Popular in World Geography
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Geography
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Africa Breakup of Pangaea Africa Gondwanaland remains in the same place causing no mountain ranges of high elevation 75 Plateau surface little to no beachfront o Complicated natural transportation Atlas Mountains 0 Dry snowfall at high elevation named after Greek god Atlas Drakensberg Mountains 0 Rainfall lush Guinea Highlands 0 West Africa gold and diamonds o Bauxite is found in abundance 0 Makes aluminum Adamawa Highlands 0 Active volcanic activity 0 Had thriving iron age civilization developed iron tools and agriculture 0 Source of Bantu migrations spread bantu language throughout eastern and southern Africa still dominant language Ethiobian Highlands 0 Formed from volcanic activity 0 East Africa is Africa s most tectonically active area Coffee is a major crop original home of coffee it is native here 0 Rich volcanic soil tropical location slightly higher elevation lsolated volcanic peaks of east Africa 0 Africa s highest elevation Mt Kilimanjaro 19340 ft 0 Has a snow cap but they are disappearing because of global climate change and global warming Great rift valley large chunks of eastern Africa drop in elevation causing valleys o Caused many lakes Result of depth Lake Rudolf Lake albert Lake Edward Lake kiva Lake Tanganyika largest and deeper U39lbUUNH 6 Lake Malawi Lake Victoria 0 Not a rift valley lake largest in terms of surface area Nile River 0Worlds longest river 0 White Nile and blue Nile come together to form it 0 Exotic stream stream or river that does something we don t expect it to do 0 Flowing from humid to dry area 0 Fertile ood plain Aswan high dam created Lake Nasser 0 Wanted to guarantee that Egypt had access to the Nile river water 0 Negative effects of damming putting human control instead of mother nature has slowed down ow of river Increasing salt content salinization Affected soil fertility Algae Stagnant water cause mosquitos Snails carry atworms that enter bloodstream of farmer o Bilharzia schistosomiasis parasitic condition that causes fatigue can cause internal bleeding and death Niger River 0 Starts in winter tropical climate and starts to dry out winds back through and empties out into more topical areas 0 Runs dry along its course in Mali Inland delta Critical area for wildlife Empties into gulf of Guinea Niger river delta is fertile in oil and natural gas Congo River 0 2nOI largest river in world in terms of volume of water it carries Rapids and waterfalls gives hydroelectric potential 0 111th of the worlds hydroelectric potential Matadi is a port you have to unload cargo on train to take it to Kinshasa because you cant go upstream the Congo river Zambezi River 0Kariba dam hydroelectric potential 0 Victoria falls 0 quotThe smoke that thundersquot named after indigenous people 0 Named by David Livingstone after his queen Africa39s Ancient States Northern third is dominated by Sahara desert o Dominated by Arab and Berber people 0 Dominated by Islam Southern 23 region is known as black Africa 0 Dominated by Christianity and animism 10 degrees north latitude is where the country splits into northern and southern Oral tradition as oppose to written tradition 0 Pieces may be lost due to inaccuracy or distort the truth its mortal Ancient Ghana western Africa Mali empire replaced it 0 Had contact with countries that had written traditions o Arabs and Berbers made way across Sahara came down in camel caravans to make contact with west African savannah empires Came for cultural reasons and trade they brought salt Gold they got from trade became the primary source of gold Ivory from tusked mammals became traded Ebony darker colored hard wood 0 Cross Saharan route was the rst slave trade route The slave trade and the damage done 0 East African route sailors established slave trade route last one to be shut down TransAtlantic route established by the Europeans in 14005 they were looking for direct route to India 0 Looked as Africans for source of agriculture labor 0 Triangle trade Americas Europe Africa 0 Took them to Caribbean brazil and southern US Damage estimates 3035 million Africans taken from Africa 0 Taken into slavery or killed The age of colonialism and imperialism Began to look at Africa for resources Overriding goal was exploitation of African resources quotthe scramblequot White mans burden Europeans needed to go in and civilize Africans Con ict between Europeans became very real o Otto von Bismarckdecided to host a conference for European powers to settle their disputes called the Berlin conference The legacy of colonialism imperialisg o Imperialism was worse to Africa than slavery 0 Ignored Africa s cultural diversity and history 0 Drawn in berlin Germany with zero reps from Africa OAU organization of African unityin charter of OAU that states boundaries at time of independent cannot change 0 Saves con ict prevent balkanization 0 Created multinational states and stateless nations 0 Political independence came but they didn t receive economic independence due to nature of imperialism 0 Lack of industrial development leads to debt 0 1960 17 of Africa s countries got their independence o It came very quickly with little preparation Current lssue in Africa ln the Sahel region Sahara desert is growing southward 0 Over farming and over grazing causes top soil erosion and ooding that kills fertility of soil Famine because of droughts Rural to urban migration 0 Building up on outskirts of slums and shantytowns 0 Tropical deforestation because of cutting down to make room for large scale commercial projects 0 Causes endangerment and extinction o Madagascar is very unique and is being wiped out due to habitat loss HIVlAIDS 0 25 million people that are infected with HIV o It is a pandemic it is a social disease because it is spread through sex and drug use 0 First hit hard in east Africa Uganda but now changed to South Africa Botswana 0 Spread through contact with bodily uid Primarily spread through heterosexual contact in Africa 0 Life expectancy collapsed from 60 to 39 in 5 years 0 Causes quotbrain drainquot phenomenon to increase because they are dying off 0 Anti retroviral cocktails are being made to try and prolong dormancy period to offset AIDS 0 They are expensive North Africa Morocco Good relationship with US 0 First non European country to recognize US as an independent country Western Sahara Spanish withdrew in 1976 o group ghting for western Sahara independence 0 Morocco ghts against Polisario they left the OAU because the OAE claimed they were breaking boundary laws 0Largest deposits of naturally occurring phosphates 0 Important components of fertilizers Algeria 0 Largest country on Africa in terms of land area 0 Very valuable for French because they wanted cultural imperialism oquotCivilizing missionquot 0 Wanted to try and assimilate the elite African natives to help them run the colonies Large French expatriate population because of the close proximity and similar climate the France 0 Algerian Civil War war for independence France never wanted Algeria to gain independence and native Algerians did 0 8 year war cost 1 million lives 0 President Charles Degalle stated that Africa needed independence and withdrew support for French 0 Oil and natural gas reserves Tu ia Tourism destination 0 Ruins of ancient Carthage 0 Desert scenes from Star Wars lmed here 0 Arab Spring in 2011 because of long standing corrupt dictatorships 0 