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PY 101 Semester Notes

by: Casey Marshall

PY 101 Semester Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology

Casey Marshall
GPA 4.0
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Jessica Allen

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This is the complete notes for the entire PY 101 class - all 4 exams throughout the semester. It is full of book related content as well as examples from class. Here is the web link, hope they help...
Intro to Psychology
Dr. Jessica Allen
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This 75 page Bundle was uploaded by Casey Marshall on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jessica Allen in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
Test 1 92215 1057 PM Help Information Olivia Sherrod oiviasherrodpearsoncom Special Alabama Tech Number 8558751797 ifI have problems with MyPsychLab You must ask them for an incident report number IMPORTANT Teacher or TA cannot help me ifI don t have the number Anything tagged with means that Dr Allen mentioned it could be an important concept to know for the test Magic Video about Multitasking Said magic 9 times picturename 7 Intro Psych Only 28 of Americans have enough basic knowledge of science to understand the Science section of the New York Times Test questions on Exam 1 from syabus What is Psychology 0 The discipline concerned with behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism s 0 Physical state 0 Mental state 5 senses in action 0 External environment nature vs nurture how much of you is based off biology and what external factors influence behavior 0 Helps us understand ourselves and others Why Study Psychology 0 Improve our Critical thinking abilitywillingness to asses claims and make objective judgments on the basis of wellsupported reasons and evidence NOT emotion or anecdote 0 Look for holes in evidence 0 Use logic and reasoning 0 Consider alternatives o In research think critically to understand and interpret findings must first understand research methods Which of the following is holes for evidence in class the Ellen show example took clips out of people catching them Empirical Evidence 0 Relying on or derived from 0 Observation 0 Experimentation 0 Measurement Empirical research occurs in setting where we can observe behavior experiment and measure the research Psychobabble Unsupported public opinion is different from findings based on research evidence 0 Just because someone believes it doesn t mean it s true 0 About science are the claims testable is it something we can measure often work with observation 0 Examples idea of autism and vaccines and how having a vaccine put people at a greater risk for autism disorders 0 Based off a published journal but the journal was retracted because researcher made up idea and it was fabricated Forerunners of Modern Psychology Phrenology Nowdiscredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits which can be read from bumps on the skull 0 One of the three schools of psych Brain mappingquot idea was trained phrenologists could touch your head and bumps on head could distinguish things about personality and the way that you think 0 Problem wasn t very reliable wasn t very consistent Wilheim Wundt first lab in 1879 out of Germany interested in introspection trying to break down behavior into very basic elements 0 Didn t do a very good job with empirical evidence used anecdotes Phrenology study of the mind classic pseudoscience The Birth of Modern Psychology 0 Wilheim Wundt 0 First psychology lab in Germany 0 Favorite research method was introspection Three Early Psychologies Structuralism Functionalism Psychodynamic What is Structuralism 0 Edward Titchener o Popularized Wundt s ideas in America under the name of structuralism which emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements 0 Example Break down the different components of taste when biting into an orangequot 0 Structuralists interested in breaking things down into very minor details 0 Immediate experience into the very basic elements What is Functionalism William James 0 One of the leading proponents of functionalism which emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness 0 Interest in how and why something happens 0 Functionalists broadened field to include the study of children animals religious experiences and stream of consciousness 0 Did not last long as school of psychology but it packed major punch 0 Had major impact on modern psychology Psychodynamic Psychology Sigmund Freud o Neurologist in late 19th century Vienna o Psychoanalysis Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy o Emphasized unconscious motives and conflicts How unconscious motives and desires unconscious sexual wishes or aggressiveviolent wishes affected people Major Psychological Perspectives o What are the three major schools of psychology 0 Understand phrenology 0 Few major people that we talked about above James Freud etc 0 Biological how body affects behavior feelings thoughts 0 Focuses on how bodily events affect Behavior FeeHngs Thought Example bodies produce number of hormones a balance of those to be our best melatonin makes us sleepy at night when sports players have to sleep in different time zones to go to games statistical different overall when teams travel across time zones Example televisioncomputer backlight suppresses melatonin makes you not sleepy at night when you watch it before going to sleep 0 LearningBehaviorists o Concerned with how environment and experience affect a person s or nonhuman animal s actions 0 Often use animal research 0 What types of things cause us to increase a behavior and what things cause us to stop engaging in behavior 0 Nature vs nurture not everything is based off of genetics environment can play more adoption Example guy with the brain of a psychopath but didn t act upon it why it s dangerous for actors to get really involved in a role 0 Sociocognitive learning theorists 0 Cognitive one of the strongest forces in psychology today 0 Emphasizes what goes on in people s heads 0 Mental processes Perception Memory Language Problem Solving 0 Example older adults as bad drivers supports age related declines we can give older adults apps to play that can actually improve their driving 0 Sociocultural o Emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior Social psychologists social rules and norms how groups affect mood I Example giant tshirts social phenomenon on Alabama s campus a How can that affect social psychology some countries don t have mental disorders that US has at all why is that Cultural psychologists n Interested in cultural rules and values norms that occur that affect people s development and behavior 0 Psychodynamic o Psychoanalytic 0 Deals with unconscious thoughts desires and conflicts within the individual 0 Unconscious motives desires thoughts and conflicts conflicts what leads to defense mechanisms repression 0 Interested in intrinsic energyinner forces Professional Activities AcademicResearch Psychologists Clinical Psychologists Psychology in industry Law and other settings Psychological Research 0 Basic Psychology study of psychology issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application 0 Learning something for the understanding of it knowledge for the sake of learning not necessarily applied 0 Applied psychology Study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance also the application of psychology findings 0 Example we can t pay attention to two things at one time our brains switch bake and forth but we can t do multiple things at once texting while driving effects driving 0 We want to use information in a practical way 0 Several major nonclinical specialties in psychology 0 Experimental 0 Educational often graduate from completely separate program work in school settings K12 0 Developmental interested in life span how we grow and change across lifespan not just childhood issues 0 Industrialorganizational works with businesses to help them be more effective and productive Example employees are more productive if you put up holiday decorations Example if you at some point tell them that they get to get off at 4 instead of 5 employees will be more productive all day long rather than being less productive but working the normal amount of time o Psychometric Psychology in the Community 0 Psychologists in industry law or other settings Conduct research or apply its findings in non academic settings such as 0 Business 0 Sports NFL sports psychologists on staff when teams travel across time zones more likely to lose 0 Government 0 Law 0 Military Psychological Practice 0 Clinical psychologists o Diagnoses treats andor studies mental and emotional problems Example anxiety depression and grief 0 Has a PhD and EdD not very common as much anymore or a PsyD fairly new not going to get as much research training as PhD 0 More likely to do cognitive behavioral therapy 0 Licensed APA distinction not all therapists are clinical psychologists Psychiatrist 0 Does work similar or that of a clinical psychologist but is likely to take a more biological approach 0 People that can write scripts for medication Clinical cannot 0 Has a medical degree MD with a specialty in psychiatry 0 Training in pharmaceuticals Suzanne studies team processes in the workplace She hopes her research will make teams more productive and effective What type of psychologists is she o A Experimental 0 B IndustrialOrganizational C Educational Psychology and History Using Critical Thinking Skills 0 Mass Hysteria a situation in which a group of people share and sometimes act upon a belief that is not based in fact 0 Example Arthur Pendragon stuff we didn t have all of the facts Emotional Contagion the automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions vocalizations postures and movements of one person by another when these overt behavior converge emotions come together as well these mimicking behaviors are not under voluntary control but nevertheless serve to influence behavior 0 Example someone makes dinner and the person that made the dinner complains about food poisoning related symptoms so the other person starts complaining about food poisoning related symptoms 0 Example being around negative people will make you negaUve Dancing wolf spider issue some people believed that if you got bit by this spider it would make you dance erratically also idea that if you got bit by the spider that you were going to die someone who got bit by something that even resembled a wolf spider bite started dancing even though it could have been completely harmless like a mosquito bite Example 0 Mass contagion occurs today 0 In 1998 a teacher from TN reported that she had a headache nausea shortness of breath and dizziness after she detected a gasolinelike smell in her classroom School evacuated and 116 people went to the emergency room Critical Thinking Guidelines 0 Ask questions be willing to wonder Define your terms 0 Examine the evidence Analyze assumptions and biases 0 Avoid emotional reasoning 0 Don t oversimplify 0 Consider other interpretations Tolerate uncertainty What is Scientific Inquiry Psychologists study the what when and why of behavior and mental processes 0 Scientific inquiry utilizes the scientific method familiarize self with the scientific method steps 0 More objective than casual observations 0 Systematic procedures follow orderly steps that are carefully planned 0 Free from bias 0 Scientific method 0 Theory difference between theory and hypothesis an explanation based off of things we observe theory Example Alabama has a good athletic program 0 Hypothesis Prediction based on theory Example winning season in football 0 Research gather data Example watching games 0 Support the theory 0 Refute or fail to support the theory Pay special attention to differences in theory and hypothesis Theories Should Generate Hypotheses o A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses Example why sleep promotes better health lots of theories around sleep 0 Operational definition if you want to study depression be very careful and explicit on how to define the word depression Types of