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All Notes

by: Sarah

All Notes PSYC 333

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GPA 3.3
Child Development
Christopher Cushing

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His class was extremely difficult to follow if you didn't get all the notes from the lectures since he didn't provide ppt slides on Blackboard so here is a rough copy of the lecture for the entire ...
Child Development
Christopher Cushing
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This 68 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by Christopher Cushing in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Exam 1 Chapter 1 Developmental Issues in Everyday Media Potty training 0 Some people try and potty train at 1 or 2 instead of age 3 Sexual activity in children and adolescents 0 When are they ready Maybe when they start driving a car 0 They need to know the facts and are able to make decisions that are in the right mind 0 They also need to be prepared for the emotional consequences 0 quotThere isn39t really an age that all of this happens quot Children39s use of media and technology 0 Not learning how to socialize 0 There is a safety net to having this technology Who39s the child advocate Children obesity When should a child have independence 0 How long should we breast feed children How children are shown in media is it bad or good 0 Honey BooBoo o Supernanny What is Child Development Development quotsystematic continuities and changes in the individual over the course of lifequot 0 Continuities ways in which we remain stable over time and continue to re ect our past 0 Discontinuities changesstages qualitative stage like shifts in development Piaget39s Principle of Conservation 0 Children aged 405 perform as was shown 0 Children aged 68 typically perform as you or I would 0 How did they acquire this ability 0 What are the implications Assumptions about child development affect our policiespractices 0 Ratings G PG PG13 R NC17 0 Also affects the way we educate our children 0 Male infant circumcision Let39s clear up one common myth theyjust cut offa ap ofskin Only about 45 of physicians who perform circumcisions use anesthesia Physicians state that they don39t believe the procedure warrants it and it takes too long 0 Many believe that lack of autobiographical memory in childhood means that there are longterm effects Taddio Katz ersich and Koren 97 Prospective cohort study of 87 infants 3 groups uncircumcised randomly received placebo or emla cream prior to circumcision To nd out if it affects pain tolerance 0 Developmental science can reveal surprising things about children 0 Control Protagonist white tiger replaced with an inanimate white pincer covered in duct tape At 3 months they go for the giving bunny Perspectives 0 Nature and Nurture Nature refers to our biological endowment especially the genes we receive from our parents Nurture refers to the wide range of environments both physical and social that in uence our development 0 The Active Child 0 Children contribute to their own development form early in life and their contributions increase as they grow older 0 Three of the most important contributions during children39s rst years are their Attentional patterns Use of language Play 0 Continuous Development Discontinuous Development 0 Why 02 year old make terrible quarterbacks No object permanence 0 When they see something go away they think it39s gone forever or they direct their attention somewhere else Mechanisms of Developmental change 0 Neural in uencesprocesses o Neural pruning This is like language Kids pick up language when they are young They also have a better chance of developing language if they have a sibling 5 or older Neural plasticity If your brain is uninjured it will develop in a predictable pattern If there is an injured part your brain can take over that part of the brain to compensate So if you get it xed earlier enough they will develop the same way but with slight negative consequences 0 Pathology 0 Developing brain is a work in progress Environment acts as the catalysts to trigger the brain to make changes Environmental experiences are critical to the differentiation and development of brain tissue Sociocultural Context 0 Refers to the physical social cultural economic and historical circumstances that make up any child39s environment 0 Violence on TV shows Cosleeping children sleeping with parents in bed this could have bad consequences 0 Contexts differ within and between cultures 0 Individual Differences 0 Individual differences among children arise very quickly in development 0 Children are affected by genes treatment by other people their subjective reactions to other people39s treatment of them and their choice of environments 0 Research and Children39s Welfare 0 Childdevelopment research yields practical bene ts in diagnosing children39s problems and helping children overcome them 0 Ex Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule2 The Scienti c Method 0 Objective everyone examining same data will reach same conclusion Repicabe every time method is used result is same data and conclusions 0 Measures must be 0 Reliable consistent information over time and across observers 0 Valid measure what it is supposed to measure 0 Ways of Gathering Data 0 Selfreport methodologies Interviewsquestionnaires Structured same questions in the same order Allows comparison of responses Ability to conduct diary studies Examples 0 Interviews DISC SCID Questionnaires CDI CBCL Limitations 0 Ability to readcomprehend speech Issues of honesty and accuracy Interpretation of questions Strengths Gathering large amounts of data Con dentiality improves accuracy 0 Diary Studies Children complete selfreport measures at frequent intervals to allow for modeling both nomothetic and idiographic relationships Predictors of Physical Activity TimeInvariant Factors Selfef cacy amp Social Support Autonomous motivation TimeVarying Factors 0 Feeling more energetic 0 Feeling tired No effect observed for positive and negative affect Assessment Tools PETE ecological momentary assessment app Zephyr Bioharness 30 Actigraph wActiSleep GTX3 1318 year old 0 Observational Methodology 0 Naturalistic observation Observing in common natural settings Strengths o Easily applied to infants no verbal skills needed 0 Shows behavior in everyday life Limitations Rare or socially undesirable behaviors may not occur Dif cult to isolate cause of action or developmental trend Observer may change behavior videotapetime may reduce this Structured Observations Conducted in the laboratory or controlled setting 0 Behavior can be observed surreptitiously Strength 0 All participants exposed to same environment Limitations 0 Results may not represent real life 0 Case study approach 0 A detailed description of a single individual or group a Strengths Depth of info 0 Limitations Dif cult to compare subjects Lack of generalizability o Ethnography 0 Collect data by living within the cultural community for an extended period c Strengths Understanding cutura con icts and potential impact on development 0 Limits Subjective Many not be generable o Psychophysiological Methods 0 Examine relationship between physiological responses and behavior Heart Rate compared to baseline decrease may indicate interest EEGZERP39s brain wave activity showing arousal states stimulus detection 0 Derived from averaging scores from the EEG o Strengths Perception that have captured something quotrealquot 0 Limitations What aspect of stimulus caught attention Correlation Design 0 Are two or more variables meaningfully related 0 Correlation coef cient r Value 100 to 100 indicates strength Sign indicates direction 0 Positive both variables increase 0 Negative one variable increase other decreases o Correlational studies do not show causation Causal direction of relationship is unknown 0 Relationship could be due to a third unmeasured variable 0 Spurious correlations Shoe size and reading performance 0 Amount of ice cream sold and deaths by drowning Number of doctors in region and number of people dying from disease Experimental Design o Assesses cause and effect relationships between two variables 0 Independent Variable IV modi ed or manipulated by experimenter to assess its impact on behavior 0 Depended Variable DV aspect of behavior measured in a study under control of the IV 0 Confoundino variable a factor other than the IV that could explain diffences in the DV 0 Experimental Control controI confounding variables Random assignment or equal probability of exposure to each treatment 0 Field experiment an experiment taking place in a naturalistic setting 0 Natural or quasi experiment measuring the impact of a naturally occurring event IV cannot be manipulated and participants are not randomly assigned CrossSectional Design 0 People of different ages are studied at the same point in time o Strengths Used most often by develop mentalists Quick and easy 0 Conclusions likely to be valid 0 Limitations Cohort effects any differences observed may be due to cultural or historical factors that distinguish cohorts not actual developmental change 0 Longitudinal Design 0 Same participants are observed repeatedly over a period of time 0 Micro genetic design 0 quotilluminatequot processes that promote developmental change Chapter 2 Conceonn o Zygote 120th the size of the head of a pin 0 This is what we all start out as Governed by genetics and your environment Formed from genetic material contained in sperm and egg cells 0 Chromosomes zygote nucleus contains 46 threadlike bodies Each chromosome has thousands of chemical segments called genes Come in matching pairs from the mother and father Each contributes 23 chromosomes to the child Genes on each chromosome also come in pairs and are matched with the location on the corresponding chromosome pair 0 Growth Through Mitosis Cell Division 0 Process of cell division through which cells duplicate themselves Continues during the life course 0 Each division is a replications of the 46 chromosomes inherited at conception o Meiosis germ cells only Germ cells sperm amp ova replicate through meiosis Crossing over takes place among adjacent chromosomes creating new hereditary combinations 0 Problems in Meiosis o let chromosomes has 3 copies down syndrome 0 What factors contribute to genetic expression phenotypeswhat we can see on outside 0 Patterns of inheritance Simple dominantrecessive inheritance c 14 of the population is nearsighted making nearsightedness a recessive trait Incomplete dominance o Sicklecell trait symptomatic under oxygen dep vann SickIeceII anemia major blood disorder Polygenetic inheritance Most human traits we really care about mental abilities height etc are determined by multiple genes 0 Environmentbiology interaction Epigenetics above the genome Study of the way methyl groups change gene expression quotturn them on and offquot In uences in Genetically Identical Rats o Maternal Licking o Arched Back Nursing 0 Mother Rats who do more lickingarched back nursing Over the rst week of life 0 Differences in DNA methylation 0 Difference persist into adu hood 0 Altered gucocorticoid receptor expression Stress o Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis o CRH corticotrophinreleasing hormone brain speaking to a nonbrain structure CRH gt anterior pituitary Anterior pituitary ACTHgt kidneys Kidneys gucocorticoids cortisoI gt hippocampus to pituitary gland 0 Chronic Stress and the HPA Axis Under the conditions of chronic stress the brain sensitivity to gucocorticoids has a number of consequences Shrink the hippocampus Decrease neurogenesis Atrophy hippocampaI dendrites Disrupt long term potentiation long term memories PWN 5 Impair memory performance 6 Act on the amygdala to single the LOOK ON SLIDES o Glucocorticoid receptor 0 Present in almost all cells in the body 1 Plays in important role in CNS cells for regulating Stress response Congenital Defects o Disorders present from birth although not always detected at birth 0 Major Recessive Heritable Conditions Cystic Fibrosis 0 Diabetes Hemophilia o PKU SickIeceII anemia TySachs disease Muscular dystrophy o Detecting Genetic Disorders 0 Blood samples for genetic screening are collected from a heel prick before the newborn is discharged from the hospital Amniocentesis Week 1114 of pregnancy Needle inserted through the abdomen into uterus and fetal cells are extracted from amniotic uid Chance of miscarriage 1150 Chorionic Villus Sampling Performed by week 89 of pregnancy Needle inserted through abdomen into the chorionic membrane Results in 24hours Chance of miscarriage 150 Heritability the amount of variability in a trait or class of behavior win a speci c population that is attributable to genetic factors TRAITS IN POPULATIONS NOT TRAITS IN A GIVEN INDIVIDUAL Reaction Range the range of possible phenotypes for a given genotype majority of cases of mild intellectual disability can be attributed to environmental causes Ethology and Evolutionary Views 0 Ethology study of the bio evolutionary basis of behavior and development with a focus on the survival of the individual 0 Modern evolutionary theory study of the bio evolutionary basis of behavior and development with a focus on the survival of genes Critical vs Sensitive Period 0 Critical limited time span during which developing organisms are biologically prepared to display adaptive patterns of the development provided that they are given adequate