President Ben All had been in power 23 years the economic prospects were bad unemployment rate was almost 50 He stepped down Libya 0 Muammar Gaddafi came to power in 1969 used oil to fund international terrorist operations 0 countries that present threats to peace and stability 0 2011 Libyan people saw opportunity to go to Tripoli and Benghazi to remove the dictator 0 Rebels captured and killed him Egypt oArab spring protests 0 To removed dictator Mubarak they went to Cairo and tahrir Square military forced Mubarak to step down Morsi came to power he had ties to Muslim brotherhood and Islamic fundamentalist group 0 Forced out of office in 2013 0 Military took control of Egypt Under intense population distribution 0 Nile river and Nile Delta area 0 Major producer of Rice and long staple cotton Sudan 0 Use to be one country and now its Sudan and South Sudan Disadvantage of size 0 Have to invest into communication and transportation 0 You begin to straddle transition zones Christian minority and Muslim Majority 0 Civil war Arab Muslims dominated government black Christians fought against them 0South wanted independence 99 o Violates OAU charter of boundaries 0Focus went to people living in Darfur wanted to leave Arab Muslim government the Sudanese government went in and committed genocide on the Darfur people Western Africa Cote d39 lvoire French in uence Original capital was Abidjan 0 quotParis of Africaquot o It was moved to quotYamoussoukroquot quotIntroduced capitalquot capital that was moved Picked because it was the hometown of Felix HouphouetBoigny After his death things began to deteriorate into civil war Cacao production Ghana 0 First country to gain independence under black leadership 0 Independence leader was Kwame Nkrumah Wanted African countries to work together to rid in uence of Europe Important gure in nonaligned movement 0 Didn t want to choose side in cold war between US and Soviets Jerry Rawlings came to power after overthrowing Kwame 0 Wanted to transition Ghana back to democracy 0 1996 Ghana had transitioned to multiparty democracy Nigeria 0 160 million people largest population in Africa Signi cant oil reserves oAfrica s largest economy 0 Government is corrupt o Kleptocracy has kept oil from bene ting people oEthnic tension between Yoruba Hausa Fulani lbo Southwest ChristianMuslim North Half Muslim Southeastern Christian Biafra war became a disaster lbos starved to death 0 North south religion split o Moved capitol city from Lagos to Abuja to not show favoritism to any state Sharia Law based on religion of Islam 0 5 Sunni and 4 Shi a Plays peacekeeping role in regional leader Equatorial Afrlg o a lot of the wealth is in the hands of few individuals Cameroon Gabon 0 Per capita gures are skewed because of some people who make a lot more money than the average Equatorial Guinea Central African Republic o Darfur refuge crisis o Corrupt leadership oJeanBedel Bokassa had backing from French They backed his coup d tat and took power He declared himself Emperor Bokassa l Renamed country Central African Empire 0 Spent millions on ceremony to crown himself that the whole countries GDP He was overthrown Congo Republic 0 Capitol is Brazzaville 0 During WWII played host to conference of free French resistance leaders Talked about status of Frances transition plan for African colonies 0 French colonies in Africa supported the free French resistance that fought against Nazis and Vichy French government Democratic Republic of the Congg 0 Lots of resources 0 Congo river basin for freshwater hydroelectric potential agricultural lands for cotton palm and oil 0 Huge reserves of copper and cobalt gold diamonds natural gas uranium o Ran terribly by the Belgium s 0 Southern provinces tried to secede 0 Joseph Mobutu sese seko emerged as leader and ran country into ground 0 Stole 515 billion dollars during his time in power 0 Changed name of country to Zaire o Laurent Kabila entered country and took over rebel forces Had backing from Uganda and Rwanda 0 Gave him money and weapons in an effort to gain support from him 0 He refused to help them and they began to back another rebel group 0 Angola Namibia and Zimbabwe began to back Kabila in civil war 0 He was assassinated by bodyguards Referred to as quotAfrica s rst world warquot East Africa Rwanda Northern Burundi southern o Hutu and Tutsi 0 German colony given over as league of nations mandates 0 Given to Belgian o Belgians classi ed Hutus as shorter and farmers Tutsi were taller and slender typically ranchers o Hutus were native to this area Tutsi were more similar to Sahel region 0 Belgians favored Tutsi 1974 Rwanda had rst Hutu president in power 1994 president of Rwanda and Burundi were on same plane it was blown up and killed both presidents Hutus organized to kill all Tutsis set of Rwandan genocide o Back red because Tutsi s took upper hand 0 1996 Burundi civil war 0 Demographic response viciousness of genocide was because densely populated country Uganda 0 Milton Obote was overthrown by ldi Amin Dada o ldi Amin allowed hijacked plane to be landed at airport in Entebbe o Scapegoated south Asian minority when economy started failing Forcibly kicked them out of the country Accused of cannibalism 0 After failed invasion of Tanzania Ousted him from power O 0 Kenya Tanzania 0Savanna tall grassland with scattered trees 0 Home to Africa s mammalian fauna Elephant giraffes lion hippo 0Poaching illegal hunting 0 Big demand for horns and ivory 0 These countries have set aside large national reserves to help the animals 0 Serengeti national park 0 Mt Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania SOUTHERN AFRICA Angola 0 Portuguese colony o No intention to give colonies independence 0 Had wars for independence 0 Cold war 0 Cuba sent troops here 0 Sizable oil reserves 0 Exclave of Cabinda Has access to Atlantic Barely separated away from country Zambia 0 Resources hasn t done them many favors 0 Copper cobalt 0 Made them a monoeconomic state because they are so dependent on copper International price of copper collapse and ruined economy 0 Part of copper belt Malawi 0 President visited to Texas State Mozambique 0 Portuguese colony 0 Had a war for independence like Angola 0 Don t have as much resources as Angola 0 Classi ed as poorest country on entire planet in 90 s oTropical cyclone in 1999 Zimbabwe 0 British empire 0 Known as southern Rhodesia 0 Had white minority population Primarily engaged in farming o Whites declared themselves independent republic of Rhodesia 0 They were not successful 0 1980 Zimbabwe won independence 0 Robert Mugabe was president Land reform program that devastate economy 0 Sent people to Squat on farms and it took land out of production 0 Had one of the worlds highest rates of hyperin ation It was very bad 0 400000 US dollar is official currency today Cholera epidemic HIVAIDS pandemic Morgan Tsvangirai shared power with Robert Mugabe Botswana 0 Politically stabled since independence 0 Economically stable and prosperous 0 Best credit rating 0 Managing debt 0 Primary source of income is diamonds o Managed by Debswana 0 0 o HIVAIDS pandemic one of the hardest hit countries 0 Free antiretroviral drug program Republic of South Africa 0 Africa s most advanced economy 0 Industrialized 0 Major manufacturing sector 0 Mineral resources included gold and diamonds 0 Diamond found in Kimberly set off diamond rush Diamond cooperation De Beers Only allow certain amount of diamonds on the market at any given time o Compromise that came out of