Studies Used in Research Designs 0 Descriptive studies observing and noting behavior to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behavior 0 Biases that may occur in descriptive biases by participants 0 Example person watching the class some know some don t 0 Descriptive methods 0 Surveys o Tests Systematically outlined questions but looking for certain behaviors 0 Case Studies 0 Observational studies Descriptive Studies 0 Naturalistic observation passive observation 0 Grad student in the room watching and noting behavior 0 Participant observation active involvement 0 Teach me a knew skill or help me understand this particular behavior 0 Anthropologists and sociologists 0 Reactivity presence of the observer alters the behavior of those being observed 0 Change of behavior because you know you re being observed Case Studies 0 Case study intensive examination of unusual people or organizations 0 Getting information about small group of people 0 Examples The goal of an organizational case study is to determine which practices led to success or failure 0 Adam Lanza shooter at Sandy Hook school in CT 0 Problems Case studies are subjective and have a small sample size Case studies can influence policies 0 Advantages can provide extensive data about one or a few individuals or organizations Correlational Studies 0 Correlational studies examine how variables are naturally related in the real world 0 Where we are wanting to see how the variable relates to each other in the real world 0 Researchers do not attempt to alter variables we re not manipulating anything not manipulating variables 0 Researchers cannot draw causal conclusions from correlational studies just means that they are related 0 Example the seat belt sign on an airplane does not cause the turbulence they just go together 0 R how we describe correlation we have r and a number the closer the number is to 1 the stronger the relationship between the two variables 0 Positive correlations and negative correlations 0 Positive as one variable goes up so does the other 0 Example variable how many calories consumed is variable calories consumed weight goes up 0 Negative as one goes up the other goes down 0 Example the more I exercise the more the pounds decrease Ethical Reasons For Using Correlational Designs 0 Some research questions require correlational research designs for ethical reasons 0 Do soldiers who experience severe trauma during combat have more difficulty learning new tasks after they return home compared to soldiers who have experienced lesssevere trauma Putting soldiers through trauma is unethical but you can interview people 0 IRB institutional review board has to approve Directionality Problem 0 Chicken vs the egg which comes first Directionality problem researchers find a relationship between two variables but cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable 0 Example Sleep A and stress B are correlated but 0 Does less sleep cause more stress A 9 B 0 Does more stress cause less sleep B 9 A Third Variable Problem 0 Researchers cannot be confident that an unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences 0 Example 0 Drinking before driving A is correlated with being distracted while driving B Stress C causes some people to drink before driving C 9 A Stress C causes some people to be distracted while driving C 9 B Making Predictions By establishing correlations between variables researchers are able to make predictions 0 Example 0 Correlational research has identified a strong relationship between depression and suicide 0 Clinical psychologists often asses symptoms of depression to determine suicide risk 0 These two things are strongly correlated with each other Experimental Studies 0 Experimental group the treatment groups that receive the intervention 0 Experimental group is also called the intervention group 0 Control group a comparison group that does not receive the intervention or receives on unrelated to the independent variable 0 Example medicine vs placebo 0 Example Teacher gives us all a cup of coffee some get decaf if some of decaf people believe they are more awake with caffeine placebo effect How Participants are selected for psychological studies 0 Population our psychology class as a whole 0 Representative Sample when we picked our favorite musical instruments to split into groups 0 Best research is when it s representative 0 Random sample counted off numbers 1 to 7 in the aisles we randomized Random Assignment 0 You can never be sure that you have assessed all possible factors that may differ between the groups 0 Independent variable is one that is manipulated o Dependent is the one measured 0 Random Assignment research participants have equal chance of assignment to the independent variable 0 Balances out known and unknown factors 0 Increase the likelihood groups are equivalent Theories of Personality CHAPTER 2 Dissociative multiple personality disorder 0 Personality Distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors thoughts motives and emotions that characterizes an individual 0 The more you engage in particular behavior stronger the neural connection 0 These patterns are made up of traits Trait A characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving thinking and feeling 0 Example half glass full or half glass empty type of thinking 0 Traits are good predictors of future behavior past behavior is good predictor of future behavior Psychodynamic Theories of Personality 0 Its focused on unconscious motives Freud and Psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud o Psychodynamic Theories Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual About the balance Felt like there was structure to personality 0 Psychoanalysis A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Sigmund Freud it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts The Structure of Personality Ego Superego 0 ID 0 ID part of personality that is mostly submerged in your unconscious and its where you have inherited psychic energy talking about sexual and aggressive motives instincts Libido lies or rules within the ID what feuls sexual instincts of the ID 0 Ego Part of personality that is basically your conscious morality represents good reasoning rational self control 0 Superego Your social standards the things that you may deem right and wrong beyond self control MORALITY spans both conscious and unconscious what tries to keep them in balance what you may culturally believe to be socially acceptable or not Countries where its deemed socially acceptable to rape women or where disabilities is illegal Defense Mechanisms Repressions when a threatening idea memory or emotion is blocked from consciousness o The idea that as an adult you are exhibiting things from personality and they are because you have repressed childhood memory don t even remember that that has occurred but currently effecting personality 0 We might just have trouble recalling something Projection When a person s own unacceptable or threatening feelings are repressed and then attributed to someone else 0 Two steps Repressing first Say it occurred in someone else Displacement When people direct their emotions especially anger toward things animals or other people who are not the real object of their feelings Regression When a person reverts to a previous phase of psychological development 0 Only child toddler and a new baby comes into the family toddler starts to act like a baby again looking for same attention caregiver is giving new baby 0 Adults may regress to throwing a temper tantrum regressing to behaviors that are childish under stress Denial When a person refuses to admit that something unpleasant is happening 0 When there s been a death people still call their cell phone or something like that Let s Practice After receiving a low grade on an exam Phil slams the door as he leaves the classroom 0 Displacement George feels that his younger son Gary is unattractive and not very smart He accuses his wife of picking on Gary and favoring their other son 0 Projection After Sue Ann s baby brother was born she began to talk babytalk and to suck her thumb like she did when she was younger 0 Regression 16 year old Tom had started using drugs and the changes in his behavior made it pretty obvious but Tom s parents didn t believe that school principal when she called to talk with the about the problem 0 Denial The Development of Personality Freud s Psychosexual stages if we did not accomplish goal of that stage then we d become fixated because it wasn t resolved 0 Oral stage When first year of life If fixated Seek oral gratification ex Smoking may become clingy dependent In Like a child who just sticks things in its mouth sucking on a bottle 0 Anal stage When Age 2 to 3 If fixated Anal retentive obsessively neat clean or anal expulsive messy disorganized o Phallic Oedipal stage When Age 3 to age 5 or 6 a Most crucial stage in personality formation Oedipus complex a Where a child might prefer parent of different sex a At the same time they are rejecting parent of same sex because they cause competition rival a When resolved child identifies with same sex parent 0 Latency stage When Begins at about age 5 or 6 Supposedly nonsexual stage preparing for genital stage and adolescence o Genital stage When begins at puberty Leads to adult sexuality 0 One od the ways Freud collected data anecdotal interviews with people asking them to reflect back when they were a child retrospective interview Other Psychodynamic Approaches Jungian Theory o Collective unconscious The universal memories symbols and experiences of the human kind represented in the archetypes or universal symbolic images that appear in myths art stories and dreams Archetypes we identify with collective understanding the hero 0 Archetypes Universal symbolic images that appear in myths art stories and dreams to Jungians they reflect the collective unconscious ObjectRelations School 0 Emphasizes the importance of the infant s first two years of life and the baby s formative relationships especially with the mother 0 Life s central problem Find a balance between the need for independence and the need for others Emerging period where we walk the line I am an adult and I can do what I want but will you help me pay my bills The Rorschach Inkblot Test 0 Was initially out of Switzerland in early 19005 so some ideas may not necessarily apply today The Modern Study of Personality Popular Personality Tests 0 MyersBriggs Type Indicator Popular in business at motivational seminars and with matchmaking services Low reliability Often used by career centers business schools and hiring departments Ask lots of questions and assign you to 16 types of categories logical thinker vs intuitive thinker etc 0 Objective Tests inventories Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses Usually include scales in which you can apply written response to rate yourself Scientifically valid the test is measuring what it s supposed to useful in research Core Personality Traits 0 Central Traits o Reflect a characteristic way of behaving dealing with others and reacting to new situations 0 Most people have 510 0 Relatively stable Example way you view the world hostile scary place vs awesome place to have fun 0 Secondary Traits o More changeable aspects of personality Example music interests casual opinions The Big Five 0 Factor analysis 0 Look to see where groups of traits clump together and then we can describe them under an umbrella term Traits o Extroversion vs Introversion o Neuroticism maybe have difficulty adapting to new situation vs Emotional stability someone that s more stable 0 Agreeableness vs Antagonism o Conscientiousness an incline around 305 and 405 vs Impulsivity o Openness vs resistance to new experience Genetic Influences on Personality o How to Measure Genetic Contributions to Personality 0 Study temperaments of human infants and children 0 Study personality traits in other species 64 other species where we see the Big Five 0 Do heritability studies of twin and adopted individuals Biology and Animal Traits 0 Do puppies have personalities 0 Members of many other species very in the same characteristic traits that humans