stimulation o Sensitive optimal time span for the emergence of competencies and behavior environmental Embryonic Period 0 3 parts 0 Endoderm organs Mesoderm muscles Ectoderm sensory organs 0 Embryo support system placenta umbilical cord amnion o Primitive streak develops rst sign of human structure 0 Head facial features extremities develop Fetal Period 0 Sex differentiation 0 Digestive and excretory systems show activity organs complete development 0 Brain growth 0 Nails beginning of teeth hair 0 Movements amp signi cant weight gain between 69 months 0 Can monitor them over ultrasound d Critical Periods in Prenatal Development 0 Teratogens Environmental Sources of Birth Defects Teratogen substances and conditions that increase risk of prenatal abnormalities any agent that can harm an embryo or fetus 0 Risk analysis weighting the changes that a particular teratogen will affect the fetus Important factors Timing of exposure prepare well before pregnancy Amount of exposure threshold effect Genetic vulnerabilities 0 Effects Most serious when a structure is forming Susceptibility to harm is in uenced by genetic makeup of mother and embryo Same defect can be caused by different teratogens One teratogen can cause different defects Longer exposurehigher dose more harm Father39s exposure prior to conception may affect embryo Longterm effects depend on postnatal environment 0 Six general principles apply The susceptibility of the organism depends on its developmental stage A teratogen39s effects are likely to be speci c to a particular organ Individuals vary in there susceptitliby to teratogens O O O O O The mother39s physiological stat in uences susceptibility The greater the concentration of teratogenic the greater the risk Teratogens that have little or no effect on the mother can seriously affect the developing organism Teratogen Alcohol Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS FA Effects Social drinking 13 days Greatest riskbinge drinking 5 Slow physical growth poor motor skills attention dif culties verbal learning dif culties Subnormal intellectual performance Father39s drinking may also be harmful Characterized by Abnormal facial characteristics Abnormalities to limbs and heart Slow physical growth Retarded mental development Retarded language development Emotional problems impulsivity amp hyperactivity Distinct facial features skin folds at the corner of the eye low nasal bridge short nose small head small eye opening small midface thin upper lip indistinct philtrum groove on upper lip Teratogens Rubella german measles Blindness deafness cardiac abnormalities mental retardation Most dangerous during rst trimester Best not to conceive unless woman has had rubella or been immunized Baby cataracts blueberry rash Teratogens Toxoplasmosis Caused by eating undercooked meat amp handling cat feces Causes eye and brain damage during rst trimester lnduces miscarriage later in pregnancy Teratogens syphilis Early treatment prevents harm 95 transmission in untreated mothers Damages eyes ears bone heart brain Can result in miscarriage Baby high arched palate with oral erosions Teratogens genital herpes Can cross placenta Most infections occur during birth Kills 33 of infected newborns O O O O 0 Causes blindness brain damage and other neurological problems in 2530 Cesarean delivery prevents infecting newborn Teratogens AIDS Caused by HIV Passed through placenta while giving birth or while breastfeeding Only 25 of those at risk are infected ZDV reduces transmission by 70 50 of HIV infected infants live past 6 years Teratogens Thalidomide prescription drug 0 Used to prevent nausea and vomiting 0 Tested on animals and was quotsafequot Caused birth defects if taken during rst two moths of pregnancy Eyes ears noses hearts Parts of limbs missing feet or hands connected to torseo Teratogens OTC Drugs Aspirin growth retardation infant death 0 Ibuprofen 3rd trimester pulmonary hypertension prolonged devlivery Caffeine miscarriage low birth weight 0 Lithium lst trimesterheart defects 0 BC heart defects Teratogens cigarette smoking 0 Cleft lip o Abnormal lung functioning Miscarriage LOW BIRTH WEIGHT Ectopic pregnancy Sudden infant death syndrome a Higher concentration of nicotine in fetus Teratogens Weed o Emotional regulation in males Poorer readingspelling at 10 years old 0 More depressionanxiety Teratogens Narcotics 6080 born addicted Breathingswallowing coordination Normal developmental progress by age 2 although boys remain vulnerable Teratogens cocaine Miscarriage premature birth 0 Sleep disturbances very irritable Lower IQ Poor language development skills 0 Negative effects also due to Maternal vocabulary Home environment Exposure to additional teratogens o Teratogens environmental hazards Radiation death mental retardation 3 mile island x rays Chemicalspollutants Leadmercury deformities mental retardation Polychlorinated Biphenyl less neurologically mature prenatalpostnatal effects 0 Environmental conditions and prenatal development 0 Mother39s attitude towards her pregnancy or stress during the pregnancy 0 Mother39s nutrition Consume enough calories in well balanced diet 0 Increase intake of folic acid calcium magnesium zinc and iron Folic acid reduces down syndrome spina bi da anencephaly 0 Medical supervision in necessary as excessive vitaminmineral supplements can be harmful Long change polyunsaturated fatty acids 0 A mother39s stress 0 Immediate effects of elevated levels of the hormone cortisol it impede oxygen and nutrients to fetus Long term effects Weaken immune system Linked to poor eating smoking drug and alcohol useall harm fetus Counselling to manage Reduce stress Moderate levels may aid development Prenatal Care 0 Info about nutrition and teratogens 0 Education 0 Early detection of problems 0 Methods of prenatal testing Chorionic villi sampling 0 Amniocentesis Sonogram Variation of childbirth o Medicated childbirth Analgesia anesthesia oxytocic 0 quotNaturalquot childbirth o CSection 31 0 Prepared childbirth 0 Cultural differences 1 at home US Most at home World Obstetricians midwives doulas o Birthing centers 0 The newborn39s rst minutes 0 Apgar scale 0 110 minutes 0 Color HR re exes muscle tone breathing 77 normalhealthy 4 critical attention 0 Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 2436 hours after birth Neurological development Re exes Reactions to people Ratings of worrisome normal or superior 0 Testing for Disease 0 Birth complications 0 Preterm 0 Low birthweight LBW o Lowless than 5 12 lbs 0 Very low less than 3 lbs 5 oz 0 Extremely low less than 2 lbs 3 oz 0 Small for gestational age SGA Anoxia The New born39s condition Prematurity Birth before the 37th week Immature lungs digestive or immune systems 0 Causes of low birth weight and small for gestational age 0 Support system placenta problems Malnutrition Tabaco o Shortterm Consequences of LBW 4050 weight less than 22 pounds die Brain development and neural pattern formation in preterm infants differs Breathing dif culty due to lack of surfactant or respiratory distress syndrome Spend time in isolettes Can be frustrating to care for o Interventions for preterm infants 0 Early acquaintance programstouching rocking talking are developmentally bene cial Parents can be taught how to be sensitive and responsive to preterm infants 00 0 Combined with stimulation day care programs help improves cognitive growth and reduces behavioral disturbances 0 Longterm consequences of LBW Depends on postnatal environment Stimulating home can lead to very good outcomes Less stable home or being economically disadvantaged Smaller in size etc 0 Labor and Delivery Medication 0 Some medication is used by 95 of mothers in US Reduce pain induce contractions relax the mother Con reduce the ability to push effectively Can make babies lethargic and inattentive Drugs in appropriate doses increase comfort without disrupting delivery Psychosocial environment of childbirth 0 Mother39s experience 0 First 612 hours sensitive period form emotional bonding may not be essential Maternity blues 4060 of mothers Postpartum depression 10 of mothers Should seek professional help Depression affects outcomes of both mother and infant 0 Father39s experience Engrossment intense fascination desire to touch hold and caress 0 Early contact with newborn can make father feel closer to partner positive support for mother Chapter 4 Infancy o Sensation the detection of sensory stimulation 0 Perception the interpretation of sensory input 0 The newborn39s readiness for life 0 Newborn re exes involuntary automatic response to a stimuli Survival adaptive value satisfy needs Breathing sucking swallowing Primitive not as useful disappear rst year Babinski swimming grasping 0 Functions and course of crying Sate communicating distress 0 Developmental changes in crying Tends to diminish after rst three months maturation of brain increased responsiveness from parents Shrill and nonrhythmic may indicate brain damage 0 Methods for studying sensoryperceptual experiences 0 The Preference Method Discriminate between stimuli looking chamber 0 The Habituation Method Familiarity leads to a lack of response 0 Process by which we stop responding to a repeated stimulus Dishabituation response to new stimuli Process by which we attend to a new stimulus o The Method of Evoked Potentials Present a stimulus and record brain waves 0 Discrimination of stimuli produces different brain wave patterns 0 The HighAmplitude Sucking Method Rate of sucking on a paci er controls the presentation of a stimuli shows preference and discrimination 0 Infant Sensory Capabilities Hearing Discriminate sounds based on loudness duration direction and frequency Prefer mother39s voice to other women appears to be present in utero At 36 months sensitive to phonemes even better than adults if sounds are not part of the adult39s spoken language Hearing loss can adversely affect development often due to ear infections 0 Taste and Smell Prefer sweet over sour bitter or salty Recognize mother by smell if breastfed Prefer to avoid noxious odors Touch Temperature and Pain Touch enhances development allows exploration of environment Sensitive to temperature Sensitive to paineven at 1 day Sight Limited acuity 20600 vision Explains why infants prefer high contrast patterns 0 Vision Least mature sense Detect changes in brightness Can see patterns See colors although discrimination is good by 23 months Newborns are very nearsighted Poor acuity see as well as adults by 12 months Show a preference for faces Distinguish their mother39s face Scan their surroundings Perceive patterns and distinguish among forms a Perception of Patterns and forms 02 months 0 Late form perception 2mo1 year More sensitive to movement Begin to perceive objects as whole forms Use subjective contours Results from interaction between visual sense biological maturation and learning Perception of 3D pace Size constancy Present at birth not fully developed until 10 11 years old 0 Movement cues important 13 months Binocular cues important 35 months Pictorial cues monocular o 67 months a Development of depth perception Use of visual cliff 0 Most infants 90 at 6 12 months crawling perceived depth 0 2 montholds showed decrease in heart rate a sign of interest but not fear 0 Experience through motor development is important 0 Are the sense integrated at birth Yes reaches for objects that are seen Yes looking in the direction of sounds Yes expecting to see source of sound or to feel objects that were reached for 0 Cultural in uences on infant perception Language become sensitive to sounds important to speci c language English versus Chinese and quotrquot and quotlquot 0 Chinese make no distinction between these phonemes 0 Music familiar with own culture39s music 0 Growth of perceptual skills include adding new skills and losing unnecessary ones O O 0 Culture determines which sensory inputs are distinctive and how to interpret those inputs Infant Memory 23 mo Old infants learn to kick their leg to make a mobile move days 2 mo Old infants remember the muscle movements for 3 3 mo Old infants remember for 1week Results highly contextdependent need the same cues to retrieve memory Basic learning processes in infancy Learning is change in behavior that Produces a new way to think about perceive or react to the environment Is the result of experience Is relatively permanent Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus UCS elicits an unconditioned response UCR Neutral conditioned stimulus CS paired with UCS Eventually CS elicits a conditioned response CR Possible for newborns but must have survival value Operant conditioning Learner emits a response operates on environment Associates this action with the consequence it produces 0 Repeat favorable limit unfavorable Newborns learn very slowly rate increase with age At 2 months memory is contextdependent Newborns it takes them 200 trials and has be linked to biological needs such as nursing 3mo Old infants require 40 trails 5mo Old infants require 30 trials Observational Learning Attend to a model and form a symbolic representation of model39s behavior 0 Newborn imitationpossible at 7 days old if part of behavioral repertoire Imitation of novel responsesreliable between 812 months old 0 Immediate imitation at firs deferred imitation later Albert Bandura Bobo clown studies Independent variable lm of adult model 0 Modeling of aggression against Bobo clown SleepArousal states Chapter 5 Regular 89hours Irregular 89 hours