First three weeks of notes: J1100
First three weeks of notes: J1100 JOURN 1100
Popular in Principles of American Journalism
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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Date Created: 09/22/15
OO 00 00000 0000 0000000000 000 Journalism and Democracy Journalism fills the gaps connects citizens to society it39s essentially a bridge quotJournalism and democracy are two words for the same thingquot James Corey You cannot have one without the other Journalism can help democracy flourish if you take journalism away democracy will have a shakyfounda on News could not be produced Journalism keeps the government in check Journalism and Society Journalism is a social institution a reflection of society it helps broaden society Why we have the journalism we have Economic advertising relationships Political heavily slanted journalism for a political party Legal can publish a substantial amount of work without punishment Cultural a system geared toward liberty Technology creates certain possibilities History of US Journalism mirrors the history of the US Broadly libertarian Concerned with freedom Emerges out of enlightenment philosophy US Journalism US Society Core ideas Publication as an extension of free speech no restrictions or punishments Free competition leads to the triumph of truth and falsehood Free press best achieved through free market Principle enemy of freedom is the state Origins of US Journalism First US newspaper 1690 Publick Occurence Both Foreign and Domestick Boston Early press was noisy and partisan No notion of objectivity or public service Goal was to support political parties and make money quotGreat inconvenience may arise by the liberty of printingquot Powerful interests don39t like scrutiny Power changes people John Adams Emergence and character of US press as part of a broader movement John Milton English poet 1061674 Licensing order of 1643 Allowed and denied permission to print Areopagitica published 1644 a passionate defense of free speech Originate of quotmarketplace of ideasquot concept quotTruth and falsity of grapplingquot 0 OO 0 quotGive me the liberty to know to utter and to argue freely according to conscience about all libertiesquot Very influential on John Locke Rational Man Argument Reason is the source of truth not authority or tradition Part of shift away from authoritarianism to democracy Age of Enlightenment revolutions in philosophy Democracy Free election Full enfranchisement Each vote is equal Majority rule I depend judiciary Equality before the law Civil liberties guaranteed What democracy needs from journalism Information dissemination what the society ought to know about Having people make informed decisions Giving people capacity for self rule Accountability hold the powerful to account Representation counterbalance institutional power ensures voices are heard Deliberation and conflict resolution Vince region as the cornerstone of community The three metaphors The mirror reflect society as it is not as we would like it to be The watchdog will bark to sound the alarm and will bite to defend the little guy The marketplace will provide a robust marketplace of ideas to ensure we get a range of topics views and issues How does the press fulfill democratic needs Journalism informs analyzes interprets and explains Journalism is a bridge connecting the citizen to society Helping explain politics and complex stuff to society Journalism turns raw information to news Journalism investigates and cast journalists in an adversarial role quotA relentless adversary of the powerfulquot Etlema Using sources and public conversation that helps generate social empathy Helps us appreciate diversity and difference and connects us with one another to recognize our common humanity Journalism encourages accountability Thomas Clyde says that journalism is a quotfourth estatequot 00000 0 0000 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Potter Stewart quota fourth institution outside of governmentquot Government cannot keep itself accountable Other institutions need to be held accountable proportionate to their power and influence Free Speech Government is not the only threat to journalist free one there is Cutbacks The quest for ratings Cost of entry into the marketplace Advertiser pressure Source pressure The Hutchins Commission A commission on Freedom of the Press Commissioned by quotTimequot publisher Henry Luce to investigate condition of press freedom in the US in 1942 The commission argued that press freedom was in danger but because of press performance Rights come with repsonsobilities quotFreedom fromquot vs quotfreedom toquot Positive vs negative liberty Enshrined idea that journalism is a public services and ought to be conducted professionally Social responsibility Importance of Free Speech Hutchins Commission 1947 quotit promotes and protects all the restquot The Recommendations quotA truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day39s events in a context which gives them meaningquot Take care in reporting Get authentic sources Avoid hearsay Know what questions to ask Clearly separate fact and opinion Isolated facts are useless Context is king quotA forum for the exchange of comment and criticism Promote freedom of expression Represent important viewpoints and promote alternative thought Avoid anymore sources whenever possible quotThe projection of a representative picture of the constituent groups in societyquot Challenged stereotypes by promoting fact Pay close attention to words and images Remember our charged humanity quotThe presentation and clarification of the goals and values of the societyquot O 000 IOIIOIOIIO 000 OO 0 Educational role values democracy freedom quotFull access of the day39s intelligencequot Make information available to as many people as possible Write for broad based audiences Can journalism provide what democracy needs Consider Lippman and Dewey39s views Lippman Was pessimistic about the founders vision Would was too complex for an ordinary person to take in Factors limit is limitations of social contact comparatively meager time in a day for paying attention to public affairs Dewey More optimistic about the founders views More to democracy Conversation as root of democracy Keep talking to one another and we39ll be okay Lippman saw democracy as an outcome and Dewey saw it as a process What is Journalism Dividing lines Information vs advocacy Is there anything journalists shouldn39t be neutral about Wouldn39t opinion columnists call themselves journalists Information vs entertainment Does this mean journalism can39t be entertaining Hard news vs soft news Where is the dividing line What if soft news is more popular Professionals vs citizens Can anyone quotdoquot journalism Ideals vs Realities Surveys indicate quotThe Daily Showquot is a primary source of news for many millennials Those who watch have been more well informed on matter of public policy Blurred Boundaries Journalism should be viewed as a concept Why does this matter Should you be required to have a journalism degree to be a journalist Is it necessary to define jots list from non journalists OOOOOOOOO OOOOIIIIO 0 000000 To emphasize the credibility of journalists to help audiences navigate the media system Who is a journalist Some journalists have argued that defining journalists is a dangerous activity but others find it necessary ls journalism a profession What is a profession Full time occupation Standardized education system Membership in local and national association Enforceable codes of precessional ethics License to practice Monopoly over its field Journalism has had a long Exeter monopoly over their field and has protected it39s turf It39s a profession without baggage a We do not abandon professionalism Citizen Journalism People with no journalism background education or training are breaking down journalisms monopoly With technology Shoot edit and share video Blogs Factchecking journalists Opening up the conversation about journalism Said to have a quotWikipediaquot approach anyone can get on and add or edit what they please quotCrowdsourcingquot the news Covering what mainstream journalism misses EX Oscar Grant killed in train station by a police officer but was being respectful and obedient towards officer Craft and Davis39 Argument quotAre they journalistsquot Is the wrong question We should instead ask quotis what they are doing journalismquot Our Definition Transparency show the reporting and sources that support your work Collaborate with the audience Courage and attribute information responsibility Offer disclosures and statements of values Correct website and social media error effectively Independence goal is to maintain independence from those you cover The process gathering verifying and reporting OOOOOOOOOOO IOIIO Verify truth Involves confirming and establishing Journalism akin to the scientific method Truth is more than just facts Placing facts into context give it meaning News Making The process lnfo goes to gatekeepers the journalists and they turn it into news News depends on an audience or culture Need to have something that grabs attention News Values Timelessness Impact Currency Conflict Novelty Prominence Proximity Only people can decide what is newsworthy How do we define impact When do news organizations financial concerns define these values When do hours lists conventional practices define us Gatekeepers choose which info becomes news lnfo competed to convince gatekeepers to turn it into news
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