do 0 Evidence has been found for most of the Big Five factors in 64 different species 0 These findings point to the evolutionary importance of the Big Five and their biological basis Heredity and Temperament Temperaments Psychological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways 0 Present in infancy assumed to be innate o Relatively stable over time 0 Include 0 Reactivity o Soothability 0 Positive and Negative emotionality Highly reactive vs not differences in sympathetic nervous system Heredity and Traits Heritability o A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group This proportion is given in percent 40 is explained by something other than genetics How much of what we now about that trait is based off of what we are measuring whatever is left over is based off of something else Heritability of personality traits is about 50 50 Within in a group of people about 50 is coming form genetics the other 50 is coming from environment Even traits that are highly heritable are often modified throughout life by circumstances chance and learning Environmental Influences on Personality Longitudinal study follow over time twins split up follow each one o Crosssectional only examine once Twins video clip 0 Check it out tab on blackboard audio clip is the interview with the researcher that conducted twins study test questions based off of audio clip What similarities have we heard so far majoring in the same field Why has the research been sealed so long Waiting for participants to die Twins Clip Finding Each Other on Facebook 0 One has an accent Lol SocialCognitive Learning Theories Theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of o Cognitions thought processes how you solve problems make decisions 0 Learning behavior and past experiences 0 The immediate environment parents home in which you live roommates college setting Reciprocal Determinism Twoway interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits o Aspects of the Individual Ex Temperaments learned habits perceptions and beliefs 0 Aspects of Situation Ex Opportunities rewards or punishments chance events Nonshared Environment 0 Unique aspects of a person s environment and experience that are not shared with family members 0 Who you are with when you re not at home Parental Influence and Its Limits 0 The shared environment of the home has little influence on personality 0 Few parents have a single childrearing style that is consistent over tome and that they use with all children 0 They may have consistent practices but in a different style 0 Even when parents try to be consistent there may be little relation between what they do and how their children turn out 0 Does not mean neglectful or abusive parenting doesn t have effect 0 Parents do influence their children in lots of ways that are unrelated to personality 0 What are the things can do parent can modify child s temperament Certain children who are at risk of delinquency or antisocial behaviors can assist at risk children They can influence many of their children s values Can teach children to be kind and helpful Profoundly effect quality of relationship between parent and child The Power of Peers 0 Peers play a tremendous role in shaping our personality traits and behavior causing us to emphasize some attributes or abilities and downplay others 0 Embarrassment and insecurity cause a lot of emphasize or downplay Cultural Influences on Personality 0 Culture o A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or society 0 A set of values beliefs and attitudes shared by most members of that community Culture Values and Traits Individualist cultures 0 Cultures in which self is regarded as autonomous and individual goals and wishes are prizes above duty and relations with others 0 Collectivist Cultures o Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships and harmony with one s group is prized above individual goals and wishes Cults can effect this Terrorism the goal is sacrificing self for the greater of that groups goal Culture and Traits When people fail to understand the influence of culture on behavior they often attribute another person s actions to individual personality traits when they are really due to cultural norms o Cleanliness o Helpfulness o Tardiness and time Ex Lost boys from Sudan can t throw trash out window waste receptacles how food is so different here Our misunderstanding can lead to stereotyping and prejudice CULTURE and Violence 0 The Cultivation of Male Aggression o Emphasis on aggressiveness and vigilance in herding cultures creates culture of honor 0 Used to explain increased likelihood of fighting in the South and the West versus the North and Midwest In addition to testosterone culture plays a role and age plays a role Evaluating Cultural Approaches 0 Cultural psychologists face the problem of how to describe cultural influences on personality without oversimplifying or stereotyping 0 People vary according to o Temperaments o Beliefs 0 Learning behavior histories The Inner Experience Humanist Psychology 0 An approach that emphasizes personal growth resilience and the achievement of human potential 0 Positive psychology How can I be happy using psychology Humanist Psychologists 0 Abraham Maslow 0 Self actualization hierarchy of needs 0 Peak Experiences Rare moments of rapture cased by the attainment of excellence or the experience of beauty 0 Selfactualization Striving for a life that is meaningful challenging and satisfying 0 Carl Rogers 0 Conditional positive regard The acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one s behavior 0 Unconditional positive regard Love and support given to another person with no conditions attached 0 Rollo May 0 Shared with humanists the belief in free will and freedom of choice but also emphasized loneliness anxiety and alienation o Existentialism Emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human existence 0 What is humanist psychology positive psychology three main psychologists Evaluating Humanist and Narrative Approaches Humanist psychology 0 Added balance to the study of personality 0 Encouraged others to focus on positive psychologyquot 0 Fostered new appreciation for resilience However it is hard to operationally define many of the concepts Guaranteed test question coming from learning catalytic about celebrity Kanye displacement Brit denial displacement Exam 2 92215 1057 PM The Brain and Nervous System The Nervous System A Basic Blueprint 0 Nervous system Gathers and processes information produces responses to stimuli And coordinates the workings of different cells 0 A portion of psychology sensation and perception o Neuropsychologists study brain uses nervous system and its relationship to psychology 0 Neurologist more interested in the biology of the brain and the nervous system The Organization of the Nervous System 0 Central 0 Brain 0 Spinal Cord Peripheral includes sensory and motor nerves anything outside the brain 0 Autonomic Parasympathetic Sympathetic o Somatic The Central Nervous System 0 Spinal cord can produce some behaviors without any help of brain spinal reflexes Spinal reflexes are automatic and require no conscious effort 0 Ex Reaching hand to something hot you don t have to think about how its hot and how it will burn your hand your spinal reflexes help muscles contract and pulls your hand away The Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic works automatically regulates blood vessels glands and organs like lungs also does biofeedback Divisions within autonomic Somatic nerves connected to sensory receptors and skeletal muscles voluntary action and control The Autonomic Nervous System 0 Parasympathetic conserve and store energy rest and digest Sympathetic gets body ready for action fight or flight Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions 0 In fight or flight mode pupils dilate stimulates sweat glands inhibits digestion 0 Ex important to early humans who had to fight or flight for their food to hunt and not be hunted Parasympathetic slows heart rate activate digestion constricts pupils 0 Ex guy who had a cardiac event when stressed 0 Ex People with anxiety or panic disorders fight or flight can turn on when you don t want it to biologically flight or flight turn on when you don t want it to Communication in the Nervous System Components of the Nervous System 0 Neurons 0 Basic units of the nervous system 0 Brains communication system 0 Transmit info to and from and within the central nervous system 0 Communication specialist Glial cells 0 Make up 90 of brain s cells 0 Momma bird of neuron 0 Functions include neurons in place nourishing them insulating them 0 Clean up dead neurons 0 Modify neural function enhance neural connections Ex the more you do a behavior repeat stronger the connection glial cells help strengthen connection Ex A time when you re really into exercise then stop and pick it back up and still have muscle memory glial cells Structure of the Neuron Dendrites like wifi receivers listening to pick up signal information pulls info into cell body 0 Ex like a radio truck for a radio waiting to pick up story Cell body coma neurons brain determines whether or not its going to fire message keeps neuron alive Axon like telephone line message sends down myelin axon Myelin sheath the coding on the end of a telephone wire protect axons sends message more quickly and more effectively fatty insulation Neurons can be regenerated Neurons in the News 0 Neurogenesis the production of new neurons form immature stem cells 0 Debate stem cell research 0 Scientists have began to rethink the brain 0 Stem cells immature cells that renew themselves 0 Ex when stem cells are transplanted with individuals with Parkinson s individuals might be helped with Parkinsons 0 Ex someone who may have had spinal injury stem cells could be transplanted to help them concern from using stem cells from embryos How Neurons Communicate Axon buttons terminal buttons where message has to leave 0 Synaptic cleft message has to cross 0 Ex you want to cross 50 yard line but you don t have to go back want forward motion into receptor site Neurotransmitters like a key and a lock each one can only fit in certain sites Action Potential 0 All or none neuron either fires or it doesn t Neurons are effected by action potential 0 Brief change in electrical voltage action potential 0 Wants to produce electrical impulse 0 Ex if you take a dead frog and pour salt on it its legs will hop because of change in electrical charge 0 Ex squid in restaurant when they pour sauce on it tentacles will move 0 1 trillion neurons in our body 0 All or none law mypsychlab video 0 Resting potential has potential to fire Refractory period Chemical Messengers in the Nervous System 0 Neurotransmitters GABA acetylcholine Endorphins Hormones Several test questions on neurotransmitters when we start talking about drugs we talk about what neurotransmitters are effected Neurotransmitter a chemical substance that needs to go across the synspase into the receiving neuron Neurotransmitters Glutamate major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain 0 Serotonin often addressed with antidepressants SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors affects mood sleep and eating sleep and eating are two behaviors that help us assess mood Dopamine feel good neurotransmitter helps with learning movement memory emotion pleasure 0 Ex Exercise can increase levels of dopamine 0 Ex Individuals with memory related disorders Parkinson s some memory change be due dopamine levels Acetylcholine Muscle action memory emotion 0 Select neurotransmitter that is responsible for memory can be both Norepinephrine heart rate learning memory 0 Ex Weight loss drugs that were really dangerous effected levels of norepinephrine 0 Ex Some drinks 5 hour energy could effect norepinephrine GABA major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain Harmful Effects of Too HighLow Neurotransmitter Levels GABA Abnormal levels have been implicated in sleep and eating disorders and in convulsive disorders such as epilepsy Acetylcholine Deficits help account for devastating memory problems in people with Alzheimer s Dopamine A loss of cells that