Drowsiness 13 hours Alert inactivity 23 hours Alter activity 13 hours Crying 13 hours Controlled by hypothalamus Suprachiasmatic nuclei regulates sleep Insomnia of Childhood Falling asleep is an extended process that requires special conditions Sleeponset associations are highly problematic or demanding In the absence of the associated conditions sleep onset is signi cantly delayed or sleep is otherwise disrupted Nighttime awakenings require caregiver intervention for the child to return to sleep 0 Changes in height and weigh O o O o 0 Rapid increase in height and weight over rst two years Birth weight can be expected to double by 46 months Appears to happen in spurts of up to 1cm per day Growth is more gradual during middle childhood Toddlers are at half their adult height by 2 years old From 2puberty children gain approximately 23 inches and 67 pounds a year Puberty early adolescence there is another rapid growth spurt Changes in Body proportions O O o Cephalocaudal head downward growth At birth head and legs each represent 25 of body length At adulthood head is 12 legs 50 Head grows rapidly during fetal period Torso grows rapidly in rst year From lst birthday to adolescence legs comprise 60quot of the increases in height During adolescence truck grows fastest again Proximodistalcenter outward growth Internal organs followed by limbs Trend reverses in pubertyhands and feet followed by limbs then trunk During fetal period chest and internal organs develop rst and are followed by the extremities Skeletal Development 0 Bones lengthen thicken and harden with age completing most growth by 18 0 Skull has fontanels soft spots for childbirth and sutures seams for expansion for brain growth 0 Ankles feet wrists hands develops more bones Muscular Development 0 Born with all muscles bers 0 Increase in density and size particularly during growth spurt of adolescence Variations in Physical development 0 Individuals develop at different rates 0 Cultural variations also exist 0 Asian amp AfricanAmerican children mature faster than EuropeanAmerican Development of the Brain 0 Brain growth spurt last three prenatal months and rst two years of life 0 Neural Development and Plasticity Neuronsbasic unit of brainnervous system most present at birth Form synapses connective tissue with other neurons chemical Glia nourish neurons and encase them in myein form throughout life 0 Neural Development cell differentiation and synaptogenesis Neurons can serve any neural function Synaptogenesis formation of synapses More formed than needed Roughly half die some stand in reserveinjury or new skills Plasticity cells are responsive to experience allows change in brain 0 Brain Differentiation and growth 0 At birth brain associated with biological functioning is most developed Cerebrum and cerebral cortex higher brain centers Primary motor areas primary sensory areas mature rst 0 Myelination At birthpathways between sense organs and brain are myeinated Pathways between muscles and brain are next Reticular formation and frontal cortex Needed for long term concentration Not fuy myeinated at puberty Enhances ef ciency between emotive and regulatory areas of the brain 0 Cerebral Lateralization Cerebrum consists of two hemispheres connected by the corpus coosum Each covered by a cerebral cortex Leftright side of body speech hearing verbal memory decision making positive emotions Right lift side of body visualspatial information music touch negative emotions Lateralization increases with age 0 EXAMPLES o Hemispherectomy Case Study Image of a 7 year old girl treated at 3 years old 0 Surgery was on her dominant hemisphere right Total loss of right motor and sensory cortex Total loss of right hemispheric language centers commonly ambiguous words and prosody Complex regional pain syndrome Uncommon form of chronic pain typically affecting an arm or leg 0 Most commonly occurs following an injury but pain is our of proportion to severity of the initial injury Symptoms burningthrobbing pain sensitivity to temperature swelling changes in skin temperature discoloration red blue blotchy changes in skin texture tender thin or shiny changes in skin and nail growth muscle spasmsatrophy decreased mobility experience as catalyst for neuroplasticitySimons Relative to controls CPRS Children Show more amygdala connectivity with Cognitiveemotional areas prefrontal cingulate cortex basal ganglia o Sensorimotor thalamus somatosensory cortex Integrative processing cerebellum parietal lobe thalamus Intensive treatment consisting of 34 hours daily of physical therapy and 23 hours daily of cognitive behavioral therapy Decreased connectivity between amygdala and motor cortex cingulate insula and frontal areas associated with less painrelated fear Motor Development 0 Sequence of motor skills is the same for all infants 0 Large individual variation of ability to perform motor kills within children 0 Rate of motor development not strongly related to future development outcomes 0 Basic trends in locomotors development Cephalocaudalheaddownward Exception is coordination of hip movement before shoulder movement 0 Due to structure ofjoints Proximodistacenteroutward o Maturational viewpoint 0 Motor development is a genetically programmed sequence of events 0 Experientialpractice hypothesis Maturation and practice are important Wayne Dennis Discovers that none of the Iranian infants who spent 2years lying on their backs could walk and only 15 could sit unaided o Dynamical systems theory 0 New skills are constructed as infants actively reorganize existing capabilities Desire is to achieve a goal 78 month olds only crawl after they learn to turn their head to see objects develop handarm preference when reaching and learn to kick with opposite leg of outstretched arm quotevery act in every moment is the emergent product of context and history and no component has causal priorityquot Thelen 0 Fine Motor Development a Development of voluntary reaching Prereaching is replaced by voluntary reaching 3 months of age a Development of manipulator skills Clawlike ulnar grasp is replaced by the pincer grasp end of lst year 0 Psychological implications of early motor development 0 Motor kills allow for fun social interaction 0 Provide evidence of normal development Fosters perceptual cognitive and social development Optic flow distance spatial memory 0 Beyond infancy motor development in childhood and adolescence a Each year skills improve Large muscles eyehand coordination Genders equal in physical ability until puberty Males continue to improve Females level off or decline Biologyless muscle mass Genderrole socialization fewer athletic activities 0 Earlier participation in sports associated with higher selfworth in coHege Participation associated with increased physical competencies 0 Development of more favorable body image 0 Acquisition of desirable masculine traits Assertiveness All correlated with college selfesteem o The adolescence growth spurt Begins at about 10 12 for females Begins at 13 for males 0 Increase in height and weight Bodies and faces appear more adult like 0 Pubertypoint at which sexual maturity is reached 0 Sexual maturations 0 Timed with growth spurt predictable pattern 0 Girls Onset of breastspubic hair development Widening of hips enlarging of uterus and vagina First menstruations 0 Boys Testes and scrotum Emergence of pubic hair Growth of penis sperm productions Appearance of facial hair Lowering of voice 0 Late maturing boys more dif culty in short term that early maturing boys but both early and late maturing boys can have some dif culty in the long run 0 Secular trends are we maturing earlier 0 Reaching sexual maturity earlier in industrialized societies than in the past 0 Also growing taller and heavier Due to improved nutrition Improved healthcare 0 Biological mechanisms 0 Effects of individual genotypes Set limits for height and rate of maturation 0 Hormonal in uences the endocrinology of growth Pituitary gland releases growth hormone stimulates production of estrogen testosterone and androgen 0 Environmental In uences Problems of under nutrition Catch up growth if mild and shortterm Marasmus not enough calories or protein mall impaired social and intellectual development Kwashiorkor not enough protein uid collects in face legs and abdomen Vitamin and mineral de ciencies o Zinc very slow growth 0 Iron de ciency anemia social and intellectual impacts 0 Problems of over nutrition obesity 0 lHnesses lf adequately nourished most do not affect growth long term Emotional stress and lack of affection Nonorganic failure to thrive before 18 months of age Impatient hostile caregivers cause infants to withdraw Deprivation dwar sm 215 years of age lack of positive involvement with caregiver Exam 2 Chapter 6 0 Cognitive Development 0 Cognition the activity of knowing and the processes through which knowledge is acquired 0 Cognitive development changes that occur in mental abilities overthelWespan 0 Attention and perception 0 Learning thinking and remembering Piaget39s Theory of Cognitive Development 0 Genetic old usage meaning development epistemology experimental study of the origin of knowledge 0 What is intelligence 0 A basic life function that helps an organism adapt ot the environment 0 Cognitive equilibrium balance between thought processes and the environment Constructivist approach child constructs knowledge by acting on objects and events 0 How we gain knowledge schemes and processes Schemes mental pattern of thought or action Organization combine existing schemes into nowcomplex scheme Adaptation adjustment to environment Assimilation new information into existing scheme misidentifying cat as quotdogquot Accommodation modify existing schemes for new information Invariant developmental sequence Sequencing xed Individual difference enteringemerging stages The sensorimotor stage birth to 2 years Coordinate sensory inputs and motor skills Transition from being re exive to re ective Development of o Problemsolving abilities o Imitation Object concept Development of ProblemSolving abilities Re ex activity birth1 month 0 Primary circular reactions 14 months 0 First motor habits repetitive Secondary circular reactions 48 months Repetitive actions with objects beyond the body Coordination39s of secondary reactions 812 months 0 Coordinate 2 or more actions to achieve an objective intentional o Tertiary circular reactions 1218 months 0 Active experimentations trial and error Symbolic problem solving 1824 months 0 Inner mental experimentation trail and error is not necessary Development of Imitation Novel responses by 812 months of age 0 Although imprecise you bend your nger and the child closes their hand 0 Deferred imitation 1824 months 0 Research now shows 6montholds are capable of deferred imitation button pressing on a toy that makes noise Development of Object permanence Objects continue to exist when they are no longer visibledetectable 0 Appears by 812 months of age A notB error search in the last place found not where it was last seen Jacqueline and the parrot Complete by 1824 months Challenges to Piaget39s Account Neonativism 0 Infants are born with substantial innate knowledge Require less timeexperience to be demonstrated 0 Young children seem to possess some object permanence memory Karen Wynn Unexpected Events 5monthold Theory theories 0 Combine of neonativist and Piagetian perspective 0 Infants are prepared at birth to make sense of some information acknowledge that the sensorimotor stage may not be constructivist after all 0 Beyond this Piaget39s constructivist approach is generally accurate The preoperational stage 27 years Symbolic functionrepresentation insight One thing represents another Language Pretend symbolic play developmentally a positive activity 0 New views on symbolism Dual representation think about an object in two ways at one time 3 years De cits in preoperational thinking a Animism o Attribute lifelife like qualities to inanimate objects 0 Egocentrism c View world from own perspective trouble recognizing other39s point of view 0 Lack of conservation do not realize properties of objects do not change just because appearance does 0 Lack of decentration concentrate on more than one aspect of a problem at the same time 0 Lack of reversibility mentally undo an acUon Did Piaget underestimate the preoperational child 0 New evidence on egocentrism Piaget39s tasks were too complex 3 less ego centric with picture cards 0 Children often not always rely on their own perspective 0 If the 3 year old child is involved in a deception biscuit jar example they respond correctly with where the person they deceived will look Conservation ID training 4 year old children can be taught to conserve by being told o It may look like less water when we pour it from a tall this glass into this shorter one but it is the same water and there has to be the same amount to drink Children learn with water and apply the skill to other areas 0 75 can solve 3 of 5 conservation problems 255 months after their training The development theory of mind TOM Beliefdesire reasoning Understand behavior is based on o What an individual knows or believes What they want or desire o Develops after preschool age Falsebelief taskdesire task force The concrete Operational Stage 711 years Cognitive operations 0 Internal mental activity to modify symbols to reach a logical conclusion Conservationcapable of o Decentering Reversibility o Relational logiccapable of 0 Mental seriation 0 Line up from