union of south Africa 0 Decided to divide capital city into 3 cities Cape town Pretoria Bloemfontein 3 branches of capitals into 3 different cities Ruled by white minority on 1954 o Apartheid policies 0 quotSeparatenessquot of races Whites and non whites o 1994 nelson Mandela elected as president Lesotho 0 Perforated state 0 South Africa is perforated state and Lesotho is doing the perforating Swaziland 0 HIVAIDS pandemic oAuthoritative government Namibia 0 quotGerman south west Africaquot 0 Was a League of nations mandate given to south Africa 0 United nations tried to convert mandates into trusteeships 0 South Africa moved toward annexation of Namibia Would have been bad because apartheid would have spread Madagascar 0 Island biogeography 0 One of the most unique senses of bio diversity 0 80 species found in Madagascar only 0 Tropical deforestation is a big problem Europe Lecture Mountainous Region Pyrenees Mountain OBasques different culturally unique languages bares similarities to central Asia 0 Basque and Spain have problems Basque want autonomy OETA Basque terrorist group use terrorism to try and gain their own country decided to give up violence m 0 Alpine derived from alps 0 Steep slopes and jagged peaks young mountain range 0 Good amount of precipitation leads to hydro electricity O A lot of water and steep elevation needed 0 Cheap renewable relatively clean Apennines 0 In Italy 0 High risk for earthquakes measures force of earthquake logarithmic scale based on powers of 10 Carpathian and Transylvanian Alps 0 Form crescent shape in Transylvanian valley 0 Vlad tripas Dracula prince in 1400 s Dracula modeled after him 0 Ottoman empire pushed to southeast Europe wanted to conquer region engaged in cultural diffusion ottomans were Muslim Islam Vlad fought back against Ottoman empire 3 ottomans died rest were taken as POWs 0 Used POWs as message they impaled them dipped bread in soldiers blood Kjloen Mountains Scands 0 Heavily sculpted by glaciation high altitude high latitude 0 jagged narrow ways in Norway formed by glaciers North European Plain United Kingdom 0 Birthplace of the industrial revolution in the mid 1700 s OManchester Leeds and Birmingham 0 Rich coal deposits used and energy source machine power 0 Motivated British to expand empire instead of ignoring or giving independence you are granting local autonomy while still remaining part of economy compromise Republic of Ireland 0 Smaller population today than it did in 1840 0 Used to be part of British empire Irish independence movement started to begin 0 Irish Free state first step of beginning to become republic of Ireland 0 Ireland is predominately Roman Catholic under British rule it was under Protestant beliefs In northern Ireland they have protestant majorities 0 Northern Ireland 60 4O split between Catholic and Protestant started con ict known as Troubles OIRA Irish Republic Army terrorist group catholic group gave up violence 0 This wasn t a religious con ict they were fighting over haves vs have not s protestants have power and wealth Catholics had nothing 0 Staple crop is potato failed in 1840 s because of too much rain Caused fungus Blight that rotted potatoes crop in ground O same crop planted in massive amounts 0 1 million Irish starved to death many moved to Australia new Zeeland America OIrelands economy started to grow in 1990 s 0 Good work force cost of living is low which means lower wages Celtic Tiger Portugal 0 Major early leader in age of exploration in mid 1400 s 0 Wanted to establish direct trade with Asia I Cut ottomans out of trade with Asia 0 Capitol of Portugal was struck by earthquake and tsunami 5m 0 1700 s under control of moors O732 Moorish advances stopped by Charles Martel in the battle of tours l Moors were good at mathematics and Spanish style architecture 0 1492 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabelle of Castile s got married and combined country s to create Spain Battle of Granada l Modern Spain born I Funded Christopher Columbus France 0 Mediterranean climate gets its name form Mediterranean Sea 0 Dry summer and wet winter 0 35 degree latitude west coast 0 Frost free climates make it suitable for citrus crops 0 1 Wheat thrives bc primarily dry 0 2 Grapes viticulture wine 0 30lives to create olive oil 0 Paris France is the primate city 0 Napoleon Bonaparte wanted it to be his Rome put Paris in hub of his French empire My 0 No primate city 0 Milan is economic powerhouse of Italy 0 Rome doesn t have in uence that it did 2000 years ago 0 Vatican city smallest city on entire planet Roman catholic church 0 Modern Italy is relatively new popes became concerned with rise in political power 0 1929 Lateran Treaty separation of church and state Vatican city and Italy Switzerland OMountainous 90 terrain 0 Small landlocked country surrounded by powerful countries 0 Culturally diverse in language 4 major groups 0 German French Italian and romance 0 Most peaceful and prosperous countries 0 Gave all language groups official status I Helped prevent socio economic differences from lining up with linguistic con icts specialize industries producing specialized products for specialized markets fill particular role for particular demand 0 Higher quality products product loyalty high precision 0 Time pieces watches and clocks 0 Chocolate Austria 0 German language 0 Capital is Vienna 0 Music 0 Center of classical movements I Mozart Beethoven Strauss My 0 Largest population within Europe s boundaries 0 Largest economy on European continent 0 Post industrial 0 Major produces of steel chemicals large automobile industries Audi Benz BMW Volkswagen 0 Required to repay billions to allies to help offset cost of war on top of rebuilding their own country as punishment for starting world war I Treaty of Versailles 39 Caused one of the worst rates of in ation O Nationalist socialist workers party Nazis l Adolf Hitler was president 39 Needed to get German people on their side Hitler went to Ferdinand Porsche to design a car for the people 0 Had to be cheap cheap to operate great gas mileage because of little oil reserves 0 Started WWII lost in 1945 l Allies decided to rebuild Germany into a peaceful ally divided Germany into 4 zones American British French Soviet 0 Soviets insisted communist governments East Germany 0 American British French West Germany 0 Berlin was in East Germany but west Germany owned west side 0 Berlin airlift O 1961 soviets built berlin wall to separate east and west 0 1980 s Communist Gov started being dismantled peacefully O 1989 Berlin wall came down 0 1990 Reunified east and west Germany 39 Spent 17 trillion on reunification 0 European Union super nationalism economic union Germany is a leader in the EU 24 countries Belgium 0 sovereign entity with recognized boundaries Country 0 group of people with a shared cultural in history who identify with each other and feel as if they belong together O a nation with a state wrapped around it one state whose population is made up of almost entirely one nation ex Japan 0 Politically stability threatened because it is 1 state and 2 nations Flemish Flemish and Walloons French 0 Flemish overtake Walloons threatens Belgium Netherlands 0 Sometimes referred to as Holland regions within Netherlands 0 Dutch 0 Demographic pressure Large population Gov has pressure immigration 0 Engaged in land reclamation from the north sea Dam Sea wall to separate inlet from rest of sea piece of land drained from sea 0 O OZuider Zea reclaiming 0 Great at managing ooding