produce dopamine is responsible for the tremors and rigidity of Parkinson s o Is also responsible for movement Parkinson s people and their movement Glutamate In multiple sclerosis auto immune disease immune cells overproduce glutamate which damages or kills glial cells that normally make myelin Endorphins Endorphins reduce pain Similar in structure and action to opius Involved in pain reduction pleasure and memory Technically called androgrenous opioid peptides Alter effect of neurotransmitter 0 Ex Individuals who are in military exposed to physical emotional pain how did they keep going Part has to do with survival surging endorphins 0 Ex Oh I was in shockquot endorphin levels effected 0 Ex Man with a prosthetic arm he wasn t born that way he worked in Fathers grocery store in the butcher departmentmeat grinder he did not feel extreme pain in the brief period of time stress and fear response 0 Promote pleasure Decreased levels of depression and anxiety disorders when exercising Act like opiate Hormones Melatonin secreted by the pineal gland helps to regulate daily biological rhythms and promotes sleep 0 Can take over the counter melatonin anything taking in drug format is not natural to your body it is synthetic o Melatonin and circadian rhythms Oxytocin secreted by the pituitary gland enhances contractions during childbirth and facilitates the ejection of milk during nursing synthetic is Pitocin o Helps us develop attachment to others 0 Contributes to relationships 0 Vasopressin oxytocin helps attachment 0 Adrenal Hormones produced by the adrenal glands and involved in emotion and stress 0 Have an outer part and inner part 0 Outer part produces cortisol stress response increases blood sugar levels but also can be negative 0 Inner part produces epinephrine and norepinephrine o Adrenaline is synonymous with epinephrine 0 When adrenal glands are released they activate sympathetic nervous system 0 May enhance the memory 0 Sex hormones Hormones that regulate the development and functioning of reproductive organs and stimulate the development of male and female sex characteristics 0 The balance or level of sex hormones is what differs o Males androgens like testosterone set in motion for males at puberty change in voice effects sexual arousal in males Some females who have low libido can increase testosterone 0 Females estrogens they influence starting and the course of the menstrual cycle and breast development Ex We have now low that plastic BPA works as an estrogen synthetic can cause fertility issues in women lavender oil can cause breast development in males Ex Leaving plastic bottles in a hot car Progesterone contributes to growth and maintenance in uteral lining a Ex Birth control are balance of progesterone and estrogen n Ex Plan B painful because it gets rid of uteral lining not a happy place for fertilized egg to implant Video clip neurotransmitters 0 Brain chemistry cocaine users regular dose in consistent environment using same dose in brand new environment brain chemistry didn t adjust so more caution of overdose changing neurochemistry bad for addicts to quit something cold turkey 0 Ex Dentists ask if you use drugs happy gas can effect you differently if you use drugs 0 Ex Soymilk to vegans being careful with soy because it can effect hormones HOMEWORK Dopamine neurotransmitter based off my last name 0 Bring to next class A Tour Through the Brain Major Parts of the Brain 0 Brain stem 0 Cerebellum Thalamus Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland Amygdala Hippocampus Cerebrum o How would I define brain dead 0 Ex Terry Shivo was in a persistent vegetative state had accident when she was 20 her husband and her parents disagreed on how to move forward with her health Terry said previously she did not want to be on life support if it were to happen went to court Brain Stem Extension of the brain and just above the spinal cord at the base Pons involved in sleeping waking dreaming Activationsynthesis theory idea that bizarre dreams are pons firing at random Medulla Regulates breathing and heart rate automatic functions Reticular Activating System Arouses higher centers screens incoming information 0 After you have taking in through your senses your reticular activating system is going to screen that info and activate higher centers of brain The Cerebellum Regulates movement and balance Especially important in dancers athletes and gymnasts Involved in learning of simple responses behavior The Thalamus Relays sensory messages to higher centers Relays sensory processes 5 senses 1 sense that bypasses the thalamus sense of smell smell has own mechanism switching station Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Hypothalamus involved in emotions and drives vital to survival regulates autonomic nervous system 0 Pituitary gland Called the master glandquot more like a supervisor the boss is hypothalamus releases hormones and regulates other endocrine glands The hypothalamus is like boos because it tells pituitary glands when to talk to other glands The Amygdala and the Hippocampus Limbic system group of structures in brain that are responsible for emotional and motivational responses 0 Ex The guy who had brain of psychopath studies brain scans of psychopaths psychopaths have very inactive limbic system Amygdala Involved in arousal and regulation of emotion and initial response to sensory info considered part of the limbic system 0 Freud would say this is in charge of sexual arousal Hippocampus involved in storage of new information in memory Considered part of the limbic system 0 Ex London taxi drivers vs American taxi drivers In London taxi driving is a pretty prestigious job have to have all of London roads memorized London taxi drivers have larger hippocampus hippocampus can change in size 0 Ex Sense of smell is connected to memory smell of familiar perfume brings up memory 0 Some people consider hypothalamus part of the limbic system Cerebrum Consists of the upper part of brain and largest part of brain Responsible for higher forms of thinking most of sensory motor and cognitive processes decision making etc 0 Cerebrum is from the latin brain like the brain of your brain Divided into two halves Two cerebral hemispheres Right and Left 0 Connected by corpus callosum a bundle of nerve fibers its job is to connect the two hemispheres 0 Right hemisphere is responsible for the left side of the body vice versa 0 Lateralization specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular operations 0 Ex sometimes you integrate both sides for particular operations The Cerebral Cortex o A collection of several thin layers of cells covering the cerebrum it is largely responsible for higher mental functions 0 When we think of a brain this is usually what we think of 0 Cell bodies in cortex produce grayish tissue gray matter 0 More myelin coverage in brain produces more whitish tine white matter 0 Contains almost 34ths of all the cells in brain 0 Like Neurons and glial cells 0 GapsRivers in the brain so you can have more neural connections in those areas brain is designed to function in particular ways 0 Be able to label certain parts of the brain visual brain in mypsychlab Lobes of the Cortex Frontal lobe contains motor cortex and brocas area making plans taking initiative thinking creatively also helps you when you re trying to reduce or inhibit inhibition 0 Ex When someone is talking to you and you re trying not to talk back out of anger Occipital visual cortex 0 Parietal contains somatosensory cortex receives pressure pain touch and every temperature from all over body 0 Temporal right above temples near ear contains auditory cortex Ex Melanie is a police officer She is preparing for her rankadvancement exam It s late at night She is reading though some material and viewing pics related to brutal murder cases She is drinking coffee and eating a sandwich Limbic system handles emotions reading brutal murder cases The Prefrontal Cortex Forward part of the frontal lobes Involved in 0 Social judgment 0 Rational decision making 0 Ability to set goals and make and execute plans Ex talking to someone who is making you mad and refraining from going off on them using prefrontal lobe to assist you in not going off on them Ex why children wonder why teens and adults make stupid decisions Phineas Gage 0 Accident destroyed his prefrontal cortex 0 Retained his ability to speak think and remember but his personality was altered Damages to prefrontal cortex might effect personality Ex NFL video league of denial personality changes with CTE s prefrontal cortex could have been injured Ex Alzheimer s or dementia the prefrontal cortex is effect Ex Nursing home if you weren t careful you d see a naked old person who didn t care Know Phineas Gage story Split Brains A House Divided 0 Split brain research 0 Study of patients with severed corpus callosum o Involves sending messages to only one side of the brain 0 Demonstrates right and left brain specialization Your right eye is telling your brain about your left side Long axons that cross to the opposite side of the brain Normally each hemisphere shares info to opposite side but in split brain it prevents communication from occurring SplitBrain Patient Experiment They saw the ball on the right but couldn t be for certain they saw the hammer on the left so they saw nothing Two Hemispheres Allies or Opposites Left hemisphere Many researches believe left side is dominant because cognitive skills including rational and analytical abilities originate here 0 Handles language development for right handed people and almost all left handed Right hemisphere Associated with spatialvisual tasks facial recognition and creation and appreciation of art and music 0 Ex seeing a face in a car or a house our brain can recognize a face in anything it s adaptive and means of survival because infants need to identify a caregiver In most real life activities the two sides cooperate naturally If you didn t have corpus callosum you d have two brains Video Stroke one of the top 3 causes of death in the United States across all age groups race gender all cause mortality heart disease cancer stroke The Plastic Brain Plasticity the brain s ability to change and adapt in response to experience for example by reorganizing or growing new neural connec ons Synaptic exuberance 6 to 15 months where we see impressive growth Keeping limited teratogens to infants Culture and the Cortex Can culture shape the brain 0 Cultural influences show up in fMRI studies of perception problemsolving language and thinking 0 Read more in the boo Are There His and Hers Brains Average sex differences in the brain do exist However 0 Ex there are sex differences in lateralization we know that females when earingn languge will use both sides of brain but men will rely on one side 0 Many supposed gender differences are stereotypes o A brain difference doesn t necessarily produce a difference in behavior performance 0 Sex differences in the brain could be the result rather than cause of behavioral differences 0 Do average sex differences in the brain exist Yes when it comes to behavior it may be due to stereotyping Taking Psych with you 0 Cosmetic neurology Tinkering with the Brain 0 People use caffeine diet and exercise to stimulate their brains and improve learning and memory 0 But drugs like Provigil for sleep disorders and Ritalin or Adderall for ADHD have side effects like decreasing creativity 0 And when attentionconcentration is improved sometimes creativity suffers CHAPTER 5 Learning Objectives 0 People can be conscious of their surroundings even when they do not appear to be 0 Conscious experiences are associated with brain activity 0 One of the last senses to go at the end of life is hearing although they may seem unconscious they still may be able to hear you 0 Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and the environment Variations in Conscious Experience Sleepwake cycle Automatic tasks Controlled processing 0 Helps us in novel or complex circumstances helps us perform in these circumstances Ex driving route you drive all the time did I stop at every stop sign I know I drove home but I don t remember the drive home Ex when you