shortest to tallest requires ability to mentally arrange objects Transitivity Juan is taller than mike mike is taller than Samis Juan taller than same Requires understanding of necessary relationships or people 0 Limited to real or tangible aspects of expedence o The Formal operational stage ll12 Hypotheticodeductive reasoning Ability to generate hypotheses and use deductive reasoning general to speci c 0 Inductive reasoning Going from speci c observations to generalizations Though is rational systematic and abstract Personal and social implications of formal thought 0 Thinking about what is possible in life Forming a stable identity 0 Understanding of other39s perspectives Can weigh alternatives Questionings others 0 Thinking of how the world quotought to bequot 0 Does everyone reach formal operations Early Piaget yes at least some signs by 1518 Other researchers no lack of education Later Piaget Yes but only on problems that are either interesting or important Today 0 Performances is likely to be inconsistent across domains Requires interest in and experience with subject matter An evaluations of Piaget39s Theory 0 Piaget39s Contributions Founded cognitive development Stated children construct their knowledge First attempt to explain development Reasonably accurate overview of how children of different ages think Major in uence in social and emotional development and educa on In uenced future research 0 Challenges to Piaget Piaget failed to distinguish competence from performance 0 Does cognitive development really occur in stages Little evidence of broad stages 0 Does Piaget quotexplainquot cognitive development More of an description 0 Little attention to socialcultural in uences o Crosscultural research demonstrates o No differences in order of attaining the different stages of cognitive development 0 Minor differences in ages of milestones 0 Differences in whether formal operational abilities were achieved by adolescents or adults Domain is vital Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Perspective 0 Vygotsky believed that children acquire their culture39s 0 Values Beliefs o Problemsolving strategies All through collaborative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society 0 The role of culture in development Ontogenetic development development of an individual over their lifetime 0 Microgenetic development change over relatively brief periods of times 0 Phylogenetic development changes over evolutionary time Sociohistorical development changes in one39s culture 0 Tools of Intellectual Adaptation 0 Born with elementary mental functions attention memory 0 Culture transforms these into higher mental functions Culture speci c tools allow the use of the basic functions more adaptively language pencils 0 The social origins of Early cognitive competencies Many discoveries active learners make occur in collaborative dialogue with a tutor 0 Zone of Proximal Development 0 Differences between what a learner can do independently and what can be done with guidance Scaffolding tendency to tailor support to a learner near the limit of capability Guided participationapprenticeship May be very formal and context dependent May occur in daytoday activities May be context independent 0 Siblings as creators of zone of proximal development and scaffolding Older siblings are caretakers Provide emotional support Teach new skills through modeling or instruction Also bene ts the older siblinghigher academic aptitude An important aspect of scaffolding is that there is a gradual withdrawal of support as the child39s knowledge and con dence increase 0 Working in the Zone of Proximal development in different cultures Cultures where adults and children are segregated learning is in schools Cultures where adults and children are together most of the day learning is through real life observation Verbal versus non verbal emphasis of instruction 0 Playing in the zone of proximal development c More likely to engage in symbolic play when others are present Cooperative social play of preschoolers is related to later understanding of others feelings and beliefs Helps develop a theory of mind 0 Implications for Education Active not passive learning Assess what is known to estimate capabilities Guided participations structured by teachers who would gradually turn over more of activity to students Cooperative learning exerciseshelp each other very effective 0 The role of language in cognitive development 0 Primary method of passing modes of thinking to children 0 Becomes important tool of intellectual adaptation Piaget39s Thoery of LangaugeThought o Egocentric Speech 0 Selfdirected utterances Re ected ongoing mental activity 0 Shifted to communicative speech with age 0 Little role Vygotsky39s theory of languagethought o Egocentric is really an illustrations of transition from paralinguistic to verbal reasoning 0 Private speechcommunicative quotspeech for selfquot Serves as a cognitive selfguidance systems does not disappear becomes inner speech Social speech gives rise to private speech More common with dif cult tasks Selfinstruction improves performance Does tend to turn into inner o Vygotsky39s is more of a perspective not a theory with as many testable hypotheses as Piaget 0000 Chapter 7 InformationProcessing Theories o Analogy of the mind as a computer 0 Information ows through a limitedcapacity system of mental hardware and software Hardwarebrain and nervous system Softwa re The Multistore Model 0 Sensory story sensory register Detects and holds raw sensory input Separate store for each sense Large amounts of information Very limited duration 0 Shortterm store STS working memory 0 Limited information 59 pieces 0 Several seconds 0 Lost if we do nothing with the info Longterm store LTS Vast and relatively permanent 0 Control processes or executive functions a Involved in planning and monitoring what is attended to and what is done with the information Metacognition knowledge of one39s cognitive abilities and processes related to thinking 0 Developmental differences in quothardwarequot information processing capacity a Development of the shortterm store Assessed with memory span 0 Recall in order or rapidly presented unrelated items 0 Highly reliable age differences Facilitated by knowledge base 0 10 year old chess players perform better than graduate students on a test of visual memory involving chess pieces 0 Changes in processing speed Due to biological maturation Increased myelination of associative thinking areas of the brain 0 Elimination of unnecessary synapses 0 Developmental Differences in quotsoftwarequot strategies and what children know about thinking 0 Strategies Deliberately implemented goaldirected operations used to aid task performance 0 Production and utilization de ciencies Fail to produce effective strategies when young o It is better to spontaneously think to rehearse new information than to be told to doso Fail to bene t immediately from a newly trained strategy Multiplestrategy and variablestrategy use Children have a variety of strategies they choose from Adaptive strategy choice model 0 With experience more sophisticated strategies are used 0 Novel situations children fall back to easier strategies Siegler39s work and adaptive strategy choice model How do children learn to add 0 Strategy 1 sum strategy 53quot12345 pause678quot 0 Strategy 2 min strategy start with larges number and count up quot535678quot Strategy 3 fact retrieval 538 Crosssectional studies make it seem like children develop abilities in a stagelike fashion Longitudinal data make it seem like children use multiple strategies at any given time depending on the demands of the task Newer or novel tasks may cause a child to revert to an older strategy 0 What children know about thinking lmplicit cognition thought without awareness An ability that shows little difference across age Explicit cognition thought with awareness Large age differences 0 FuzzyTrace Theory An Alternative Viewpoint Continuum of memory representations Verbatim literal o More likely to forget Young children use more often Preschoolers can remember exactly how many cows farmer Brown has but have a hard time knowing if he has more cows than sheep Fuzzy gist content but not detail Easier to access and use 0 Older children after age 67 use more often The Development of Attention 0 Changes in Sustained Attention Attention span increases dramatically Myelination of reticular formation through puberty brain stem area that in uences sensory store 0 Selective Attention ignoring irrelevant info Also improves with age less distraction 0 Task requiring remembering animals while ignoring household items 0 Cognitive inhibition dismissing information that is clearly irrelevant Improves with age neurological maturation Myelination of cortical areas such as prefrontal cortex 0 MetaAttention What do children know about attention Aware that distractions can be a problem Although they can39t yet ignore them 5yearold look and label but do not know to attend selectively 7year olds attend selectively ignore irrelevant information Development of memory Retaining and retrieving information 0 Event memory long term memory for events 0 Autobiographical memory experiences that have happened to us 0 Strategic memory processes for conscious attempts to retain or retrieve information o Mnemonics memory strategies helpful effortful techniques My Very Educated MotherJust Served Us Nine Pizzas Many Educated Men Just Screwed Up Nature 0 Development of Event and Autobiographical Memory Origins of Event memory Deferred imitation Infantile amnesia o Stored in an irretrievable nonverbal code 0 Lack of sense of self 0 Development of Scripted Memory 0 Scripts schemes for recurring events organized in terms of causal and temporal sequences Organizes world Tend to remember info consistent with scripts 0 Ex Of memory from camping trip as rst we go to bed then we wake up and have breakfast Become more elaborate with age 0 The social construction of autobiographical memories 0 Parents play a role in development through talking with children Helps with organization into stories What information is important 0 The development of memory strategies Rehearsal based on repetition Older children use rehearsal more ef ciently 34 yo will label things once while a 710 yo will rehearse O O O O 0 Active or cumulative repeating several earlier items as they rehearse a successive word Organization Grouping into related categories Unlikely prior to age 9 or 10 But younger children can be trained 7 yo can do it if category labels remain visible Retrieval processes Freerecall general prompt o Dif cult for young children how was your day Cued recall given speci c cues Easy for young children tell me about the gorilla at the zoo Metamemory and memory performance Knowledge of memory and memory processes Increases from 413 0 Mind stores interpretations not copies of reality 0 Children learn from experience that strategies help with memory rehearsal Knowledge base and memory development Age differences in recall memory Due to increase in knowledge base Due to increases in strategies The more one knows the more one can learn and remember Culture and memory strategies Rehearsal and organization Industrialized societies Recall of location or orally transmitted stories Nonwestern cultures Development of Other Cognitive Skills 0 O O O Reasoning Type of problem solving requiring one to make an inference Analogical reasoning Applying existing knowledge to help reason about something not known yet dog is to puppy as cat is tokitty Analogical reasoning in young children Relational Primacy hypothesis Analogical reasoning is available in early infancy o 1 yo if it is perceptual similarity task with the three toys accessible by a string Relational similarity more advance apparent by 4 years The role of knowledge in children39s analogical reasoning 0 Must understand the base relation Transitivity inferences relations among at least 3 objects 0 3 and 4 yo capable if the basis for the analogy was familiar o The role of metacognition in children39s analogical thinking Metacognition knowing about analogical reasoning is important Teaching children the values of reasoning by analogy increases use of this type of thinking What is Intelligence 0 Psychometric views of intelligence 0 Intelligence is a trait set of traits that allows some people to think and solve problems more effectively than others Binet39s Singular Component Approach Developed rst intelligence test Age graded items produced mental age Intelligence is a general mental ability 0 The multicomponent view of intelligence 0 Using factor analysis statistical analysis and interpretation 0 Results in quotmultiplequot considerationscomponents nota singe trait Early multicomponent theories Spearman Ggeneral mental factor Sspecia ability 0 Thurstone seven primary mental abilities Word uency Verbal comprehension Spatial visualization c Number facility Associative memory Reasoning Perceptual speed How is intelligence measured 0 The StanfordBinet intelligence scale 0 Original version Terman IQ of children 3 to 13 Based on mental age chronological age MACA 100 0 Revised versionstill in use Normed on individuals age 2 through 85 Deviation score compared with same aged others 100 still average 0 The Weschler Scales Weschler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIV 6 to 16 years Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of IntelligenceIII 3 to 8 years Both contain