and storm surging Dutch engineers are good at ood control Scandinavia 0 Denmark Iceland Norway Sweden 0 Language Religion Lutheranism Denmark O territories exist in two or more separate pieces 0 Have to overcome separation have to invest in transportation and communication Iceland 0 Formed from volcanic activity numerous active volcanoes here still 0 Surtsey named after fire giant active volcano 0 Use volcanoes to create using heat from within earth to generate electricity I Renewable resource Norway 0 Prosperous wealthy society 0 Small country population wise 5 million people 0 Leading exporter of oil 0 Don t consume a lot of oil themselves 0 99 of electricity is used through hydro electricity O retirement account for the entire country deposit money for exporting oil into account used for investment I Cannot invest into any nuclear weapons I Invest in environmentally focused technologies I 800 billion Sweden 0 healthcare programs take care from birth to death education from pre k to college paid for by the government pension paid for by Gov Long maternity leave for mother and father 0 Paid for by high taxes lowest brackets start out at 40 45 0 Invest a lot in preventative care 0 Heavy manufacturing high iron ore deposits in Kiruna Finland 0 Speak Finnish part of Finno Ugric language Nordic 0 Heavily sculpted by glaciation thousands of lakes 0 attening out river beds making them atter and shallower I Swamps marshes and wetlands I Played a key role in telecommunication 0 Nokia 0 Software companies developing apps Rovio Baltic Republics Estonia Latvia Lithuania 0 Internal republics in soviet union OForcibly absorbed by soviet union 0 First three to leave soviet union when it broke up OAnti Russian O moving ethnic Russians into the republics did with hopes to build up Russian majority to keep it tied together for Russian rule 0 Become members of NATO European Union to get away from Russia Poland geography of international relations 0 Soviets liberated eastern Europe form the Nazis O Soviets tasked with process of rebuilding after war 39 Wanted to promote communist ideology I Use countries in eastern Europe as defensive buffers 0 Soviets lost 20 million lives I Formed military alliance known as counter alliance to NATO Soviet Satellite countriesDissolved in late 80 s 0 Poland Czechs and Hungary are doing the best today OCommunism fell peacefully many realigned westward and became members of NATO Czech Slovakia 0 Multi national state One state 2 Nations Czechs and Slovaks O Czechs dominated politically and economically O Slovaks treated as second class dumping ground I Very bad sites 0 1993 Czechoslovakia separated O very peaceful easy separation no violence 0 Czech republic done well for itself building up economy moving toward progressive democracy 0 Slovakia authoritarian Gov strict civil liberties Hungary 0 Economy started slowing down in the 21St century 0 Burdened by debt 0 Magyar Finno Ugric language Belarus 0 Economically and politically worse after breakup of Soviet Union 0 Contemplating reunion with Russia I Russia is major supplier of oil they threaten to cut off oil to Belarus 0 Harsh winters Ukraine 0 Russia refers to it as The Ukraine 0 President of Ukraine made nationalist mad by passing on a trade with the union and opted for a deal with Russia 0 Took him out of office made Russia mad I Concerned with Crimean Peninsula I 1954 Crimean transferred to Ukraine high percentage of ethnic Russians location on black sea made it valuable 0 Still causing fighting and tension today I Sevastopol Russian naval base in Crimean OKiev Capital 0 1986 Chernobyl worlds worst commercial nuclear accident 0 Cooling system and reactor failed fire started radioactive material spilled and went into atmosphere 0 Soviets were very secretive they kept it to themselves I Sweden had been a big proponent of nuclear power they monitored huge amounts of radiation in upper atmosphere I France claimed they didn t detect any radiation on the atmosphere because they were pro nuclear power 0 Largest in land area completely in Europe s boundaries smaller than the state of Texas 0 Affects perception of distance Moldova 0 Romanian republic within the soviet union Romania 0 Romanian language is a romance family language 0 Roots in Latin 0 Romania was under dictatorship of nicolae Ceausescu allied with soviets he was interested in his own power 0 He wanted to stay in power Romanian power stormed palace and took Ceausescu and his wife and executed him on Christmas 1989 Bulgaria 0 People eXpect immediate changes after change in government they get frustrated when it doesn t happen 0 Positive pro Russian sentiment 0 Bulgaria was under control of Ottoman Empire in 1878 is was liberated by armies of Russia 0 Russia considers them to be protectors of the Slavic people in eastern Europe Greece 0 Have access to strategic waterways between black sea and Mediterranean 0 Greece and Turkey have never gotten along 0 Island of Cyprus has caused con ict population is mostly Greek with a Turkish minority 0 Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect the population I Turkish Cypriot declared them independent But they had no recognition only Turkey recognizes them 0 Ancient Greek civilizations was politically organized as group of 100s of city states ex Athens and Sparta Singapore O Invented direct democracy one man one vote 0 Hit hard by global economic downturn and debt crisis by European Union 0 A lot of social programs with high tax evasion that built up debt 0 Accepted bailouts from EU Albania 0 Poorest country in Europe 0 Political isolation self imposed 0 Very little to do with outside world 0 Recently started to emerge 0 Cultural imperialism with Ottoman Empire 0 About 70 of population are Muslims Former Yugoslav Republics 0 Formed in aftermaths of WI 0 Area of instability powder keg 0 Kingdom dominated by Serbs 0 During WWII occupied by Nazis 0 Only eastern European country to liberate themselves 0 Led by Marshal J osip Broz Tito became leader of Yugoslavia I It functioned well under his leadership because he was a Yugoslav nationalist I Successfully resisted soviet attempts to make Yugoslavia a satellite country I After he died in 1980 Yugoslavia started breaking apart Serbs began to dominate again 0 Slovenia and Croatia were first 2 countries to leave 0 Slovenia got out with little Violence and most prosperous 0 Croatia experienced more Violence longer road to rebuilding became newest member of the EU 0 Macedonia left without a fight Greeks were concerned with their Macedonia uniting with the country Macedonia 0 Bosnia and Kosovo Violence began to escalate because of Slobodan Milosevic wanted Bosnia and Kosovo to stay they believed Muslims were causing problems 0 Began ethnic cleansing to get rid of Muslims over 500000 lives lost 0 ridding the earth of a specific group of people 0 Serbia refused to acknowledge Kosovo s independence 0 Montenegro peacefully broke away in 2006 0 process of one country becoming many due to religions and ethnic lines often Violent o regions of chronic instability Yugoslavia Southwest Asia Zagros Mountains Elburz Desert semi arid landscape 0 Signi cant snowfall in the winter 0 Created as a result of tectonic movement under the Arabian plate 0 Earthquake risk frequent and severe Asir Mountains 0 Gentler slopes rounded peaks wettest area in Saudi Arabia still pretty dry Mild conditions attractive for wealthy Saudis to avoid the extreme heat 0 Higher elevation and orographic effect help Mesolootamia