2015 he had no PowerPoint because he left his connector at home Had to take notes from the lecture Criminological Theory School 1 0 Classical school Beccaria National Choice theory 0 Risk vs reward analysis 0 Beccaria Italy believed every law should apply equally to every person 0 Neoclassical school Jeremy Bentham rational choice foundation of the American juris prudence system 0 Jeremy Bentham after he died he wanted to have his body stuffed taxidermy and be put in a telephone booth at the university Then students took his head and played soccer with it 0 However under 7 and mental health issues should not be held to the same standard 0 Under duress o Deterrence makes the assumption that you will be deterred due to rational choice School 2 0 Biological Determinism believes that there is something inside you that causes you to act a certain way Behavior is not caused by rational choice it is in your genes ie chemical imbalance too much serotonin etc o In Nature vs nurture argument Lombroso is on the nature side School 3 o Psychological Determinism Freudinner struggle Like you have this animal instinct and a competing force that tells you how to act right ie devil on one shoulder angel on the other 0 We do not use this as a basis for the criminal justice system except in not punishing people who have a psychological defect that causes them to commit a crime and in rehabilitation I We do have a place for that theory insanity defense and some rehabilitation Schools 2 and 3 are NOT a foundation of US juris prudence School 1 is a base 0 The first three schools are all about you the last school is about the environment around you School4 0 Social Determinism everything outside of you ie friends family people around you environment around you society 0 This is the basis of distribution of money 0 Several theories within social determination I Social control theory helps explain why commit crimes and why people don t commit crimes It involves the transmission of values from one generation to the next 0 Social disorganization theory when the social controls in a neighborhood break down This can result in a spawn of crime I quotBroken windows theory study that says if you allow an abandon warehouse to have a broken window other people are going to come along and break other things This sends a message that people just do not care 0 Crime prevention through environmental design the idea is that places matter You can go into a neighborhood and see bushes overgrown or poor lighting and the crime prevention people will recommend ideas to make the neighborhood look better It says that people do care about this area o It is not clear which theory is most successful There may be some truth to all of them may not be one size fits all September 14th 2015 0 Social Disorganization Theory 0 From Chicago school 0 Crime and deviance result from breakdowns in neighborhood social controls and essential services 0 An ecological theory of urban dynamics 0 Place matters more so than individual characteristics 0 Crime prevention through environmental design CPTED 0 Broken Windows Theory 0 George Kelling and Catherine Roles 0 Social disorganization theory 0 Quality of life disorder and fear of crime 0 Direct link between disorder and crime 0 Disorder plays an important role in neighborhood decline I Lowering community morale I Bad reputation of the neighborhood I Undermines the stability of the housing market 0 Spawned quotquality of life enforcement 0 Differential Association Theory 0 Criminal behavior is learned entirely through group interactioncommunication I Learned in intimate peer groups that reward or reinforce antisocial or delinquent behavior 0 Based in learning theory 0 Focuses on how offenders learn to become criminals 0 Cultural Deviance Theories 0 Values of subcultural groups with society are more influential upon individual behavior and interactions than the laws and norms of the larger social group I S to the values of groups I Assumes that subcultural values differ from mainstream 0 Social Control Theory 0 Transmission of values from one generation to another via institutions 0 Social and cultural values control all individuals behavior 0 Social institutions enforce these values family school religion 0 Strain Theory 0 Assumes that people seek to achieve the American dream of comfortable middle class life 0 Some find that they cannot achieve this goal through traditional socially acceptable means 0 They strain to reach the expectations and roles of the reference group I Conformity accept means and goals I Innovation reject means accept goals I Ritualism accept means reject goals I Retreatism reject means and goals I Rebellion substitute other goals and means Classical and Neoclassical 0 Prime cause of crime freewill of choice 0 Degree of control by offense offender o Determinist theory 0 Society s reaction confine and isolate offender 0 Focus of criminology is isolating and measuring the variables that seem to have the greatest influence on human behavior 0 Classical Conditioning Pavlovian o Decentralization I Glorification of killing through chants and drills o Clockwork orangestyle I Gruesome movies shows to certain trainees I Symbolic modeling 0 Operant Conditioning BF Skinner o Popup targets simulating combat o Stimulus discriminants I Fire only under authority or on command 0 Movies and video games o Are we desensitizing our society to killing and death I quotNightmare on Elm Street I Classical conditioning these movies are associated with pleasure favorite food and drinks 0 Are we training our children through operant conditioning 0 Gold Gun n call of duty shooter in Columbia was gold September 16th 2015 Homicides and Assaults