re walking are you thinking about what you are doing leg up and down the variation in consciousness is different Ex sports some don t have much hand eye coordination and some do and don t have to think about it In a coma but aware 0 Patterns in coma sufferer similar to those in a coma 0 Communication may be possible with coma patients People can be aware of surroundings even when they don t appear to be Brain activity in individuals in coma are similar to those who may not be in a coma and communication might still be possible sense of hearing We need to sleep in order for our body to repair the idea that sleep is protective Medically induced comas and comas from an accident Extreme states conditions of impaired consciousness provide useful points of contrast to normal fullyfunctioning consciousness 0 Persistent vegetative state full coma that has lasted for more than a month brain stem functioning continues after cortical functioning stops loss of ability to think or reason may not be aware of surroundings spontaneous o Might need help with breathing eating and maybe even heartbeat need artificial assistance to keep you alive Ex Terry Shivo was in an accident know her story 5 wishes document polste document about wanting to be in a coma or not In Alabama have to go to a lawyer and get it notarized 2 Pictures of Brain 0 Left CT scan of normal brain on right CT scan of terry shivos brain in 2002 showing loss of brain tissue 0 Important scan be neurologists testified in court that she was fine and that her brain was not damaged beyond repair except that was not true Glowing white piece Thalamus extender Consciousness and Ethics 0 Upset with Governor Jeb Bush the people didn t want them to remove feeding tube 0 When removing feeding tube removing artificial hydration and sustainment but what we actually know is that when we remover artificial nutrition they don t experience hunger they feel euphoria pain in infection site if infected Consciousness 0 We are aware of some mental processes and unaware of others Subliminal perception processing information by sensory systems without conscious awareness 0 Ex movies theaters putting in subliminal ad to get you to buy coke or popcorn also political subliminal ads like the bureaucrats looking like rats 0 Ex Sexual subliminal messages because sex sells like sexual subliminal messages in Disney movies 0 Ex SFX magazine the idea that it would look like SEX magazine 0 Ex ice cream commercial the scoop thing left looked like naked woman Freudian slip an unconscious thought expressed at an inappropriate moment 0 Stereotype activation is it automatic 0 There is a researched idea that when we act on stereotypes its not on conscious thought 0 Research came from Bargh o Primed participants with stereotypes about older adults then what they found is that individuals began to behave in that way 0 This may happen in real life you can t do this because you wont get into this because 0 Ex difficualt for women to excel in science when they had teachers tell them that some people actually changed their behaviors The Smart Unconscious 0 Good advice Sleep on itquot o Unconscious processing of problems lead to superior solutions Dijksterhuis 2004 0 Even conscious thinking can undermine good decision making Wilson and Schooler 1991 0 Ideas that brain solves problems through dreaming Biological Rhythms Biological rhythms a periodic more or less regular fluctuation in a biological system 0 May or may not have biological implications 0 Many are based on internal biological rather than external queues 0 Biological rhythms o Sleepwake cycle body temperature fluctuation female menstrual cycles changes during sleep Circadian Rhythms A biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hours 0 Also occurs in plants animals and insects Sleepwake cycles 0 Can study in creatures by isolating 0 Ex take people underground in the dark and see if they form a normal sleep wake cycle 0 Internal clock located in hypothalamus but specifically in hypothalamus called SCN supra charismatic nucleus regulates neurotransmitters and hormones melatonin Internal Desynchronization o A state when biological rhythms are not in phase with each other 0 Influenced by changes in routine 0 Ex people flying across times zones effected by this people who are starting or changing shift work hours 0 Ex when a team travels across time zones collectively they are more likely to lose those games 0 Can be effected by throwing own system out of wack Illness Stress directly correlated Fatigue Excitement Exercise Drugs both prescription and non like caffeine and nicotine Meal times eating to close to bedtime TED video Crabs being taken from home and put in cage 3000 miles away and will scramble up during high tide and go back down 0 When people don t have artificial light sleep twice in between have meditative quiet state producing prolactin Seasonal Affective Disorder SAD 0 Possible causes 0 Circadian rhythms out of phase 0 Abnormality in secretion of melatonin Ex highest rates of suicide occur in January 0 Ways to combat this Exposure to lamp box things assist circadian balance Narcolepsy with cataplexy falls into state of peralisis when he has feelings of love ConsciousnessAltering Drugs 0 How consciousness varies from person to person 0 Psychoactive drugs Drugs capable of influencing perception mood cognition or behavior 0 Their efforts appear to be universal when it comes to altering mood and consciousness 0 Main purpose alter mood and alter consciousness Classifying Drugs Depressants Opiates Psychedelic Marijuana Stimulants Stimulants 0 Speed up activity in central nervous system 0 Include o Cocaine Amphetamines Nicotine Caffeine MDMA Ritalin o Ecstasy and PTSD using ecstasy to treat PTSD controversial Individuals who have too much caffeine can have effect on the heart 0 Some drugs might be used in medications for example narcolepsy use of stimulant 0 Can cause major cognitive impairment and impairments in cognitive functioning OOOOO Depressants Slows activity in CNS 0 Include 0 Alcohol 0 Tranquilizers o Barbiturates Lethal injection Physician assisted suicide Cocktail of barbiturates n Less safer version of a benzo a Rising increase in 75 range aging baby boomers n 136 in men increase in hospitalizations 65 m Derived from opium poppy Relieve pain and commonly produce euphoria 0 Include o Opium o Morphine o Heroin o Methadone synthetic opiate Some drug treatment places use this 0 Act like endorphins reduce pain increase pleasure Psychedelic Drugs 0 Produce hallucinations change thought processes or disrupt the normal perception of time and space 0 Include o LSD Some using in medical round was legal in US until 1966 approved by FDA in research 0 Mescaline o Psilocybin Popular in 19605 Schizophrenia OCD and alcoholism might use these drugs Marijuana 0 Some classify as psychedelic 0 Can produce varied reactions form mild euphoria to sleepiness In Alabama there is an extraction of the plant to use as seizure medication 0 Cancer patients using marijuana alleviate symptoms of chemo and encourage appetite see it a lot in hospital programs especially people at end of life Physiology of Drug Effects Psychoactive drugs can 0 Increase or decrease the release of neurotransmitters o Prevent the reabsorption of excess neurotransmitters by the cells that released them 0 Block the effects of neurotransmitters on receiving cells 0 Bind to receptors that would ordinarily be triggered by a neurotransmitter Picture of cocaine Block reuptakes of dopamine and norepinephrine raises the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine certain brain circuits over stimulate produces euphoric high When the drug wears off dopamine flat lines that s where the crash comes from Harder to get those levels back up over time need more of the drug get addicted Over time this brain damage can be permanent Ex if addicted to a drug when you take it it starts to change your brains neurochemistry when entering a new environment that s where overdose comes from Mouse Pa rty First website that comes up 0 STUDY 0 Test will ask about marijuana mouse 0 What pathways are involved and neurotransmitters are involved Psychology of Drug Effects 0 Factors impacting reaction to drugs Physical condition metabolism weight physical tolerance Experience number of times person uses drugs 0 Environment where and with whom Ex users in a novel environment being more keen to overdose 0 Mental set expectations of drugs effects 0 0 Animals and drug addiction 0 Drugs mimic neurotransmitters and it can happen in animals 0 The way we study addition in animals they will choose drug over instinctive behaviors 0 Ex trying to train raccoon for commercial the raccoon would rub its paws because of instinctive behavior VIDEO series on course calendar episode 6 altered states Taking Psychology with You 0 The Drug Debate 0 People often fins it hard to think critically about drug laws and policies 0 What drugs should be legal which illegal and which decriminalized o Meditation o Heroin in Tuscaloosa is highest in county 92215 1057 PM Class Activity Standing or Sitting Experience 0 We often have more homogenous group in college Cumulative Effects of Stress Ch11 Figure showing chronic stress increase risk of getting illnesses 0 Group of poverty and unemployment homelessness 0 When stressors of poverty and unemployment become chronic they can increase people s chances of illness 0 Responses to stress vary across individuals depending on o The stressor o The person s genetic predispositions Illness even greater when going through personal problems greatest risk is underemployment or lack of employment but least able to pay or receive health care services 0 Ex how many people get sick towards the end of the semester The Immune System PNI PsychoneuroimmunologyPNI o The study of the relationships among psychology the nervous and endocrine systems and the immune system 0 PNI researchers are particularly interested in the white blood cells that destroy harmful foreign bodies antigens Chronic ongoing acute one in a while Homelessness 0 At least 23 million adults and children will experience homelessness in their lives in the United States 0 30 of homeless turned away from shelters Among Sheltered Individuals 0 62 male 0 22 under age of 18 older that 13 o 24 ages 1830 42 White nonhispanic 37 black 0 10 white Hispanic 0 Often viewed as only an urban phenomenon rural and suburban communities include growing populations of homeless Stereotypes o In the last 15 years prevalence has risen among vulnerable populations 0 Veterans 0 Families with young children and unaccompanied youth among whom ethnic and racial minorities and the extremely poor are overrepresented WellBeing Higher than average rates of 0 Trauma Difficult life circumstances rape accident 0 Untreated substance abuse Ex if you ve never used substances and you became homeless would you start 0 Emotional and behavioral disturbances Mental health disorders 0 Rates of depression and anxiety are believed to be high among homeless people regardless of prior socioeconomic statues The economic downturn has resulted in a surge of newly homeless across every demographic with greater numbers of low and middleincome people 0 Mental health institutions have been closing challenge with how to meet needs with the mentally ill Psychosocial Factors 0 People of all ages races ethnicities cultural backgrounds and sexual orientation and immigrations status it effects everyone 0 When compared with the general population poorer physical health in this group 0 Although poor people with substance abuse and or mental illness are at greater risk for homelessness and face additional barriers in exiting homelessness most people without homes do not have substance use or other mental disorders 0 A strong association exists between homelessness and involvement in the child welfare system The pathway between foster care and adult homelessness is complex 0 Ex programs like Alabama reach aged out of foster care and opportunities there Mental Illness going to be tested on these statistics 0 262 of homeless population in US suffers from a severe form 0 mental illness 0 Only 6 of general population severe o