quotLand between the two riversquot o Euphrates and Tigris o Cradles of western civilization great ancient areas where ideas emerge and spread outward around the globe ex irrigation wheel writing agriculture Sumerian civilization and Babylonian empire dominated 0 Area of value and con ict geographic advantages 0 Development of agriculture changed many things Broad river ood plains fertile soil Plateau of Saudi Arabia 0 Its eastern edge marks a signi cant boundary line in uences oil distribution 0 8qu of southwest Asia s oil is in the Persian gulf 0 Eastern lowlands 0 Oil comes from o Remains of microorganism ancient plants 0 Plants would die and go to sea oor and get covered by sediment heat and pressure transforms organic material to fossil fuels Tethys sea ancient precursor of Mediterranean and Persian gulf IO Plateau of Iran Very few people living here because of climate 0 Hot summers bitter winters always dry 0 Difficult to survive in Turkey 0 Ottoman empire expanded in Turkey 0 After it peaked it gradually began shrinking from far areas inward o 1914 WWI ottomans were allies were Germany Austria Hungary came out on losing side Lost much of its territory 0 Revolution led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk father of the Turks Vision for modern secular state dramatic political change Secular countryseparation of church and state Turkey is predominately Muslim Wanted to use Europe as their model for post ottoman empire turkey Strongly in favor ofjoining EU Stateless nations of the Kurds is affecting it Kurdish groups in turkey has hurt their reputation 0000 0 Iran 0Speak a language called Farsi 0 Completely different language family than Arab 0 Was center of Persian empire major power 0 monarch title 0 Shah Mohammed reza Pahlavi overthrown in 1940 s by a coup de tau 0 Put back into office by British and Americans Wanted to bring Iran into the 20th century by westernization Conservative religious elements 0 Islam is the second largest religion on planet Sunni Islam 85 and Shia Islam 15 WORLDWIDE Sunni 10 Shia 90 ISLAM Sunnis wanted whoever was best quali ed when Muhammad died Shia wanted a blood relative Shia is more strict interpretation and conservative Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomenini went into exile in London 0 SAVAK secret police agency brutal executions won more opposition for the shah o 1979 Islamic revolution Ayatollah came back to lead Turned it into Islamic republic Church and state are one in the same 0 Almost a true theocracy 1980 1988 Iran was attacked by Iraq Iraq was taking advantage of revolution because Iran was weak 0 No boundary changes 1 million deaths 0 US was involved through the Iran Contra Scandal 0 contain both threats by using them against each other making sure they are both weak 0 Nuclear program they claim they are doing it for peaceful purposes of electricity 0 racl Saddam Husain wanted a south western corner of Iran 0 Shatt al Arab narrow coastline that Iraq has to sea they wanted more expanse to a larger coastline 0 1988 cease re signed between Iraq and Iran 0 2 years later Saddam invaded Kuwait because he claimed it was historically a part of Iraq and boundary disputes dispute over shared resources that spread over a boundary Rumailia Oil eld Iraq accused Kuwait of slant drilling operations 0 1990 US told Iraq to get out of Kuwait they built up an army force outside of Kuwait Issued ultimatum launched operation desert storm Stopped short of taking Saddam Husain out of power Supposed to let UN come in and inspect for destructive weapons 0 March 2003 US invaded Iraq took him out of power Iraq is now on the verge of political collapse 0 Kuwait 0Massive debt load for liberation o 15 billion they paid it all off 0 Environmental cost of war is extremely detrimental o Impacts air water animals 0 During their retreat in Desert Storm Iraqis planted explosives on oil wells they set them off causing them to catch re Cooled temps several degrees below average E Took millions of barrels of oils and poured it into the Persian Gulf Saudi Arabia 0 261 billion barrels of oil in proven reserves 0 Much greater demand than Venezuela because of dif culty and crude re nement Oil is under natural pressure causing it to rise to the surface 0 Absolute monarchy what the king says goes strict interpretation of sunniislam repressive society 0 State religion 0 Illegal for women to drive strict to criminals 0 Provide a lot of services for citizens 0 Social welfare programs health care education utilities are subsidized cheap gas Paid for by oil revenues Low to non existent taxes Qatar oRapidly becoming most wealthy society on planet 0 Natural gas reserves 3rd largest proven reserves 0 Most natural gas is found in the north eld non associated nding it as natural gas alone nding it along with oil reserves Usually transport gas through pipelines but they invested in LNG lique ed natural gas to get it far places United Arab Emirates 0 Composed of 7 emirates Abu Dhabi serves as capital for entire country 0 Most powerful because its largest and contains most of the countries oil 0Dubai major center for international trade and commerce 0 Rapid period of modernization and growth 0 Home to worlds largest building burj Dubai Symbolizes what they are capable of Crashed real estate market in Dubai 0 5 pillars of Islam 0 Zakat giving aims to charity give 25 of income to charitable causes Oman Musandam Peninsula owned by Oman 0 Valuable because it gives them control navigable channel over Strait of Hormuz o 20 of worlds oil supply passes through here oRich maritime traditions good sailors explored lndian ocean 0 Shared info with Europeans about the Indian ocean Yemen Bab el Mendeb Strait 0 Port city called Aden along it USS Cole docked here AlQaeda detonated explosives and killed several Americans in Summer of 2000 0 Active in War on Terror Israd o purpose was to nd a Jewish homeland o Started lobbying major powers like British and France to help nd a place forJews 0 British considered Uganda 0 1914 British made deals during WWI o Balfour Declaration agreed to make nding Jewish 0 Homeland a priority in this area of the world take territory away from losers in WWI and given over to winners tasked to make territories independent 0 British won Palestine Important because it was the holy land Jews started moving here 45 of population British turns it over to the UN 0 UN partitioned Palestine intoJews and Arabs and kept Jerusalem as a UN territory 1948 Arabs attackJews because they didn t like the deal Israel won and expanded land they also won Jerusalem Jordan is in control ofJordan west bank and Palestinians don t have control of anything 0 1967 six day war between Israel and Egypt Jordan and Syria 0 Israel wins and comes in control of the occupied territories 0 West bank eastJerusalemJordan o Gaza Strip Egypt 9 a I H I S E Nothing to do with Palestinians o Israel and Egypt signed camp David accords Peace agreement Hamas and Israel don t get along 0 They cant negotiate Israel considers Hamas to be terrorist lordan Countries are reluctant to take in refugees 0 Food water shelter medicine Palestinian refugees o Israel refuses to budge on return of refugees Syria Syrian Civil War numerous countries rise up to try and overthrow dictatorships o Bashar al Assad dictator that ruled He fought back Alawaites mystical from of Shia Islam minority Uses chemical weapons on people Lebanon 0 French wanted the Christian population to be in the majority Baking and nance capitol Beirut