o UCR defines Homicides as the wilful nonnegligent killing of one human being by another 0 Murder 0 Nonnegligent manslaughter I There has been a steady decline in these rates 0 Manslaughter by negligence o Aggravated Assault NCVS 0 Attack or attempted attack with a weapon regardless of injury or 0 Attack or attempted attack without a weapon where serious injury results 0 Murder 0 Offenders I Males o 65vastmajoritymale 0 18 0 38 Black31 White 0 Murder Victims I Males o 78 vast majority male 0 18 o 46 White51 Black 0 Patterns I Murder offenders and victims are predominately male I Females were more frequently victims than offenders I Most murder victims and offenders are 18 years old or older I Black are victims in 51 offenders in 38 of homicides 0 But AfricanAmericans are only 136 of the population 0 Blacks are killed at a rate 6 times higher than whites o Other characteristics 0 Have these characteristics on a great number of homicides o Victimoffender relationships I Intimate partner murders 10 I Other family 8 I Friends and acquaintances 25 I Strangers 12 o VVeapons I Firearms 62 I Handguns 50 I Murder with knivesblunt objects 165 I Other weapons 141 o Motives I Brawls and arguments 253 I Juvenile gang killings 56 I Robberies 51 I Narcotics related 28 I Unknown 359 o Circumstances I Most homicides occur as a result of brawls and arguments I Mostly amongst friends and acquaintances I Escalation from verbal disagreement to display of weapons to death I Confrontational homicides involve same raceethnicity more often than robberyhomicides o Victim Precipitation 0 Victims sometimes start the conflict that ends in their death 0 Confrontational Homicides altercations that typically evolve from verbal exchanges of insults into physical contests I Most often involve males I Alcohol is a common element I Particularly common for youth homicides I a process crime 0 at any point in the process choices could be made to deescalate and end the interaction 0 Aggravated Assaults O O O O Riedel and Welsh used NCVS data 2009 NCVS reported about a million aggravated assaults in 2012 381000 I a slight decrease in 2012 Victims I Males are victims majority of the time I Age 2024 I Black Strangers vs Nonstrangers I Males who are aggravated assault victims 0 Nonstrangers 52 o Strangers 47 I Females who are aggravated assault victims 0 Nonstrangers 65 o Strangers 36 Much more likely if you are poor that you will be a victim of aggravated assault 0 Marital status I Victims who never married 921000 I Victims who are divorcesseparated 881000 I Victims with high rates may have lifestyles or routines that put them at higher risk than married victims 291000 or widowed 061000 o Clearances o In 2012 375 of homicides go unsolved o In 1960 93 solved I After this there was more stranger danger due to suburbanisation 0 Consequences of failing to clear I The criminal justice process begins with the arrest of offenders I If not arrested they are free to offend again I Failure to arrest prevents victim s closure traumatizes the victim further and contributes to an increase in fear I Arrests are a performance measure and low clearance rates undermine police morale I If no arrest then no information on offenders for researchers 0 Homicides with female victims have a higher probability of being solved than homicides with male victims 0 Weapons other than firearms were cleared more frequently than those involving other weapons I Firearms kill at a distance I Leave less forensic evidence 0 Murders with concomitant felonies are more difficult to clear I They often occur in locations where there are few witnesses involves strangers and may be crimes of opportunity September 18th 2015 Homicides and Assaults Cont Explanations o Murders and assaults typically evolve in social situations and begin with conflict expressive violence 0 Violence may be goaloriented or instrumental behavior that results from aggressive attempts to achieve what people value 0 Subculture of violence norms values and beliefs that sanction violence as problemsolving behavior are differently distributed 0 Lowerclass youths more likely to express these beliefs 0 When other males with the same beliefs are present a violent response is reinforced Interventions 0 Growth of homicide in the 1980s was attributed to the 1524 age group 0 Beginning in about 1992 homicides decreased as did the proportion of the age group 0 Drug markets matured and stabilized 0 Economic expansion in the 1990s increased legitimate job opportunities 0 Since the 1970s the US has increased incarceration fourfold Multiple Murders 0 Serial homicides o Represent unpredictable attacks 0 Extremely rare fewer than 1 of all homicides 0 Mass murders 0 Multiple murders committed during a brief time period 0 Spree killings 0 Multiple murders carried out over a few days or weeks Serial Killers 0 Extraordinarin ordinary o Blend in with the crowd 0 Frequently hold fulltime jobs 0 1020 can be attributed to two or more individuals working together 0 Generally do not move about the country 0 Offenders more than 941 are males 19762012 0 Compared to 884 of homicide offenders Serial Killers Victims 0 Gender females are more frequent among mass murder victims 0 Race 0 White 685 0 Black 271 0 Age 0 176 were younger than 10 o 176 were aged 1019 0 Young victims are a consequence of mass murders in which the offender kills his family Beltway Snipers 0 John Allen Muhammad 0 Lee Boyd Malvo 0 Three weeks in October 2002 o 10 killed 3 critically injured 0 Washington DC Maryland and Virginia 0 Linked to 3 earlier killings in Atlanta Montgomery and Baton Rouge 0 Also attacks in Hammond LA and Clinton


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