ADL activities of daily living eating dressing toileting o IADL instrumental activities of daily living balancing checkbook o 47 of women who are homeless meet criteria of major depression disorder 0 Mental illness is the 3rd largest cause of homelessness in cities 0 Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were particularly vulnerable Our State 0 20 of Alabama s children live below the poverty line many of these children rely heavily on free and reduced breakfasts and lunches five days a week However the weekends create a nutritional gap leaving many children hungry when they return to school on Monday 0 Ex Secret meals backpack system puts weekend food in backpacks Some kids wont tell parents about food because parents will take it Some kids will get stigmatized UA Courses Food deserts lots of fast food but no grocery store 58 of people in Camden live below poverty line Camden NJ 13 of teens in city arrested every year Shut down police force in Camden Highest crime rate Waiting on the World to Change Video Learning Moorestown compared to Camden NJ Camden murder city USA Camden poorest city and most dangerous city in US Murder rate 7 times greater national average Average income 18000 58 of children live below poverty line Ivan Stephens 4 year old homeless Doesn t know how many meals to eat a day 12 million children lack access of food to fit basic needs Drugs are customized from block to block wet marijuana with PCP 13 of teens in Camden were arrested last year Billy Joe mother left Higher calorie and fat foods will cost less than foods of high nutritional value how important it is to get good balance of healthy food A diet that is high fat high calorie might effect mental health balance of neurotransmitters Moochie fathers 4th attempt at rehab brother in juvy Learning nduring change in behavior resulting form experience Associations develop through conditioning 0 Classical Pavlovian conditioning learning that two types of events occur together Ex Pavlov dog dog salivation and light bulb Ex Pavlov dog when food is given it causes dog to salivate will dog associate a neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus once we ve paired them enough dog will associate bell ringing with food dog will start to drool On exam what s unconditioned response what s conditioned response 0 Learning to associate things together Classic Conditioning Unconditioned UCS unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response such as a reflex without any prior learning 0 UR unconditioned response a response that does not have to be learned 0 Neutral stimulus conditioned stimulus to be when a stimulus condition to be elicits a response hen its associated with a stimulus that already that produces a response UCS Classical Conditioning Conditioned 0 CS conditioned stimulus a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning had taken place 0 CR conditioned response a response that has been learned Classical Conditioning Another Example 0 UCS overconsumption of beer 0 UR throwing up 0 CS smell of beer 0 CR retching nausea gagging o ie weaker version of upchucking o Conditioned response is always weaker than unconditioned response 0 Family guy example 0 UCS throw up stimulus 0 UR throw up response 0 CS coors smell 0 CR coors retch 0 Ex when Jessica had a stomach bug mom would buy her combos snack her conditioned stimulus and response is that she can t look at a combo again 0 Ex significant other that used particular deodorant or perfume but then broke up and now that you smell that not so popular smell Classical Conditioning 0 Classical conditioning a neutral stimulus the CStobe comes to elicit a response CR when it is associated ie learned that it is paired with a stimulus UCS that already produces that response UR Family guy example Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous Recovery 0 HOW does association learning pairing of CS with UCS occur 0 Through acquisition 0 Strongest pairing occurs when the CS comes first a brief delay then the UCS CS then UCS Ex teach then rewarded with a treat dog knows those things are coming together 0 Once association occurs how long is that going to persist o The CR is extinguished when the CS no longer predicts the UCS 0 But if the CS is presented later spontaneous recovery will temporarily occur Once this is learned even after extinction all it takes is one time to elicit spontaneous recovery Ex muscle memory its doesn t take long for body to remember what it needs to do CS will lead to CR but then will fade and extinguish again 0 But just one pairing of CS with UCS again is enough to re establish the association Helps distinguish phobias Phobias Ex anxiety with spiders or clowns how then can learning help you or adjust to that particular phobia Systematic desensitization a formal treatment based on counterconditioning o Developed by behavioral therapist Joseph Wolpe in 1997 0 Ex phobia with fear response we want to break that phobia 0 CS 9 CR1 fear connection can be broken by developing a CS 9 CR2 relaxation connection Psychologist now believe that exposure to the feared stimulus is more important than relaxation Ex exposure therapy hoarders TV show some individuals with OCD exposure therapy might be good approach it s gradual Ex NPR podcast Invisibilia animals and people can smell fear how do we not generate that fear response What happened to woman who got put in room with snakes and she hates snakes another woman cant feel fear Classic example of Phobia little albert was presented with neutral objects that provoked a neutral response the objects included a white rat and costume masks they paired scary noises with them so anything that was white and fluffy he got scared Drug Addiction Environmental cues associated with drug use can induce conditioned cravings 0 Ex cocaine users taken regularly high close when they went to new environment greater risk of overdose it can also induce conditioned cravings 0 Ex certain places I go that make me crave certain food items the fair or a football game Unsatisfied cravings may result in withdrawal an unpleasant state of tension and anxiety coupled with changes in heart rate and blood pressure depending on drug use withdrawal can be very dangerous 0 Ex withdrawal from Xanax can lead to heart attack and risk of death If not supervised The sight of drug cues leads to activation 0 Ex Pet scans pictures showing activation in limbic system study where cocaine addicts were shown videos of nature scenes and cues triggers the greatest areas of activation are orange and red Drug Addiction 0 Shepherd Seigel 2005 believed exposing addicts to drug cues was an important part of treating addiction 0 Exposure helps extinguish responses to the cues and prevents them from triggering cravings Seigel and his colleagues conducted research into the relationship between drug tolerance and situation 0 The body has learned to expect the drug in that location and compensates by altering neurochemistry Dog named Crash Video 0 Learning a trick in under 3 minutes UCS UR CS CR Thorndike s Theory of Learning 0 Law of Effect any behavior that leads to a satisfying state of affairs is likely to occur again Annoying affairs less likely to occur again 0 Put cat in a box can the cat learn that pushing on petal means escape Satisfying state of affairs here to escape the box 0 That reward in some cases is called reinforce 0 General theory of learning Skinner and Reinforcement Reinforcer occurs after a response increases likelihood behavior will be repeated Formal learning theory Skinner Box Didn t like satisfied state of affairs because you couldn t measure but you could measure reinforcer 0 1st skinner box a maze mice had to find gold box 0 2nd skinner box a mouse in a box and there s a lever for mouse to push on Skinner box also called operant chamber There is a human skinner box slot machines Example why gambling is so popular World s Most Dangerous Druq Video Mouse looking for meth Animals will look for drugs just like humans Skinner and Reinforcement Shaping crash the dog video reinforcing behaviors that are increasingly similar to desired behaviors animals learn what behaviors are being reinforced Example friends having babies and very excited about potty training when you re leaning how to potty train your shaping Example if you want to train your pet reward them with successive proclamations Example learning to write saying mom Reinforcers Can Be Conditioned Reinforcers are established through classical conditioning Primary reinforcers necessary for survival establish biological needs 0 Example food water sex Secondary reinforcers eventsobjects that reinforce but are not necessary for survival 0 Example money neutral stimulus object paper doesn t mean anything value comes from association reward added to it Reinforcer Potency 0 Some reinforcers are more powerful than others Premack s Theory principle amount of time when free to do anything spent engaging in specific behaviors associated with reinforcers O 0 Accounts for individual differences Example Jessica is going to take us out to lunch Mugshots and she s going to get the biggest hamburger with a bunch of toppings and stuff except if you re a vegetarian not interested in enjoying particular reinforce Some differences occur in what s valuable to us Example money if we bring Jessica 100 she would give us test questions would we still engage if the price was higher Example when clubs offer pizza to join club what if they offered catered meal Reinforcers can be positive or negative Positive and Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcer something added increases the probability that a behavior will occur frequently called a reward Negative Reinforcer something removed increase behavior through the removal of an unpleasant stimulus taking something unpleasant away 0 Example business will put late penalty on fees in Jessica s case at dance studio if you pay on time you get a discount Reward always works better than punishment Example instead of penalizing you in class for attendance if you don t miss any in class assignments you get a reward of 2 points to final grade attendance policy as ex in this class Positive and Negative Punishment Punishment 0 Positive punishment something added administering an unpleasant stimulus to reduce behavior 0 Example spanking 0 Example teacher giving student a treat when they stop talking 0 Sometimes reinforcers and punishments might seem mutually exclusive looking if behavior is trying to be increased or decreased 0 Negative punishment something removed removal of a pleasant stimulus to reduce behavior 0 Example children being restricted Operant Conditioning ReinforcementPunishment PositiveNegative Example all states good driver program using reinforcement rather than punishment Big Bang Theory Operant Conditioning 0 Electrical shocks 0 Adding something unpleasant positive punisher Negative reinforcement squirting water gun in face 0 Its actually positive punishment Sometimes we have to rely on punishers justice system Effectiveness of Punishment 0 Most effective when 0 Reasonable Ex Parents who use particularly strong or unreasonable heavily discussed Ex when parents say go to your room which has all of their electronics not that effective 0 Unpleasant 0 Applied immediately clear relationship to behavior Ex Jessica s dog Lucy ate a bunch of stuff from purse and by the time Jessica saw the purse it was too late to scold her 0 Controversial 0 Can lead to unintendedunwanted consequences 0 Can cause confusion Ex if people were caught cheating and the student came and was honest they then got a failing grade 0 Can fail to offset reinforcing aspects of desired behavior Ex sucking a thumb or trying to not get them to suck a pacifier more of a reinforcer than a punishment Behavior Modification 0 Judge Rotenberg Center 0 They are referring to themselves as a special needs school 0 Uses token economy 0 Ex When the student engages in positive behaviors or when that student shows academic improvement they get points money or tokens some reward that they can redeem for activity or prize 0 What you can use tokens for travel the yellow brick road doors lead to gym movie room game