Paris of the middle east 0 Major tourist destination 0 1960 5 demographic shift 0 Christian majority went to minority by Muslims They remained in political control of country 0 1975 Lebanese civil war between Christian government and Muslim rebels o Hezbollah Shi ite Muslim terrorist group 0 Wrecked country and economy of Lebanon 0 Beirut became a warzone EAST ASIA Pamir Knot 0 Himalayas Kunlun shan tien shan Hindu Kush Created by Indian subcontinent that causes tectonic activity oYoung rugged ranges jagged highest peaks on the entire planet 0 Hindu Kush dominate Afghanistan difficult area to move through harsh climate harsh dry summers and cold winters o Soviet invaded Brezhnev doctrine said that no communist Gov could be overthrown Soviets tried to reinstall government Guerrilla warfare element of surprise Helped drag the war on Nicknamed the graveyard of empires because of the difficulty of terrain Tien Shan quotmountains of heavenquot because they are so tall 0 Kunlun Shan forms northern tier of largest and highest plateau region Tibet often referred to as the roof of the world Himalayas tallest mountain peaks in the entire plant 0 Home to Mount Everest Northeast China Plain Heavy manufacturing 0 Lots of metallic resources Iron copper coal quotManchurian Plainquot 0 Not an approved name by Chinese government They don t want reference to the last dynasty 0 Last imperial dynasty originated here quotManchusquot North China Plain Huang He yellow river Great ancient culture hearth o Cradle of eastern civilization Home of Huang He river Written record that is continuous and reliable rst Chinese state emerged here and has remained Broad river ood plain river is good for resources builds up rich soil Loess soils sediments that have been carried and built up by wind 0 O Productive agriculturally Wheat thrives here Chang iang Yangtze River Rice grows here O 0 Silk production and cotton textile industry Use mulberry trees to feed silk worms for silk production Hydrophytequotwater plantquot Three gorges dam major engineering project 0 Largest hydroelectric facility to supplement energy requirement 0 Satis es 3 of china s electricity needs China and Taiwan Peoples Republic of China Continuous agricultural civilization 0 Reliable written record Huang He River Qin Dynasty organized rst Chinese state on north Chinese plan 0 Established central bureaucracy Ma BIO First generation of the great wall of China to protect it chu Dynasty Took control in 1600 s control began to weaken later on Lost control to Europeans Spheres of in uence European controlled trade and commerce they never considered their lands as colonies O Nationalist under leadership of sun yatsen overthrew last emperor and imperial rule in china came to an end 0 o 1937 o 1945 Successor of sun yatsen is Chiang Kai Shek Felt threatened by Chinese communist party 1934 Shek wanted to take out communist Long March Started with 100000 Chinese communist pursued by national army and ended with 20000 Bene cial because began a political campaign and good leadership Mao Zedong Japan launched full scale invasion of China Chinese civil war starts up again Communist had clear advantage after WWII 1011949 Chinese communist declared victory and named it the peoples republic of China o Mao Zedong became leader of China In uenced by Stalin and Karl Marx Wanted economic and political changes Gov owns all means of production and economy in purely communist 0 Installed economic program know as Massive Failure 0 Chinese Gov took all family owned farms and reorganized them into operations run and owned by Chinese Gov 0 Chinese farmers began to work as manufactures Rural industrialization 0 Massive famine that caused 30 million to sta rve o Get rid of Mao s critics Get rid of Confucianism and long standing Chinese traditions 0 Mao created a book called quotMao s little red bookquot Red guard went around and anyone who didn t believe in Maoism would enforce it and report on the individuals 0 30 million Chinese killed 0 1972 Mao extended invitation to Richard Nixon Beginning of normalization of relations between US and China 0 Nationalist Gov retained seat in UN security council executive branch Taiwan was kicked out of UN and peoples republic of seat took their seat 0 Mao Zedong died and Deng Xiaopeng took over Critic of Mao after Great leap forward Reasonable ideas for way to lead China Consolidated power in China 0 Restructured Chinas economy quotCommunism with a Chinese s facequot It was communism private ownership free enterprise capitalism Needed to control population growth o In late 1970 s they created the quotonechild policyquot Only suppose to apply to urban and suburban han people oMale children were favored because it meant you would be taken care of in older age 0 Contributed to highest abortion rate 0 Female infanticide kill female baby and try again for a boy Signi cantly imbalanced male to female sex ratio Superpower 0 Major military power not as advanced in technology powerhouse in economically largest economy on planet Hong Kong rejoined China It was democratic but China began to mess with it Taiwan been in rebellion Ilf they were to declare independence then China would declare military force Acts like an independent country but doesn t have international recognition 2011 devastated by major tsunami created by an earthquake 89 on Richter scale 0 Fukushima nuclear disaster effects are still unknown today Was isolated until 1850 0 US naval vessel landed at Tokyo bay and made them open it for trade to the rest of the world Started rapid industrialization and advancement o Looked to British since they too were an island country 0 Became major world industrial power Resource poor so they began to take land from others to try and gain resources oTook parts of China Russia British French Dutch Europeans December 7 1951 Pearl Harbor attack 0 They wanted to take advantage of American isolationist policy After WWII they were broken America tried to rebuild japan into an ally Prominent car shing electronic industry give info on population 0 Population is starting to decrease and aging 0 They are trying to encourage larger families lmmigration policy restrictive o 99 ofjapan are ethnically Japanese NationState o If they open borders then the 99 will decrease North KoreaSouth Korea 0 During WWII it was underJapanese control then given over to allies to be rebuilt o Divided among the 38th parallel 0 South was given over to United nations and north Korea was given over to soviets o Soviets established communist government in north under Kim lll Sung 0 1950 Korean War Kim lll Sung wanted to reunify north and south under communist rule 0 North invades south south began to push north back to the yalu river but Chinese began to push south Koreans back 0 1953 cease re agreement was signed 0 South Korea became a world economic power in spite of crisis 0 Asian economic crisis 1997 North Korea last Stalinist communist country 0 Frozen in 1953 little relations with any other country 0 Kim Jong Ill and Kim Jong Un They have nuclear weapons Mongolia Landlocked state weaker state sandwiched between areas of strength 0 Mongolia is the least densely populated country on the entire planet 0 5 people per square mile South and Southeast Asia Deccan Plateau High elevations were built up as lava ows came through crack lines 0Hilly and rugged highlands o Helped act as an isolating factor 0 Dravidian Language only found here Indus River Great ancient culture hearth 0 River acts as source of