verbal subtests and nonverbal subtests 0 Group tests of mental performance 0 More cost effective 0 Paper and pencil measures 0 Assess a group rapidly SAT ACT GRE MCAT LSAT GMAT o Newer approaches to intelligence testing 0 The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Based on informationprocessing theory primarily nonverbal Uses dynamic assessment 0 How well new material is learned with competent instruction 0 Measures what can be learned 0 Modern IQ tests 0 Normally distributed around an IQ of 100 Average is 100 Most scores between 85115 Very few beyond 130 Few below 70 common de nition of mental retardation 0 Assessing infant quotintelligencequot Bayley Scales of Infant Development Motor scale Mental scalecategorizing searching for objects following directions Infant Behavioral Record Motor and mental combine to form DQ developmental quotient Poor predictor of childhood IQ 0 Stability of IQ in Childhood and Adolescence Staring around age 4 relationship between early and later IQ39s Becomes stronger with age 0 Large individual differences 50 had average variations of over 20 points 0 Measures intellectual performance not necessarily capacity in the future 0 Stability continued a IQ increases children from stable intellectually stimulating homes IQ decreases children living in poverty especially prolonged Cumulativede cit hypothesis lmpoverished environments dampen intellectual growth effects accumulate over time What do IQ Tests predict o IQ as a predictor of scholastic achievement Good 50 based on groups not individuals Do better in school Stay in school longer Go to college 0 Best predictor is past grades Work habits interests motivation o IQ as predictor of vocational outcomes IQ is related to occupational prestigestatus Due to link with education Predicts job performance 50 Practical tacit intelligence also very important not measured by IQ Factors that in uence IQ scores 0 The evidence for heredity Twin studies resemblance increases as genetic similarity increases 0 Adoption studiesIQ more similar to biological than adoptive parents 0 Identical twins may also seek out more similar environments enhancing intellectual similarity o The evidence for environment 0 The ynn effect Improving IQ scores since 1940 Improvements in education nutrition and health care 0 Adoption studies Children leaving impoverished environments score very well on tests higher IQ than predicted Social and Cultural correlates of Intellectual performance 0 Home environment and IQ 10 main factors placing child at risk of low IQ 9 are characteristics of home or families Predicted IQ at age 4 and 13 Number of risk factors more important than which factors were present O o O o O 0 HOME inventory observer can determine how intellectually stimulation the home is Asks parent about the daily Does the home predict IQ Yes regardless of social class or ethnicity beyond parental IQ or genes Which matter Parental involvementwarmth Age appropriate play materials Variety in daily stimulation Providing consistent encouragement Stimulation of language academics Socialclass and ethnic differences in IQ Children form lowerand workingclass homes score 1015 points lower on IQ Children of AfricanAmericans and NativeAmerican ancestry score 1215 points lower than European American classmates Hispanic American between Asian same as European American or higher These are grouplevel differences Why do groups different in intellectual performance CulturalTest Bias Hypothesis Artifact of tests and testing procedures favoring white middleclass students 0 Language biases Does test bias completely explain group differences in IQ Probably not 0 Same pattern with culturalfair tests IQ tests predict academic success equaHy Motivational factors Increasing comfort with testing situation and examiner can increase scores Negative stereotypes Sole of stereotype threat Reject behaviors such as excelling on tests not relevant to them Genetic Hypothesis No conclusive evidence supporting genetics as causing betweengroup differences in intelligence exists Genetics is partly responsible for withingroup differences Environmental Hypothesis Poor people and minority group members score lower because o Impoverished environments 0 Less conducive to intellectual development 0 Nutrition stress 0 Supported by research 0 Goal provide disadvantage children the educational experiences that middleclass children were receiving Head Start 0 Longterm followups Higher lQ39s for 23 years then decline 0 More likely to meet basic requirements 0 More likely to complete high school 0 More positive attitudes 0 Less likely to be pregnant or delinquent teens o The importance of parental involvement 0 Parent involvement is essential o Twogeneration interventions parent and child receive services together 0 The importance of intervening early Abecedarian project Began at 612 weeks old continued until enrolled in school 0 Higher IQ maintained through age 15 Language and Communication 0 Language c A small number of individually meaningless symbols that can be combined according to rules to produce in nite messages 0 Communication 0 Process by which one organism transmits information to and in uences another 0 Five components of language Phonology knowledge of language39s sound system phone cs Morphology morpheme smallest meaningful unit of language Rules specifying how words are formed from sounds Semantics meanings expressed in words Free Morphemes standalone words Bound morphemes cannot stand alone change meaning of free morphemes when added dogS Syntax rules specifying how words are combined to produce sentences Pragmatics knowledge of how language is used to communicate effectively Sociolinguistic knowledge 0 Rules of how to use language in particular social context 0 Also requires interpretation of non verbal signals 0 Theories of language development 0 Environmental supports Language is a means of communicating Lessons from Joint Activities 0 Conversations require taking turns Lessons from childdirected speech 0 Short simple sentences motherese Becomes more complex with language development 0 The prelinguistic Period Before language Producing sounds prelinguistic vocalizations 2 months cooing vowel 46 months babbling vowel consonant 1012 months vocables reserving sounds for particular situations consistent meaning 0 What do prelinguistic infants know about language and communication 78 months vocal turn taking pragmatics Gestures and nonverbal communication 0 810 months Declarative directing attention points to toy o Imperative alter other39s behavior raises arms to be picked up 0 Do preverbal infants understand the meaning of words 1213 months yes Receptive language understanding develops earlier than productive language expression 0 The Holophrase period one word at a time o Holophrase one word quotsentencesquot 0 Early semantics building a vocabulary Vocabulary grows one word at a time Naming explosion 1824 months Talk most about manipulable objects Multimodal motherese exaggerated sentences by an adult accompanied by an action explaining the words 0 Attach meaning to words Fastmapping quickly acquiring a word after hearing it applied a few times Good at 1315 months 0 Better for understandingcomprehension 0 Dif culty lies in retrieve words from memory Syntactical bootstrapping o Inferring meaning from sentence structure 0 The telegraphic period from Holophrase to simple sentences Telegraphic speech 1824 months Simple sentences containing only critical words no grammatical markers More common in languages where word order is more important than grammatical markers Semantic intent meaning requires words and context The pragmatics of early speech 2 year olds good at vocal turntaking Prefer to talk about unshared information Monitor responses to clarify meaning Understanding need to be polite o Bilingualism challenges and consequences of learning two languages Exposure to two languages prior to age 3 pro cient in both Preschool children often learn second language to pro cient in one year Cognitive advantages Score higher on IQ tests metalinguistic awareness better selective attention English only instruction Causes LEP children to struggle academically Do not acquire sufficient level of skill in English may also lose pro ciency in primary Twoway bilingual education Half day in English half in second language Bene cial for both students with limited English pro cient and students uent in English c Emotional Development 0 Displaying emotions Sequencing of distinct emotions At birth interest distress disgust contentment 27 months anger sadness joy surprise fear all basic emotion Middle of second year embarrassment shame pndegthenvy Selfrecognition and selfevaluation 0 Parents in uence selfevaluative emotions lf mothers are critical of failure shame follows failure little evidence of pride after success Opposite if mothers were positive about successes Guilt more likely than shame if reason why behavior was wrong 0 Socialization of emotions and emotional selfregulation Emotional display rules societal circumstances for emotional expression Mothers tend to model only positive emotions to young infants Become more responsive to infants39 positive emotions Role of cultural expectations o Regulating emotions 0 Present in 6montholds girls better than boys 0 1 year self rocking chewing or moving away 0 1824 months try to control actions of others distract themselves 0 Almost impossible to regulate fear 0 Parents may want children to feel emotional arousal to teach them To sympathize with victims Feel guilty for their transgressions Feel pride 0 Acquiring emotional display rules 0 Age 3 can disguise true feelings But at 13 still dif cult to suppress anger Ability in older adolescents is linked with being more prosocial ability to resist peer pressure 0 Saarni Procedures 0 Session 1 Children complete a task and then are given a wrapped gift containing small can ofjuice candy bar and 50 0 Session 2 Complete a task and then are given a wrapped baby toy pastel colored key on key ring 0 Recognizing and Interpreting Emotion Social referencing 710 months use other emotional reactions to regulate own behavior Second year look to others reactions after appraising a new situation 0 Conversations about emotions 1824 months Contributor to empathy 0 Later milestones in emotional understanding Labeling emotional expressions of other improves during cthhood 45 infer emotion from body movements 0 45 aware that current emotion may be due to thinking about past events By 8 same situation may cause different emotions 69 understand people can have multiple emotions simultaneously 0 Emotions and early social development c Emotional displays are communicative o Interpreting others emotions provides knowledge Emotional competence is crucial to social competence Emotional expressivity Emotional knowledge Emotional regulation Temperament and Development 0 Temperament individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity and selfregulation Fearful distress Irritable distress Positive affectsociability Activity level Attention span persistence Rhythmicity o Hereditary and environmental in uences on temperament Hereditary in uences Identical twins more similar than fraternal twins Moderately heritable 0 Home Environmental In uences Shared environment in uences positive aspects of temperament Nonshared environment in uences negative aspects 0 Cultural in uences Shy and reserved a disadvantage in the US Valued in Asian cultures Also more positive in Sweden 0 Stability of Temperament 0 Activity level irritability sociability fearfulness Moderately stable Behavioral inhibition Moderately stable at extremes Considerable uctuation for other individuals 0 Attachment 0 Attachment and Development 0 Attachment strong affection ties that we feel with special people in our lives 0 Attachments as Reciprocal Relationships Infants and parents become attached to each other 0 Establishment of Interactional Synchrony Synchronized routines coordinated interactions between infant and caregiver I smile gt you smile 0 Even 2 and 6 months old infants expect this 0 Important for emotional attachments How do infants become attached The growth of primary attachments o The Asocial Phase 06 weeks 0 Social and non social stimuli produce positive reactions o The phase of indiscriminate attachments 6 weeks67 months Favor people but any person is OK 0 The speci c attachment phase 79 months 0 First true attachment favor one person 0 Secure base for exploration 0 The phase of multiple attachments 918 months 0 Attachment of other people additional family members regular babysitter a Learning Theory I love you because you reward me Feeding elicits positive responses from infant increasing caregiver39s affections Infants learn feeding time provides comfort mother is important Harlow39s study contact comfort is more important to attachment than food CognitiveDevelopmentalTheory To love you I must know you will always be there 0 For attachment must discriminate familiar people from strangers Object permanence Although each theory is incomplete all are important 0 Contemporary theories of attachment the ethological theory Attachment contributes to survival Preadapted characteristic predisposition to form attachments quotKewpie dollquot appearance may promote attachment not necessary Crying dif cult to ignore as are smiles Attachmentrelated fears of infancy Stranger anxiety Begin at time of primary attachment Peaks at 810 months then declines Separation