room etc 0 Ex They are wearing backpacks that have cords that is electric shock system positive punisher incredibly controversial o 31 shocks later lady wrote an article on it in New York Times huge court case but very recently other people have gotten involved and they want center shut down Schedules of Reinforcement 0 Continuous reinforcement for fast learning effective for teaching behavior but extinguishes quickly 0 Ex used for pets go to the potty outside get a treat 0 Ex problem is that behavior can extinguish quickly 0 Partial reinforcing intermittent effect on conditioning depends on the schedule 0 More effective 0 Can be ratio 0 Can be interval Ratio or interval can be fixed or variable Partial Reinforcement 0 Ratio schedule reinforced based on of times behavior occurs 0 Fixed schedule reinforced consistently after specific of occurrences or number of times Ex being paid every time you did chore 0 Variable schedule reinforcement at different rates at different times Ex slot machine pays off an average few pulls but you don t know which will pay Ex Adjuncts getting paid every class 0 Interval schedule based on specific unit of time o Fixed exams every x number of weeks or chapters Ex getting paid reinforcer is money getting paid every two weeks fixed schedule 0 Variable listen radio and hear a favorite song but don t know when will hear it 0 Can operant conditioning be used to shape all behaviors NO ChaHenges Challenge 1 Biological constraints 0 Difficulty learning behaviors in conflict with natural innate behavior 0 Ex raccoons trying to put coins in piggy bank but instead they rubbed their paws looking for food 0 Can occur even if animal has previously learned the desired behavior 0 Challenge 2 Cognition 0 Cognitive map 0 Latent learning takes place without reinforcement learning by observation 0 Insight learning learning something problem solving after period of contemplation Jessica s emailed gym letter is this behavior modification program of reinforcement or punishment Reinforcement Is this positive or negative reinforcement negative because they re taking something negative away If they were giving voucher away to redeem it would have been positive Partial because can t do it every month Ratio because its based off of number of times Fixed because specific number of times Jim Jones Very influential and lots of believers He started out by being a religious figureminister and had large group of followers who attended his church He was very open and welcoming and stood up for diversity against racist behaviors stood up for oppressed racially and gender His followers drank kool aid laced with cyanide suicidal and they all died Jim Jones Video 909 members died in mass suicide Wanted to take people to the promise land Ukiah They are starting to make the case and tell us who he is as a person How do we form impressions of others Expressions and First Impressions How you initially feel about others determined mostly by nonverbal behavior Thin slices of behavior secondslong observations offer powerful cues for impression formation Ex study that had students do evaluations of instructors first group had instructor all semester second group only watched muted video of instructor for seconds they were both asked to rate professor and rated them the same 0 Ex young females and the way they speak females particularly in US where they start speaking in a very different way they suddenly start to get valley girl like kardashian effect LOL 0 Much less likely to get hired if they speak in such way Attributions About Others 0 Attributions explanations for events or actions including other people s behavior 0 Just World hypothesis based off idea that we live in safe world sometimes when things happen that conflict with that world view we have a cultural habit of blaming the victim Ex female who maybe is walking late at night and is attacked and raped maybe she was dressed in a particular way she shouldn t be walking at night etc Attributions Dispositional o Attribution we make about a particular personal trait 0 Ex He s such a careless driver He never watched out for carsquot about car wreck 0 Cause of something in the person like a trait Situational 0 Ex He probably got stuck in traffic late for a meeting something went wrongquot 0 Cause of something in the environment 0 What about attributes of ourselves 0 Ex ask college students to rate themselves 90 rated themselves as above average Attributions about the Self Selfserving bias 0 Attribute failures to situational unstable or uncontrollable factors to cast us in positive light 0 Attribute successes to personal permanent factors to give us credit for doing well 0 Ex taking chemistry and failed test bad using self serving bias you are most likely to blame professor or circumstance but if you made an A or B attribute it to things about you Self Serving biases The bias to choose the most flattering and forgiving attributions of our behavior The bias that we are better smarter and kinder than others The bias to believe the world is fair just world hypothesis Stereotypes Cognitive schemas that help organize information about people on the basis of membership in certain groups They are self maintaining and they are helping brain to quickly make determination about person or situation you are in contact with Schema way in which we categorize things like scripts quickly assign Stereotypes can come without even knowing it Stereotypes are selfmaintaining they direct our attention towards information that confirms that stereotype When someone doesn t fit a stereotype that we have cognitive schema for in our mind we put them in special category subtyping we put a qualifier on it instead of altering our stereotype They can be positive negative or neutral Stereotypes that people have of us can affect us selffulfilling prophesy tendency to behave in ways that confirm others expectations of us Selffulfilling prophesy tendency to behave in ways that confirm our own others expectations 0 Ex a teacher s expectations of students success or failures can affect student s performance 0 Ex women performed more poorly on test when they were initially reminded of their gender they weren t doing bad at math until they were reminded their gender and the scores went down Stereotypes Can Lead to Prejudice Stereotypes can be positive neutral or negative 0 Positive stereotypes can have negative effect 0 Ex stereotypes for Asian ethnic group stereotype was smart but what if there s an Asian that might struggle with that 0 Negative stereotypes can lead to o Prejudice negative feelings opinions and beliefs that are associated with a stereotype o Discrimination Inappropriate and unjustified treatment of people as a result of prejudice Why we buy in to prejudice and discrimination 0 People treat others as scapegoats to take pressure off of them 0 People discriminate others to protect their own self esteem 0 Ex self serving bias 0 Socially we favor our own groups and stigmatize others because they pose a threat Attitudes Attitudes feelings opinions and beliefs about people groups ideas or activities 0 Explicit aware of attitude and shapes conscious decisions 0 Implicit internal not aware of it and I may not realize that it shapes my behavior Ex Jim jones used very strategic power approach buy putting vulnerable individuals by putting them in position of being more vulnerable Jones got everyone s money financial dependency and also depending on them physically sexual standpoint took their time not sleeping Scientology and Jonestown documentary Cognitive Dissonance o A state of tensions that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person s belief is incongruent with his or her behavior 0 State of tension occurs when this happens 0 Ex I am a loyal friend but I also gossip about my friend 0 Ex I am a good student but I never go to class and fail tests 0 Ex Warren Jeffs Lost Boys of Sudan 0 Resulted after conflict in country 0 Some individuals were brought over to United States Pittsburgh 0 God Grew Tired of Usquot 0 Social influences that are based off of cultural differences schemas can be influenced by cultural differences 0 Other people begin to form impressions on individuals stereotyping 0 Ex it is a cultural norm in Sudan to travel in large groups together like walking to work or the store it is also common to walk into neighbors house and ask questions or assistance 0 People in Pittsburgh were afraid or intimidated and asked them to stop travelling in large groups Why Why might that be inappropriate 0 Ex shows them dishwashing liquid and it s green so they ask if all soap in America is green they end up using it in shower 0 Ex they find it difficult to find work 0 Acculturation how you might adapt to a new country or cultural if you are not of that country or culture originally Ex of lost boys Attitudes can be changed through Persuasion Persuasion active and conscious effort to change an attitude though the transmission of a message 0 Factors affecting the persuasiveness of a message 0 Source who who did that message come from are they of authority do you like them 0 Content What 0 Receiver whom whom is receiving that message Persuaders try to appeal to both reason backing it up with facts etc and emotion in order to convince you to agree with message delivered 0 Ex negative political ads that are paired with facts are meant to persuade you 0 Ex in some countries like in UK political TV ads are not allowed Elaboration likelihood model theory of how persuasive messages change your attitude specifically this theory looks at using reason and emotion Persuasion can be used in positive and negative and sometimes vulnerable groups are targeted 0 Ex group in Birmingham goes in and seeks to remove girls who have been taken or persuaded to get in sex trafficking and they help them get out 0 Ex cheerleader from Auburn said they were modeling agency sex trafficking Episode 16 Social Psychology video in mypsychlab Central route processing Peripheral route processing A car dealer may use CRP at the beginning when they rely on PRC decisions made on that are impulsive Footinthedoor Doorintheface That s Not All technique Recycling acknowledging inconvenience to persuade people s behavior Restaurant industry they may not be trying to bait you but when people do that you re more likely to tip higher if the server does this 0 We might have a schema for how we think of individuals who might be from groups that are not our own when we meet individuals who don t fit we subtype not change our schema relative to persuasion with political thing democrat and republican switching views they subtype Social Facilitation 0 Social facilitation the presence of others enhances performance 0 Ex got put into team at the beginning of class Triplett 1897 o Zajonc s 1965 model 0 Social facilitation can either enhance or impair performance depends on dominant social behavior if it is difficult it can impair performance Social Loafinq 0 Social oafing people work less hard when in a group than when they are working alone 0 When people know that their individual efforts can be monitored they do not engage in social oafing 0 Ex 6 blindfolded people were told to shout everybody was with other people but some were told that they were alone participants shouted more loudly when they were alone rather than being told they were with others Deindividuation o In groups or crowds the loss of awareness of one s own individuality 0 Ex increases when people feel anonymous 0 Ex clubs or social groups or when you re at a football game 0 People might behave more aggressively with deindividuation 0 Ex people are more likely to jump in in revolts because its not the individual but rather part of a large group negative Groupthink Ex Jonestown felt like it was harder to leave o The tendency for all members of a group to think alike and suppress disagreement for the sake of harmony 0 Ex when a dissenter came forward and they suppressed that person pressure of leaving pressure for dissenter to conform 0 Ex when teachers ore voting for a new hire to enter in if a majority say yes then they are hired second vote is for unanimous 0 Can be counteracted if there are opportunities