fresh water and fertile ood plain o Critically important for Pakistan 0 Wheat production North rice production Wheat Brahmaputra and Ganges River Some of the most ood prone areas on the entire planet 0 1 Snow melts in Himalayas feeds into into rivers and causes them to rise 0 2 Monsoon cycle from October to may areas are dry with little rainfall High pressure system air is descendent and horizontally air moves away keeping warm moisture air masses from making land fall I Late may early june high pressure shifts north over Tibet and is replaced by and equatorial low pressure causing air masses to move inland june to September is monsoon season o Orographic effect also happens along with the pressure causing wettest places on the entire planet oTropical cyclones hurricanes storms bring heavy rain high winds 0 Ganges o Holiest sites for Hindu faith Hindu pilgrims will trek to Ganges to bathe in the waters 0 One of the most polluted rivers on the entire planet from human and animal waste Pakistan Important in British empire 0 Indirect rule British didn t want to day to day administration they just wanted economic resources and wealth they would sign treaties to countries to gain rights but the local leadership would continue 0Hindus majority and Muslim minority 0 British helped fuel the re between the two 0 Hinduism polytheistic faith belief in many gods 0 Islam is monotheistic one god Hindu state became India and Muslim state became Pakistan 0 Pakistan was modern day Bangladesh and Pakistan Jammu and Kashmir was a disputed territory 0 Majority Muslim pop but ruled by Hindu prince 0 Prince declared jammu and Kashmir independent and they rose up against him 0 1947 India and Pakistan fought for rst time over this territory Karachi Pakistan s capital 17 million people living here 0 Wanted to be moved to Punjab but they settled on a city called Islamabad because of its location forjammu and Kashmir in an effort to reinforce claim over disputed territory Example of a forward capital Nuclearpower o Destabilized o Radical Islamic fundamentalism in the northwest frontier because of Americans in there India Main jewel in crown of British empire 0 British harden separation of the caste system 0 1947 Indians leader invested in education more colleges and universities than any other country on the entire planet 0 Gandhi wanted to improve the treatment of the untouchables or the lowest caste Rapidly growing and industrializing 0 Over half of population is still practicing subsistence agriculture oThey need land reform good farm land is in the hands of wealthy 0 Green revolution scientist created special grain seed that have higher years per acre they also had more protein content Suppose to solve world hunger issue 0 Major producer of tea cotton textile industry computer technology quotbrain drainquot highly trained individuals leave developing countries and moved to developed world steel 0 Migrate to oil rich countries to work in oil elds and send remittances back to family 0 Huge source of foreign income oBirthplace of Buddhism founded by Indian prince Siddhartha Gautama and Hinduism still dominates today Overpopulation is a problem 117 billion Increased food production means less death 0 Access to birth control has lead to birth rate decline in industrial stage 0 Government mandated birth control has not been enforced because it is a democracy Bangladesh 0 Use to be east Pakistan 0 Deltas of Ganges and Brahmaputra s come together at Bay of Bengal 0 Monsoons and tropical cyclones have devastated them 0 Densely populated makes disasters worse in terms of loss of life Bhutan Nepal 0 Physically isolated buffer state between India and china 0 Mt Everest straddles Nepal China border Sri Lanka Torn apart by multi national character primarily due to British 0 Tea is a major cash crop 0Sinhalese speak indo euro language and primarily Buddhist majority Tamil brought by British speak a Dravidian language and they are primarily Hindu Civil war between Sinhalese and Tamil o state rebel group take over and start to act like the government Eelam insurgent state of Sri Lanka Latin America August 28 2014 BODLED ITALICIZED HEADINGS NEED TO BE LABELED ON MAPS Latin America August 28 2014 77 Occidental Latin America August 28 2014 Miidd ie fir E 0 EELH J Ocean 39 1 THE 5 5i barium 4 a a quot39 quot i DOMINICAN aft39m smur HANS EPUEL I39I Virgin lislanm 39mn N39E39JIIS gum H E E 39mi1iglmn Dari Pawn Wimln a 3195 urn90 am mm a In quot ill53 ms I39 a idea quot San Juan v33quot Ira in a il 39l JAM icm U a 39 Kingsign Prince quot al5 mmmc IllLiane sum Lucinmlmca the ln SMNT VINCENT RND THE GREMkDIMES ADI Caribbean 593 ll mammals Mill 39IH39ETHEHUHDSJ North Pacific Ocean h a Scale ILMDDUDUO D 3901 EDD Kilometers 39 Galapagos a V quot W islands 0 300 600 nautical Miles Emanuel Lambert Conforma Cami Projeci39fgn standard parallel Q W and l N i quoti5 99 nm nacoslanly mmmmmmmmm I 39 30550541594 SM Occidental is on left side of Mexico SM Oriental is on right side of Mexico Orient means east Occident means west Sierra Madre Cordillera is similar to the Rocky Mountains Hills have lower elevation and gentler slopes Central Mesa is the central plateau of Mexico Central Mesa Chihuahuan Desert Primary livestock ranching and grazing area 30 inch or more can grow crops with little risk if there is less rain then crops will begin to die Sierra Madre del sur of the southquotargest population of native American descent Zapatista MovementChiapas January 1 1994 Launched rebellion against the Mexican government Wanted power for themselves Picked the day because it s the same day NAFTA went into affect o Rebellion was unsuccessful o NAFTA free trade for Canada US and Mexico Central American Mountains 0 Climatelong term patterns Latin America August 28 2014 0 Weather todays patterns 0 Weather patterns usually run from west l east 0 Warm moist air masses carried onto central American mountains causes the orographic effect in central America condensing water we pour O 0 Near top of mountains is colder drier air 0 Heats up 58 degrees for every 1000ft it falls 0 Most central Americans live on the paci c coast Guiana IIIAJAIAHAJ IIIE mam Atlantic Ocean l Sout Pacific Oceanl l Andes l Mountains 501 7 Atlantic ocean I 391 54 G g nd J WM min at ic J ulh gel 5 a the u 14 d 5 South Sandman Islands 7 9 anmimshred in mm x 5 clllmod by momma 7n Latin America August 28 2014 o Andes Mountains Largest land mountain range in the world 0 Not done growing 0 Created by SUBDUCTION one plate sinking under anotherquot 0 Mount Aconcagua22 831 feet tall 0 Alfred Wagner created theory of continental drift in 1912 0 Plate tectonics Separations between plates are called faults o Guiana Highlands rich in minerals Bauxite re nes to aluminum Brazilian highlands Created through cracks of lava ows caved up through erosion Brazil is one of the top agricultural producers in the world COFFEE 0 Production of coffee factors Needs rich volcanic soils it takes more from the soil than it puts back Tropical location constant conditions frost free conditions Slightly higher elevations 15004000 ft Physiographic boundary any political boundary that is separated by a physical original boundary feature ex river lake plateau Oxbow lakes lakes that were previously part of a river Thalweg deepest part of a river channel Amazon river carries more freshwater than any other river on the entire planet 0 Huge drainage base 0 In the tropics 0 Amazon Drainage Basin drains enough in a day to provide enough water for 