Anxiety Appears at 68 months Peaks at 1418 months Gradual decline but may be visible in adolescents Why do infants fear strangers and separations The Ethological viewpoint Biologically programmed to fear strangers and circumstances where familiar companions are not present The CognitiveDevelopmental viewpoint Violating schemes of familiar faces and knowing someone will return Infants protest more if a caregiver leaves through an unfamiliar doorway at home 0 Individual differences in attachment quality Assessing attachment security Strange situation Naturalistic caregiverinfant interaction to look for secure base Brief separation Reunion episode Secure attachment 65 Explores situation May be upset by separations Warm greeting on return seeks comfort Outgoing with strangers when mother is present Resistant Attachment 10 Little exploration want to be close Very distressed upon separation Ambivalent on return want to be close but will resist physical contact Wary of strangers even when mother is present Avoidant Attachment 20 Little distress when separated lgnore mother on return Often social with strangers but may ignore or avoid them DisorganizedDisoriented Attachment 5 Most insecure Confusion about whether to approach or avoid the mother when reunited Strange situation in general not useful from characterizing children much older than 2 0 Attachment Qset for 1 to 5 year olds Trained observer sorts 90 descriptors into quotmost likequot to quotleast likequot categories Resulting pro le represents level of secure attachment Fathers as Caregivers Attachment Later half of rst year Positive attitude toward parenting Spends time with infant Sensitive caregiver More likely to provide playful stimulation 0 Can assume all roles of a parent Fathers as contributors to emotional security and other social competencies 0 Infants with secure attachment to both parents 0 Less anxious and socially withdrawn 0 Better adjustment to school 0 Infants securely attached to father even if not residing in home 0 Better emotional selfregulation Social competencies Less delinquency Factors that in uence attachment security Quality of caregiving o Caregiving hypothesis Mothers of securely attached infants are sensitive responsive caregivers Resistant children tend to have inconsistent caregiving o Resistant infants have parents who are inconsistent in their caregiving Avoidant infants have parents who are impatient and unresponsive or over stimulating o Disorganized infants were often neglectedabused Who is at risk of becoming an insensitive caregiver Clinically depressed individuals Caregivers who were unIoved neglected or abused as children Caregivers with unplanned pregnancies Ecological constraints on caregiving sensitivity nsensitive parently more likely Health legal nancial problems Unhappy marriages What can be done to assist insensitive caregivers Interventions work and promote secure attachments Exam 3 How The SelfConcept Develops Self o The combination of physical and psychological attributes unique to each individual SelfDifferentiations in Infancy o 2months a limited sense of personal agency 0 They are responsible for some events SelfRecognition in Infancy o Selfconcept who or what we are c 5 months recognize the self as familiar o SelfRecognition Rouge test 1824 months most realized the person in the mirror was them a 23 years limited to present self will not retrieve a sticker on their head if shown an image of themselves after a short delay 0 45 years extended self will retrieve the sticker if the delay is short 23 minutes but not if it39s long or 23 weeks 0 Contributors to selfrecognition Cognitive development is necessary 0 Social experience Secure attachment Parents provide descriptive information 0 Cultural differences Younger selfrecognition if autonomy was stressed 0 Social and emotional consequences of selfrecognition Necessary for selfconscious emotions embarrassment guilt shame Toddlers become more socially skilled 0 May begin to cooperate 0 Begin to categorize themselves on dimensions of how people differ I am a boy and she is a girl Who am I Responses of Preschool children 0 3 125 use physical and behavioral dimensions l have blue eyes I have a new bike 0 Can use psychological Sociability o I like to play with my friends vs I like to play alone Intelligence 0 I am smart vs I am not smart Athleticism I am good at basketball vs I am not good at basketball Conceptions of Self in Middle Childhood and Adolescences o Becomes more abstract with age 0 Recognize they are not the same in all situations 0 Can be upsetting to middle adolescents trying to nd the quotrealquot self 0 May use false selfbehaviors acting out of character to improve image 0 Becomes more integrated with age 0 Less discomfort is seen in late adolescence over not being the quotrealquot self in some situations Cultural in uences on the selfconcept 0 Self descriptors American students more likely to be personal or individualistic Competition individual initiative emphasize ways people differ Japanese students more likely to be social or relational cooperative interdependent identity tied to groups more than self SelfEsteem The evaluative Component of Self SelfEsteem evaluation of one39s worth based on the selfconcepts Origins and development of selfesteem o 45 years an early meaningful stable sense of selfesteem o Securely attached children more likely to have high sense of self esteem o Reasonably accurate with how others evaluate their social competencies Components of SelfEsteem o Academics social acceptance appearance athleticism and behavior a 47 years positive on all e 8 years based on part on other39s evaluation Importance assigned to a category matters Adolescence relational selfworth importance of relationships Females supportive friendships Males in uencing friends Changes in selfesteem 0 Some children experience a decline into middle and high school 0 Multiple stressors contribute to declines 0 Overall stability is lowest in childhood and early adolescence o Relatively stable in late adolescence and early adulthood o Gradual increase in young adulthood Importance of SelfEsteem 0 High selfesteem Less depression conduct disorders If a result of prosocial or adaptive life experiences 0 Low selfesteem Worse mental and physical health Worse economic prospects Social Contributors to SelfEsteem 0 Parenting Styles 0 Warm supporting nurturingdemocratic leads to high self esteem 0 Peer In uences Social comparison especially in individualistic societies 0 Social support from peershigh esteem Culture Ethnicity and SelfEsteem o SelfEsteem appears lower in collectivist societies 0 But being lower may make individuals feel good as it is what society wants 0 Ethnic minorities express lower levels of esteem in elementary school but equal or higher by adolescence Support and pride in ethnic group Development of achievement motivation and academic selfconcepts o Achievement motivation Willingness to strive to succeed at challenging tasks 0 To meet standards of accomplishments o Mastery motive White39s theory 0 ln born motivate to master the environment Early Origins of Achievement Motivation 0 Phase 1 Joy in Mastery 0 Prior to 2 years pleased with successes but do not seek recognition failures don39t matter 0 Phase 2 ApprovalSeeking Near age 2 seek approval for successes expect disapproval for failure 0 Phase 3 Use of standards 3 years old Adopted objective standards Pride after success shame after failure Less dependent on others39 evaluations Achievement motivation during middle childhood and adolescences 0 Home in uences on master motivation and achievement 0 Quality of attachment Secure attachment results in being more self assured and comfortable about taking risks and seeking chaHenges Home environment 0 66 of children from intellectually stimulating homes doing well in school Led to intrinsic orientation to achievement 0 70 of children from no stimulating homes were doing poo y Childrearing and achievement Independence training Achievement training Praising successes not being overly critical of occasional failures aids achievement motivation Authoritative parenting style described above warm rm democratic Peer group in uences 0 African American and Hispanic peer groups in lowincome areas may discourage academic achievement 0 Parents value education individuals may associate with peers sharing those values Cultural In uences Chinese children much more critical of personal failures in learning vs American children Beyond Achievement Motivation Development of Achievement Attribution Types of achievement attributions Stable vs unstable Internal vs external Age Differences in AchievementRelated Attributions 0 Prior to age 7 unrealistically optimistic Incremental view of ability ability is changeable and increases with effort 0 812 distinguish ability from effort Entity view of ability ability is a sable train Dweck39s LearnedHelplessness Theory 0 O Mastery orientation attribute successes to ability externalize failures or attribute them to unstable causes Persist after failure increase effort Learned helplessness orientation attribute failures to stable and internal factor Spots trying Tends to persist over time How does learned helplessness develop 0 Praise hard work if child succeeds and criticize ability when failure occurs 0 Goal is processoriented praise not person oriented praise 0 Want to criticize lack of effort when failure occurs 0 Chan be changed relatively easily through attribution retraining Categorizing Males and Females Gender Role Standards Gender role standard value motive or behavior considered more appropriate for members of one sex than the other 0 Expressive role femalekind nurturing cooperative sensitive to other39s needs 0 Instrumental role maledominant assertive independent and competitive Sex person39s biological identity 0 Chromosomes physical manifestations of identity hormonal in uences Gender person39s social and cultural identity as male or female Gender typing process of acquiring a gender identity and the motives values and behaviors considered appropriate for the sex Some Facts and Fictions about Sex Differences General all are small differences on measures 0 Verbal ability girls are generally superior o VisualSpatial Abilities boys are superior Evident by age 4 persist across life span 0 Mathematical Abilities ln adolescence boys better at arithmetic reasoning Girls better at computational skills 0 Aggression 0 Beginning at age 2 boys are more physically and verbally aggressive Girls more likely to display covert aggression o Other Sex Differences Activity level boys are more physically active even before birth 0 Fear timidity and risk taking girls are more fearful timid and take fewer risks 0 Developmental vulnerability boys are more vulnerable to prenatal and perinatal hazards and disease males the weaker sex 0 Emotional expressivitysensitivity Beginning in toddlerhood Boys express more anger Girls express most other emotions more frequently 0 Compliance girls are more compliant o Selfesteem boys are slightly higher beginning in adolescence Conclusion 0 Differences re ect group averages 0 Differences are small 0 Differences predicted by biology are not inevitable and are ampli ed or tempered by culture and life experiences 0 Males and females are much more psychologically similar than they are different Cultural Myths No basis in the facts for strong genderrole stereotypes o Stereotypes could be due to wellingrained cognitive schemas Which are then used to interpret and distort behaviors Selfful lling prophecy actually promotes sex differences in cognitive performance Home in uences 0 Parents expect sons to outperform daughters in math 0 Son39s successes are due to ability daughter39s due to hard work 0 Children internalize parent39s views boys become selfcon dent 0 Girls lose interest in math due to perceived lack of ability Scholastic In uences 0 Teachers have similar views affecting children in a similar manner Developmental trends in gender typing Gender Identity 0 By the age 2 12 to 3 child accurately labels self as a boy or girl 0 5 to 7 gender concept is relatively rm and unchanging Genderrole stereotypes 0 Present at 2 to 3 years once children can label pictures of children as boys or girls 0 3 to 7 view genderrole standard as rules 0 8 to 9 more exible distinction between moral rules and genderrole standards Cultural In uences o Collectivist societies tend to encourage conforming to gender role standards Adolescent thinking about gender stereotypes 0 Less exible again increased pressure to conform gender intensi cation 0 Later in high school may be more exible again Play 0 1422 months prefer gender appropriate toys Gender segregation o 2 years girls prefer playing with girls 0 3 years boys prefer playing with boys 0 Due to differences in play styles 0 Cognitive and socialcognitive development Sex differences in gendertyped behavior 0 Males are assigned greater status 0 Males feel stronger pressure to adhere to gender appropriate codes 0 Most girls do comply with prescriptions for the feminine role by adolescence Be attractive to opposite sex 0 Be concerned about others39 evaluations Subcultural Variations in GenderTyping 0 Middle class adolescents hold more exible genderrole attitudes than low SES peers o AfricanAmerican children hold less stereotyped views of women than EuropeanAmerican children 0 Both results likely due to differences in education and family life Theories of Gendertying and gender