where dissent is problem solving 0 Ex debate team We conform to Others Conformity altering one s behaviors and opinions to match those of other people or to match other people s expectations 0 Why we conform o Normative influence when we go along with the crowd to avoid looking foolish or silly o Informational influence brain games example when we assume that the behavior of the crowd represents the correct way to respond Ex when caravanning to an event if the car turns might as well follow them 0 Ex brain games episode go to movie theater and place sign that says line starts here waiting to see if people stand at line One person gets in line so everyone else follows Over 100 people are just standing in line then some random person tells them to follow them Social Norms 0 Social norms expected standards of conduct 0 Ex saw some of this in Lost boys 0 Research consistently has demonstrated that people tend to conform to social norms 0 Ex lots of research on smoking and peer pressure 0 Ex standing in line to buy tickets if you cut in line it will be against the social norm 0 Ex going into elevator and face the people rather than the door 0 Groups tend to enforce conformity Those who fail to go along are rejected 0 Ex big t shirts and no pants look at Alabama s campus 0 Can social norms be used in marketing YES 0 Ex some research where they put posters around college that says most student have fewer than 4 drinks at a party but those who were one or two drinkers went up to four light drinkers conformed to social norm stated on campus A charity decides to make all donations anonymous but soon finds that this decreases giving This would be an example of Deindividuation 0 Obedience Conformity Diffusion of responsibility Negativity bias ONLY MENTIONING IN CLASS TODAY 0 Attraction sometimes based off of attractiveness from person providing message might alter how much they persuade us 0 Ex someone is asking you to go on a date some people will consider the attractiveness of the person who is trying to persuade you attraction and love have an important relationship 0 Theory of Love video episode 16 Men more attracted to physical attractiveness Women more based on status and gains However its physical attractiveness for both Triangle Theory of Love Robert Sternberg Intimacy Passion Commitment n Intimacy and passion romantic love O O O O n Intimacy and commitment companionate love a All three consummate love 0 Ex a point in life where you wont be able to do certain things doesn t mean partnership is over Compliance Obedience and Bringing it All Together Focusing largely on Milgrams Study We are Compliant Compliance the tendency to agree to do things requested by others Ex car by footinthedoor test drive than feel obligated to do larger Factors that increase compliance include 0 Being in a good mood 0 Failure to fully consider options 0 Ex telling parents that you did something wrong wait til they are in a good mood 0 Ex Car buying example pressure if you buy something today I can give you xyz but maybe not late how persuasion can effect compliance The Obedience Study Milgram Study researching why was it that so many people were willing to partake in Nazi Germany Ordinary people can do horrible things when they are asked to so by authority Ex first day of class when we did strange things because teacher asked us to she was in position of authority Method 0 Subjects told to give increasing levels of shock to another subject every time an error was made 0 When will the subject stop giving shocks Resuks 0 Every participant shocked recipient at least once o 23 gave all levels of shock even though many were upset by being asked to do so 0 Participant could have stopped and left the research but they didn t and gave the shocks 0 Conclusions 0 Obedience is a function of the situation not of personalities 0 Nature of the relationship to authority influences obedience Ex when you were in high school and you had regular teacher and they asked you to do things and you were respectful teacher but brand new substitute teacher comes in and students don t really respect that authority regular teacher was authority 0 Follow up study that happened in 2009 by Burger where they replicated Milgrams study what they found was similar 0 70 participants went all the way up to maximum voltage not just a nature of time because they both had similar results Factors Leading to Disobedience Participants were more likely to disobey when 0 The experimenter left the room people were more likely 0 stop 0 If the victim the one receiving shocks was in the same room you can see the participant they were more likely to stop 0 Ex when there s distance between you and person being harmed you being the perpetrator you are more likely to be more lethal and do it 0 Ex using a gun to murder someone often people are less likely to use their bare hands but people will more likely use a weapon research on guns perpetrators feel like weapon created the distance the gun is who killed the person not me 0 Two experimentors isssed conficlting orders 0 An ordinary person not an authority figure isseued commands The subject worked with peers who refused to go on Why people obey To avoid punishment 0 Out of respect for authority 0 Ex in this class teacher asks laptop users to sit on either side of room so note takers aren t distracted 0 Because of entrapment gradual o A gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time money or effort Ex Jim jones people started giving little then house and all money the their lives Ex woman who was flirtatious to Jim Jones people wondered what she had that they don t he had her take off all her clothes and everyone had to critique her body guy says he was there for so long and it was so deep he couldn t get out Ex asks to hold drugs then make a drug run then sells drugs himself Diffusion of Responsibility 0 When someone needs assistance we as humans usually won t help them 0 The failure to offer help to those who observe someone in need 0 Bystander apathybystander intervention effect 0 Someone else is going to help or someone else has already helped Ex old man was in discomfort from heat at game and started against the wall and then ended up on the floor but people were just watching him rather than helping him We all think that help has already been called but since we all think that it hasn t been called probably Stranger Danger Video Thing 0 Help you are not my dad you can t just say help because people won t respond 0 Ex you re not my dad you re not my dadquot they are trying to educate parents about abduction in video people will persuade children in new way a presenter came in and were telling kids don t go with that man the stranger danger person in a particular group of little girls and the man says did you hear that kitty catquot and all the girls follow him how easily he was to persuade them 0 Is the man using any persuasion and where is the bystander expect 0 In the video 0 O 0 After hours there were only 2 people that helped the child Bystander effect in video Ex If there s a lot of people watching and no one does anything people are less likely to get involved social loafing Ex Social facilitation more than one person was going to get involved so more people got involved like the guy in the car that was going to get out and help Ex student with medical crisis outside Dr Allen s office and people walked right by him it doesn t matter the number of people it matters about the action When Eyes Deceive Video 0 College law school and had crime staged in classroom 0 Individual comes in and steals someone s bag 0 Teacher plants false memories and diffusion of responsibility 0 The teacher says odd shape of nose and one student JD says he had an odd shape nose and never remembers the teacher saying it 0 We re even worse at identifying criminal when it s someone different than our own racial or ethnic group Ex same experiment in UK students went to a pub and they staged a murder scene and wanted to see if anyone would get involved but no one did Ex Perpetrators know that people won t intervene so it makes it easier Questions on Learning Catalytics Explain the basic procedure of Classical Conditioning refer to the quotneutral stimulusquot the quotunconditioned stimulusquot the quotconditioned stimulusquot the quotunconditioned responsequot and the quotconditioned responsequot 0 CS already elicits response 0 A conditioned response automatic is always a slightly weaker version of UR What might be some possible dangers of stimulus generalization o What happened with Jessica s dog Cooper thinking everything white and fluffy is a marshmallow What is the difference between classical and operant conditioning Why does this make operant conditioning more relevant to learning behaviors o Operant conditioning is much more active classical conditioning is passive learning to associate things operant can change behavior increase behavior reinforce decrease behavior punish Negative reinforcement reduce jail time for good behavior Negative punishment taking away TV for child s poor grades Positive reinforcement giving dog a treat for trick Positive punishment making student write essay for fighting in class Intrinsicextrinsic reinforcer Successive approximation Using operant conditioning to teach processes step by step shaping Highorder learning using previously conditioned stimuli to teach other conditioned stimulus Latent learning learning tasks but not realizing you can do them until circumstances require it Observational learning 92215 1057 PM Abnormal Psych Symptomology o MDD and Gad 50 comorbidity o A lot of the categorization of mental health disorders are quotbest guessesquot Bizarre Disorders 0 Stendhal syndrome 0 Panic seeing great art 0 Alien Hand Syndrome Cotard Delusion Capgras delusion Culturebound Syndromes 0 Culture Bound Syndrome o Widespread familiarity in the culture as a disease 0 Complete lack of familiarity in other cultures 0 No physical cause One culture knows about it and no one else does happens to only a small group of people 0 Kuro When they think they are losing their penis in their body China Southeast Asia 0 Wendigo psychosis believe they are cannibals Native Americas 0 Amok become enraged physically assaulting everything Southeast Asia 0 Dhat syndomre India they believe they are losing all their virility o Ataque de nervios wid emotional outburst at event Carribean of Spanish or Portugeuse dissent 0 Falling out US when they pass out o Taijin kyofusho when they think they are so disgusting they shut themselves off Japan DSMS Treats Culture Bound Syndromequot as different expressions of other better known disorders 0 Depression symptoms in Japan 0 Pain in the abdomen physical pain Gender Differences Men display more externalizing disorders 0 Substance abuse conduct diorders antisocial ADHD 0 Women display more internalizing disorders 0 Depression GAD panic disorders eating disorders Moved Towards Spectrums 0 We see this with many disorders in the DSM5 BiPolar Disorder and Autism ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder 0 DSMIV Autism Asperger s Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS 0 DSM Autism Spectrum Disorder 0 Symptoms o Deficits Vaccines Controversy 0 Initial study that led to the outcry had to be revoked because the lead researcher falsified the data 0 In 2009 court ruled that there was no evidence that vaccines lead to autism o Cultures that administer vaccines have similar rates of autism as those that don t Causes of Autism o No evidence of stressors or postnatal environmental factors 0 No relationship with parenting styles 0 Almost completely biological Nature Treatment 0 No powerful treatments to cure ASD Focus is on behavior modification 0 Mainly to help in socialization o The goal of ASD treatments is to give the patient scripts to fill in the social information that comes naturally to a typically developing individual Behavior imporvements but 0 Still withdrawn 0 Engage in ritualistic behaviors body rocking 0 Difficulty attending 0 Learning difficulties Some deteriorate in adolescence Only a small proportion can live and work independently


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