17 million People for 9 years 0 No bridges or dams across the amazon river Too sparsely populated to spend billions on an infrastructure Latin America August 28 2014 Parana Paraguay River Itaipu Dam along border of brazilParaguay Rio de la Plata one of the largest estuaries 0 Full of silver Mexico Yucatan Peninsula Maya civilizations Only major civilizations to arise in the lowland tropics They practiced migratory subsistence agriculture only farmed to sustain themselves anol family 0 They moved because of the poor soils of the Yucatan Grew corns carbs beans proteins and squash vitamins and minerals Excellent mathematicians o Credited with being the creators for the concept of O o Helped them build the pyramid of the Magician Uxmal Mexico Excellent Astronomers o Caracol Observatory Mayan ruins of Chichen ltza 0 Created numerous calendars Aztec Empire Built capital city in lake texcoco called Tenochtitlan National symbol of Mexico is an homage to the story of TenochUUan On top of ancient ruins of Tenochtitlan is modern day Mexico city Mexico city is a primate city disproportionaly large in terms of population and exceptionally expressive of the national Character and culture Air Pollution coming from industrial output and automobile exhaust 0 Temperature inversion traps pollution over the city Crime Traf c Slums and Shantytowns o Grown up on surrounding slopes o Unsanitary fecal snowquot 0 High crime areas Rural l39l Urban Migration Latin America August 28 2014 Push Factors cause people to decide to leave 0 Drought famine environmental damage money Pull Factors cause people to decide to move to a particular area 0 Jobs education family utilities and access to amenities International Migration Mexico s economy bene ts from US o Mexicans move here for work send money back home billions of 0 Generators of income in Mexico 1 Remittances Sending money back from US 2 Oil managed by PEMEX a US is a major buyer of the oil 3 Tourism from US Drug Cartels Negatively affects tourism because of violence Brings in tons of money to the country Belize 0 Second largest great barrier reef in the world 0 Great blue hole 0 One of the of cial languages is English because it was part of the British empire Guatemala Mayan presence is strong 0 One of Latin Americas highest percentages of native American descent One of the leading causes of death in children ages 2 and younger is diarrhea 0 They don t have access to basic medical care Monroe Doctrine and Banana Republic Latin America August 28 2014 0 Monroe doctrine states US wouldn t tolerate any European interference in the western hemisphere 0 Established western hemisphere as US regional of geo political domination Banana Republic refers to central American countries that were dominated by United Fruit US helped overthrow leaders that weren t United Fruit friendly El Salvador Conservative Gov backed by US trying to get overthrown by soviet union and Cuba 0 75000 lives lost Densely populated country 0 A lot of people were trying to live off the land and there wasn t enough land to go around 0 Possibly drove up death toll of the el Salvador civil war m 0 October 1998 devastated by hurricane Mitch 0 Rain and wind caused ooding and mudslides 0 15000 people lost their lives 0 Set back 50 as result of the damage 0 is the statistical probability that particular hazard will strike a particular place or 0 Can vary from place to place 0 how hazards could potentially affect human beings o How much warning Ability to predict Communication do we have the ability to get the message out Nicaragua 0 US gave Somoza family a lot of support 0 Sandinistas wanted to overthrow the Somoza s because they wanted to establish a democratic government 0 US denied Soviet Union decided to help Sandinistas o 1972 Nicaragua devastated by earthquake o Somoza didn t help in aftermath support started shifting to Sandinista s o 1981 Regan became president couldn t stand communism Congress made it illegal to provide support to contras quest to overthrow Sandinistas Secretly US sold weapons to Iran to get for Contras IranContras Scandal Damaged relationship with Latin America Costa Rica Latin America August 28 2014 o Economically prosperous and politically stable 0 Switzerland of South Americaquot 0 Very exotic o Invested in ecotourism focused on natural environments Cheap to develop and maintain 0 Does not have a standing military 0 Have defensive agreements that helps protect them from invasion 0 Have a strong national police force to maintain domestic order Panama Believed that it would still be part of Columbia today 0 shortcut to connect the Atlantic and Paci c 0 Safer route 0 Attempted to built once before by Ferdinand Delesopes Panama Canal 0 Climate was very hard to build in hot humid rainy conditions 0 Mosquitoes carried deadly diseases Opens in 1914 Jimmy Carter talked about turning Panama Canal over to Panama Passed by one vote in 1997 to turn canal over to Panama Not large enough for large vessels May not be the only transoceanic in the ocean anymore Chinese have proposed to build a canal through Nicaragua 00 Cuba Batista was in power midlate 1950 s 0 Pro US major haven for US organized crime 0 New years Eve 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew Batista Fidel Castro Cuban nationalist backed by soviet union 0 Started making Cuba communist US tried to overthrow or assassinate Fidel October 1962 US have been ying spy ights over Cuba we noticed road in the middle of the jungle in Cuba Soviets were helping build nuclear missiles 0 Kennedy told Khrushchev to take missiles out and he refused 0 Established quarantine around island of Cuba Cosest world has ever come to nuclear war Soviets left and removed missiles from Cuba lamaica Latin America August 28 2014 Major planation is sugar cane o Bauxite Bob Marley made Reggae prominent 0 Most powerful man in Jamaica Jamaican politicians listen to what he had to say and his in uence 0 Died of a brain tumor Island of Hispaniola Haiti overpopulation issue deforestation issue corrupt and inef cient government major AIDS epidemic 0 January 2010 Major earthquake on fault near Haiti devastation was severe Dominican Republic baseball is the most popular sport supplies more forging born baseball players come from the Dominican republic than any other country 0 Kids look at it as a way out SOUTH AMERICA Columbia Abundance of resources 0 Difference environments give many options for crops to grow 0 Great location 0 Yet to achieve full potential because of violence 0 In 1980 Classi ed by US department of state as most dangerous country 0 Drug trade Cocaine o Pablo Escobar Drug lord made so much money from traf cking of cocaine he made 5 billion dollars He built schools hospitals prisons Killed in 1993 Latin America August 28 2014 0 Venezuela FARC revolutionary group acts as a government Largest proven reserves of oil on the entire planet 0 292 billions of barrels To be a proven reserve you must meet the following criteria 0 0 Have to know its there no guessing tested and found Economically feasible to extract Large amount of oil offsets cost Small reserve but cheap to get Venezuela is too dependent on oil to drive economy Prices uctuate due to competition and technology too reliant on one source of income to drive its economy Members of OPEC countries that hold major share of oil reserves manipulate price but manipulating oil supply Member s can t agree on what to do Hugo Chavez President of Venezuela
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