role development a Evolutionary Theory 0 Males and females face different evolutionary pressures 0 Natural selection created fundamental differences in male and female roles Females need to be nurturing Males need spatial skills for hunting 0 Criticisms of the Evolutionary Approach 0 Applies primarily to differences that apply crossculturally o Ignores differences limited to cultures or historical periods 0 Social roles hypothesis Cultures assign roles based on gender Socialization practices Evidences for Biological in uences on Genderrole development 0 Genetic in uences 50 of the differences in masculine 020 of the differences in feminine self concepts 0 Strong masculine selfconcept and experiences with spatial toys increases abilities Missed April 7th Aggression Overt vs Covert o Overt obvious Ex pushing up against a locker Found at all ages 0 Covert secretive 0 Ex sending a note to threaten Tends to be more thoughtful needs more cognitive resources 0 More common as children age 0 Gender 0 There are differences Becomes evident around 3 years of age Boys more physically aggressive than girls 0 ln adolescences some evidence to suggest girls more relationally aggressive than boys but ndings mixed O O 0 Major shortcoming in literature is that majority of research focuses on only boys Age Very common in early childhood Considered normative your infant knows how to be spontaneously aggressive Kids learn not to be aggressive Richard Tremblay Physical Aggression speci cally As kids age and their verbal skills and cognitive abilities change and so does aggression See more relational and covert aggression Two peaks of physically aggressive behavior 0 O Toddlerhood Adolescence Theory of Aggression A wide of theories no single theory explains all aggression 2 Common theories primarily function subtype 0 0 Social learning theory Aggression serves function of helping one obtain a desired goal Frustrationaggression model Why Interested in aggression O O Aggression is precursor to later problem behavior including delinquency peer problems and substance useabuse If we can change aggression early on when we can prevent the development of later problem behavior The Development of Aggression Dodge39s Social informationprocessing theory of aggression 0 000000 Encoding social cues Interpretation of social cues Formulates a goal to resolve situation Generates possible strategies Evaluates strategies for achieving goal Selects response Enacts response Reactive aggressors are likely to develop a hostile attribution bias 0 Attribute ambiguous situations as serious and react aggressively Proactive aggressorsplan an aggressive response to achieve and instrumental goals 0 O Expect positive out comes Feel capable of dominating others Perpetrators and victims of peer aggression 0 00000 17 of students were bullied 19 reported bullying others Boys more likely to be physically bullied Girls more likely to be verbally or psychologically bullied Bullying most common in 6th8th graders Bullies more likely to use drugs Habitual bulliesdisliked by peers Chronic victimsgenerally disliked 0 Passive victimswithdrawn weak but do not invite aggression Overprotective mothers 0 Provocative victimsirritate peers ght back unsuccessfully Physically abused at home What goals should we have for children39s moral behavior Origins of altruism concern form the welfare of others and willingness to act on that concern 12 to 18 month olds offer toys to peers Toddlers can express sympathy o Verbally rebuking children and physically punishing them reduces compassion 0 Discipline based on affective explanation increases compassion Developmental trends of altruism o 23 year olds show sympathycompassion Rarely engage in spontaneous acts of selfsacrifice but did during pretend play 0 45 years old more real helping acts fewer during pretend play Sex differences in altruism 0 Girls are more likely to be helpful generous and compassionate than boys 0 Boys more interest in looking good or attaining status over others Socialcognitive and affective contributions to altruism 0 Children with well developed roletaking skills are more helpful 0 Prosocial moral reasoning Preschoolers39 tend to be selfserving Older adolescents are much more responsive to the needs of others Empathy an important affective contributor to altruism o Empathy a person39s ability to experience the emotions of other people Personalselforiented distress can lead to ignoring others in need Sympathetic empathetic arousal concern for distressed others increases altruism Socialization of empathy 0 Model emphatic concern 0 Rely on affectiver oriented forms of disciple 0 Use of positive facial expressions when modeling sympathy FeltResponsibility Hypothesis Sympathetic empathetic arousal causes one to re ect on altruistic lessons Results is assuming personal responsibility for aiding a person in distress Cultural and social in uences on altruism Cultural in uences o Altruism more common in less industrialized societies kenya mexico etc Assigning chores improves altruism in Western societies 0 More common on collectivist societies Social In uences o Reinforcing altruism o Verbal reinforcement increase altruism Must come from likeable and respected adult 0 Tangible reward decreases altruism o Practicing and preaching altruism o Altruistic modeling is also important Who raised altruistic children Altruistic parents 0 Christian39s who risked their lives to save Jews in WWII 0 Freedom riders from the civil rights movement 0 Parents who discipline children in ways that encourage children to accept personal responsibility for the harm they caused o Urge a helpful response to the victim forceful and punitive discipline leads to selfcentered values Morality Distinguish right from wrong Acton on the distinction Experience pride in virtuous conduct shame over acts that violate standards a lnternalization of standards is vital How develop mentalist look at morality o Affective component emotional 0 Cognitive component rational conceptualization of right and wrong Behavioral component how do we behave when we experience temptation to lie cheat or violate other moral rules Newer Ideas about the Development of the Conscience Toddlers involved in mutually responsive relationships rather than a fear provoking one with parents develop 0 Committed compliance 0 Motivation to comply with rules 0 Sensitivity to parent39s emotional signals of right and wrong 0 Beginning of internalization o Aloof or insensitive parents promote situational compliance Kohlberg39s Theory of Mind Development 0 Used dilemmas requiring choice between obeying rules or disobeying rules while serving a human need 0 Focus was on rationale used to justify decision 0 Stages are in an invariant sequence 0 Level 1 preconventional morality Rules are external and not internalized Conformity is to avoid punishment and morality is selfserving what is right and what one can get away with 0 Stage 1 punishmentand obedience orientation Goodness or badness depends on consequences of actbas acts are punished Stage 2 na39ive hedonism Conform to rules to gain rewards tit for tat collaboration 0 Level 2 Conventional Morality Perspectives of others clearly recognized Obey rules to obtain other39s approval 0 Stage 3 quotgood boyquot or quotgood girlquot orientation Moral behavior pleases helps or is approved of by others 0 Stage 4 socialordermaintaining morality Right conforms to legal authority rules maintain social order not fear of punishment 0 Level 3 Post conventional or principled morality Right and wrong are determined using broad principles of justice that could con ict with written laws 0 Stage 5 The socialcontract orientation Laws should express will of majority and further human welfare if not challenge them 0 Stage 6 morality of individual principles of conscience Individual abstract moral guidelines that transcend laws universal justice Rare a hypothetical construct No longer measured Support for Kohlberg39s Theory 0 Are Kohlberg39s Stages an invariant sequence 0 Individuals do proceed through stages in order 0 Stages are not skipped Stage 3 or 4 is highest level for most people Evidence for Kohlberg39s SocialExperience Hypothesis 0 Parental and peer in uences Evidence for importance of peer in uences especially transitive interactions respectful challenging exchanges in a group context 0 College education is associated with more complex reasoning about moral issues Improved intellect Exposure to diverse perspectives that lead to soul searching Parents contribute more than Kohlberg thought if they presented their reasoning in supportive ways 0 Cultural In uences Complex diverse democratic societies stimulate moral development Criticisms of Kohlberg39s Approach o Is Kohlberg39s theory culturally biased Some aspects of moral development vary among societies 0 Post conventional morality may not exist in some societies Cultural beliefs de ne morality Kohlberg39s theory may relegate people who put the good of society ahead of the good of the individual to lower stages o Is Kohlberg39s theory gender biased o Morality ofjustice for males versus morality of caring for females carol Gilligan Not supported by research Men and women both raise issues of compassion and interpersonal responsibility as well as issues of law andjusUce o Is Kohlberg39s Theory incomplete o Emphasizes moral reasoning cognitive did not focus on moral affect or behavior 0 Thought mature moral reasoning would lead to moral behavior 0 Supported by research 0 Does Kohlberg Underestimate young children 0 Yes because his focus was on legalistic concepts 0 Did not examine distributive justice fair distribution of toys and candy The behavioral component 0 How consistent are moral conduct behavior and moral character 0 Recent research shows that moral behaviors of a particular kind are reasonably consistent 0 Correlation between moral character and moral behavior increases with age 0 Learning to resist temptation o Reinforcement as a determinant of moral conduct 0 Children generally comply with wishes of a warm socially reinforcing adult 0 Praise is also important Role of punishment in establishing moral prohibitions Investigating resistance to temptation o Punishment should be rm 0 Administered immediately and consistently by a warm disciplinarian 0 Reasons for not performing the act should be provided Explaining the effects of cognitive rationales o Reasoning can result in internal attributions guilt harm self image 0 Punishment can lead to external attributions avoid punishment Obey when authority gures are present not in their absence The Ecological Systems Viewpoint Systems theories o It takes more than village 0 It39s complicated like life 0 Bronfenbrenner ecological systems theory Focuses on the contexts for development 0 Many levels and types of Environments Brofenbrenner39s Contexts for Development 0 Macrosystems o Chronosystems Understanding the Family Family 0 Two or more persons related by birth marriage adoption or choice who have emotional ties and responsibilities to each other Socialization 0 Process by which children acquire the beliefs motive values and behaviors considered appropriate by their culture Parental Socialization during childhood and adolescene Two major Dimensions of Parenting 0 Parental acceptanceresponsivenesswarmth 0 Parental demandingnesscontrol Four Parenting Styles Baumrind o Authoritative o Authoritarian o Permissive Two major dimensions of parenting 0 Parental acceptanceresponsiveness warmth 0 Parental demandingnesscontrol Authoritarian Parenting 0 High control low warmth 0 Very restrictive expect obedience 0 Do not explain why limits exist 0 Children tend to be Moody Unhappy Easily annoyed Authoritative Parenting 0 Moderate control high warmth o Controlling but exible Make reasonable demands 0 Provide rationale Democratic 0 Children tend to be Better than average social skills Better than average cognitive skills Autonomous high selfef cacy and selfesteem Generally well adjusted Permissive Parenting 0 Low control high warmth o Accepting but lax few demands little monitoring 0 Children tend to be Impulsive Aggressive Selfcentered Have low in independence Uninvolved Parenting 0 Low control low warmth 0 Extremely lax and undemanding 0 May have rejected their children 0 May be overwhelmed and cannot devote energy to child rearing Children tend to be Aggressive sel sh rebellious Poor performers in school Likely to abuse drugs 0 Control 0 Behavioral Control Versus Psychological Control 0 Firm not authoritarian behavioral control Timeout grounding limiting privileges Tends to lead to wellbehaved children Too much can lead to externalizing behaviors Psychological control Guilt shame or withholding affection Associated with internalizing disorder antisocial behaviors poor academics etc 0 Parents effects or child effects 0 Parent effects model a In uences run from parent to child Supported by research Stressing quotdo39squot not quotdo not39squot 0 Child effects model 0 Children in uence their parents Also supported by research Dif cult children alter caregiving o Transactional Model Socialization is due to reciprocal in uences Research shows parenting in uences children more than children in uences parenting Children do affect parents Understanding the family 0 The family as a social system 0 Children in uences childrearing practices of their parents 0 Networks of reciprocal relationships that are affected by community and cultural in uences 0 Co parenting best for children 0 Mutual supportive of each parents efforts and function as a team 0 Role of extended family Social class and ethnic variations in childrearing Social class differences in child rearing o Economicallydisadvantage and workingclass parents 0 Stress obedience39s and respect for authority 0 Reason with their children less 0 Show less warmth and affection Are more authoritarian Differences due to o Attributes viewed as successful in the workplace and in life Parentchild roles mirror bossworker roles 0 Economic dif culties 0 Increases psychological distress Increase marital con ict Safety and predictability of environment 0 ln harsh environments where mistakes have worse consequences harsh parents may be protective o In unstable environments good parenting does not prevent negative outcomes Ethnic Variations of Child rearing o Collectivistic cultures tend to stress a Maintaining close ties to relatives 0 Strong respect for authority 0 Proper and polite behaviors 0 Different behaviors can be interpreted differently in other cultures Authoritative parenting may not be optimal in all situations 0 Children often understand how other parents act it may not be the particular parenting behaviors so much as their perceived quotnormalityquot and meaning Changes in the family systems when a New baby arrives 0 Mother devotes less warm and playful attention to the older child 0 Child may become dif cult and disruptive o Sibling rivalry often develops Sibling relationships over the course of childhood 0 Fairly quick adjustment to new sibling 0 Con ict is normal and declines with age 0 Less if parents get along 0 Less if parents monitor children39s activities 0 Less if one child is not favored Positive contributions of sibling relationships 0 Older siblings provide caretaking serves to younger brotherssisters o Siblings as providers of emotional support Siblings as Models and teachers 0 Younger sibling learn from older siblings 0 Older siblings improve academic o In uences can be negative as well Characteristics of Only children 0 Relatively high in selfesteem and achievement orientation 0 More obedient and slightly more intellectually competent o Likely to establish good relations with peers Adoptive Families 0 Sensitivity of parents predicts attachment same as with biologically related children 0 Adoptees do have 0 More learning and emotional problems 0 Higher rates of delinquency These are likely due to Environmental incompatibilities Abuseneglect prior to adoption 0 Majority of adopted children are well adjusted o Transracially adopted children also do well intellectually 0 Open adoption 0 Informed about or ability to contact birth parents 0 Positive outcomes Donor Insemination DI Families 0 Fertile women recieiving sperm from an unknown donor 0 Children were as well adjusted as bilogical or adopted children 0 Mothers were warmer more sensitive Fathers were less involved in discipline Gay and Lesbian families 0 Parents are as mentally healthy as any other type of parent 0 No morel likley to molest their children 0 Children are not at risk of being stigmatized 0 Children are no more likely to become homosexual Family Con ict and Divorce 0 Before the Divorce exposrue to martial con ict 0 Con ict produces distress Anxiety depression conduct disorders Direct effects Indirect effects 0 After the divorce crisis and reorganization 1 year or more crisis period Both parents experiences emotional and practical dif culties Psychologically distressed individuals are not the best parents Mothers becomes more coercive Fathers tend to be permissive 0 Children39s reactions 0 Preschoolearly grade school Visible signs of distress May think they caused divorce 0 Older children Tend to withdraw Become involved in delinquent behavior 0 Impact of divorce tends to be stronger and longer lasting for boys 0 May do better if father is the custodial parent 0 Girls may experience more covert distress more dif cult to see 0 Girls may become involved in early sexual behaviors 0 Long term reactions to divorce 0 Most children show healthy patterns of adjustment May still have lingering aftereffects Perceived loss of closeness with parents 0 Fear own marriages will be unhappy 0 Better for a child to be in stable singleparent home than a con ictridden twoparent home 0 Not all divorcing families experience all of the dif culties mentioned Peer In uences Humans are social beings and as such we seek and hope to maintain social relationships 0 Peers provide crucial social relationships 0 Peers have the opportunity for equallittle power differential relationships 0 As children age children spend increasing amounts of time with peers resulting in mutually in uencing social beings Peers as Agents of socialization Who or what is peer and what functions do peers serve 0 Peers social equals operating at similar levels of behavioral complexity 0 Peers as equal status contacts 0 Contribute to social competencies Peer social ability in infancy and toddlerhood 0 Begin interacting in middle of lst year 0 1218 months engaging in complex interactions turn taking 0 18 months coordinated interactions and imitation 0 2024 months verbal component Complementary roles chaser or runner in a tag game 0 Sense of intersubjectivity the ability to share meaning intentions and goals is essential for pretend play 0 23 year olds are more likely to remain near an adult to seek physical affection o 45 year olds direct their social activity toward peers rather than adu s o Sociability during the preschool period 0 Nonsocial activities Declines with age 0 Onlooker play 0 What but do not join 0 Parallel play 0 Play sidebyside little interaction declines with age 0 Associative play 0 Share but do not cooperate to achieve shared goals 0 Cooperative play Collaborate Both associative and cooperative become more common with age 0 Play also becomes more cognitively complex with age Predicts future social competencies Peer sociability in middle childhood and adolescence 0 610 years like formal games 0 Contacts occur in peer groups lnteract on a regular basis Provide a sense of belonging Formulate norms Develop a hierarchical organization Early adolescents 0 Form cliques 48 samesex members sharing values Midadolescents same sex cliques interact forming heterosexual chues Cliques may also merge into crowds similar attitudes and activities 0 Help form an identity pave way for dating relationships 0 Peer acceptance and popularity 0 Peer acceptance extent to which a child is viewed by peers as a worthy or likeable companion Popularliked by many disliked by few Neglected received few nominations as liked or disliked Rejecteddisliked by many liked by few Greatest risk of adjustment problems later in life Peer Rejection People have a need to belong Being rejected leads to a host of negative emotions A failure to bond leads to a lack of caring which can result in giving up on societal norms and rules delinquency Peer Delinquency Peer delinquency of the strongest factors associated with youth deanuency 0 Youth tend to engage in many forms of antisocial behavior together 0 Peers also mutually in uence reinforce one another39s poor behavior Two Processes Involved Selection 0 Children tend to af liate with similar peers they select children who engage in similar Socialization o Delinquent peers socialize modelreinforce antisocial behavior resulting in a child exacerbating current behavior learning new antisocial behaviors Deviancy Training a What is it 0 Learn delinquent behavior through talk of delinquent behavior 0 Peers laugh at delinquent behavior 0 Peers belittle and punish positivenormative behavior 0 Implications for treatment 0 Group therapy 0 With other deviants With prosocial peers Complex model of both PR and PD 0 Problem behavior results in peer rejection 0 Rejected children af liated with other rejected problem behavior children 0 Problem behavior children form a delinquent peer group Delinquent peer group results in the exacerbation of problem behavior SchoolAcademic Factors 0 School Environment 0 Spend a large amounts of time o Crucial for a number of reasons 0 Learning 0 Making friends wo parental input 0 Social norms and rules 0 Structure and guidelines 0 Exposure to different experiences Schooling and cognitive development 0 Children who attend school 0 Achieve cognitive milestones earlier 0 Do better on memory tests 0 More the better Transmits knowledge Teaches problemsolving skills 0 BUT preschool and kindergarten should not be academically focused rather should focus on childcentered social agendas and discovery learning 0 Determinants of Effective Schooling 0 Effective schools promote Academic achievement Social skills Positive attitudes toward learning Low absenteeism Continuation of education beyond required age Acquisition of skills to nd and hold jobs Factors that contribute to effective schooling 0 Monetary support must be applied directly to classroom instruction 0 Class size little effect on achievement 0 Best for students in Klst grade 0 More extracurricular activity 0 Heavily involved 0 Positions of responsibility and leadership 0 Enjoy the experiences Education and developmental transitions 0 Elementary to junior high 0 Loss of selfesteem interest in school declining grades Major physical and psychological changes in time of move Led to development of middle schools 6th8th grades Still lack of t need support Neighborhood Varies in size depending on the community De ned by the people that live there Community the larger context in which the neighborhood is located Neighborhood is more important Affects o How safe one feels o What they see on a daily basis 0 Diet 0 Physical activity 0 Medical assistance including mental health 0 Parent39s and other family member39s behavior Media Internet and Video Games Facts 0 98 of Americans homes have at least one TV 0 Children 311 watch three to four hours of TV per day 0 Boys watch more than girls 0 Ethnic minority children living in poverty are heavy viewers o In moderation not likely to impair Cognitive growth 0 Academic achievement 0 Peer relations Development of TV literacy o One39s ability to understand how information is conveyed on TV 0 Prior to age 8 or 9 process content in a piecemeal fashion 0 Dif culty understanding chain of events Tend to focus on actions zoom cuts fastpaced action loud music Younger than age 7 dif culty with ctional nature ofTV Potentially Undesirable Effects of TV 0 Effects of Televised Violence Majority of programs contain repeated aggression and violence 0 No remorse shown by or penalty given to perpetrator Research suggests violent programs causes increase in aggression among peers o Argument for why TV and video games not that in uential People know it is not real 0 Many people watchplay and don39t engage in violent behavior However 0 Seeing behavior over and over helps quotdesensitizequot and individual from the behavior 0 Watching violent programming leads to less physiological arousal in 810 year olds watching kindergarteners getting into ghts Does TV violence instigate aggression 0 Positive correlation is well demonstrated 0 Experimental results show quotyesquot 0 57 year old boys commit 7 times more aggressive acts after watching The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 0 Longitudinal studies show the relationship is reciprocal MeanWorldBeliefs o Tendency to view the world as a violent place where people typically rely on aggressive solutions to problems 0 79 year olds who prefer violent television show the highest rates of meanworld beliefs Television Viewing and Children39s Health 0 One of the strongest predictors of future obesity is the mount of time spent watching TV 0 Also promotes poor eating habits o Snacking during TV eat what is advertised Television as an Educational Tool 0 Educational TV and Children39s prosocial behavior 0 Watching prosocial programming lead to more prosocial behavior Only lasting effects if adult monitors programs and encourages actions TV as a Contributor to Cognitive Development 0 Limited research on very young children 0 Preschool children sesame street 0 Improved cognitive skills 5 letters vocabulary writing prereading skills Bene cial for all children regardless of SES Computers in the Classroom 0 Computerassisted instruction 0 Discovery programs presented as games are best drills still necessary 0 Word processing programs 0 Increases writing skills 0 Noteorganizing software also helpful Beyond the Classroom bene ts of internet exposure 0 Internet availabilityuse Increased academic achievement among disadvantaged students 0 Social bene ts 0 Online communication promotes cIoser friendships 0 Health Bene ts 0 Source of health information Concerns about computers 0 Concerns about video games 0 Moderate correlation between playing violent video games and realworld aggression Actively involved in performing violence Reinforced for successful symboIic vioIence May be more serious than TV violence 0 Experimental evidence for hostile attribution bias 0 Concerns about pornography and sexual exploration Frequent viewing leads to Objecti cation of women Thinking of sex without affection Increased tolerance of aggression toward women Being more accepting of premarital and extramarital sex 0 Other concerns about Internet exposure 0 Internet is a recruiting told for cults and hate organizations 0 Online bullying 15 of teens isoIate themselves and rer on onIine contact with strangers for socialization


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