Psych of Adolescence- Semester Notes
Psych of Adolescence- Semester Notes DEP4305
UWF - Pensacola
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This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by Alii on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Bundle belongs to DEP4305 at University of West Florida - Pensacola taught by Venezia in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adolescence in Psychlogy at University of West Florida - Pensacola.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Chapter 1 Introduction 0 Adolescents O The people 0 Adolescence O A life stage between the time puberty begins and the time adult status approaches When people take on the roles and responsibilities of adulthood in their culture The time period Starts around 1218 Starts around puberty What makes us an adult People have more control than impulse Full brain development Depend on cultural beliefs 0 Cultures vary in how they de ne adult status People have found selfidentity o Boomerang kids struggle with it 0 People who move out and then back in 0000 0 Early adolescence 0 1014 0 Late adolescence 0 1518 0 Early adulthood 0 1825 0 History of conception of adolescence in Western cultures 0 Ancient times Plato 0 Viewed adolescence as the third distinct stage of life 0 After infancy birth7 and childhood 714 0 Ages 1421 0 Time when capacity of reason developed 0 Said no education before 7 years old 0 7 14 teach sports and music 0 14 teach science math etc 0 Middle ages Saw adolescence as a time of innocence where innocence posed a special value and power 0 1800s1900s Lifecycle service 0 Adolescence engaged in domestic services for others Age of adolescence 0 Child labor and laws came into effect c Mandatory schooling 0 Moving up age limits of school required Development of field of study of adolescence o G Stanley Hall was founder of APA o Initiator of the child study movement 0 Advocated researcher on child and adolescent development Advocated improvement of conditions for children and adolescent in school work and family 0 0 Emerging early adulthood 0 Identity exploration Explore different possibilities before making a commitment 0 Through this they develop an understanding of who they are what their capabilities and limitations are what their beliefs and values are and how they fit into society around them Time of instability Frequently moving around Selffocused age Selfawareness Helps figure out identity Focus on themselves as they develop skills needed for college Learning to stand alone and selfsufficient Age of inbetween Not kids but no longer adults Don t fit in anywhere Age of possibilities Optimism for the future Period from 1825 where young people become more independent of parents and eXplore various life possibilities Emerging adulthood eXist in Western cultures where young people are allowed to postpone adult roles Sign of adulthood is accepting responsibility for oneself making independent decisions and becoming financially independent Pg 7 Culture Beliefs traditions language etc A group s common way of life passed on through generations General and specific Majority culture 0 The culture that sets most the norms and standards 0 Subculturesminority cultures SES Socioeconomic status Social class 0 Including education level income level and occupational status Developed vs developing countries Developed 0 Western countries with developed economies Developing o Cultures becoming industrialized 0 Traditional cultures Maintained a way of life through stable traditions passed down generations 0 Review of research methodology 0 Research methods means scienti c method 1 Come up with a research question Something you re trying to gure out Will guide the rest of the study Standardize de nitions in it Questions can come from a variety of places 0 0 Observation Past research Where you ll start to look at operational de nition 0 How you can measure it standardize it 2 Set up a hypothesis 0 Making a prediction 0 Researcher designs a study to test their hypothesis 3 Look at methodology 0 What are we going to do to get an answer 0 Common kinds of methodology 0 O O 0 Observation Natural or lab Questionnaire Closed or openended Interview Structured unstructured or semistructured Ethnographic study Researcher is embedded in research 0 EX living with person Case studies Biological measures Blood pressure blood test etc Experiment Can manipulate variables 4 Data collection 0 Pilot study 0 0 Warm up for real study Sometimes you will encounter problems on the real study 5 Resultsconclusion 0 Look at data different ways 0 Quantitative Assigning numbers to things Give speci c statistical results 0 Qualitative Look at patterns Normally used in case studies 0 Publishing 0 Peerreviewed 0 Allow for replication Research contributes to the development and modi cation of theories 0 A theory presents a set of interconnected ideas in an original way and inspire further research 0 Ethics Do no harm o IRB 0 Institutional review board 0 Panel of experts who approve studies Informed consent 0 Optin 0 Best for facetoface studies 0 Optout 0 Normally for more benign studies 0 Form signed to give consent 0 Deception O Debrief afterwards Give consent again after debriefing Confidentiality 0 Can t do for people who are depressed suicidal or homicidal Chapter 2 Biological foundations 0 Reaction to puberty is culturally constructed 0 Timing depends on cultures 0 Interpretation depends on culture 0 Infancy 0 Huge growth 0 Early childhood 0 Growth slows 0 Is culturally constructed 0 Adolescence 0 Large growth 0 Large changes happen quickly 0 Primary seX characteristics Don t change Things related to reproduction we re born with Sperm and egg development 0 Egg develops into mature egg is called an ovum 0 Every 28 days 0 First production of sperm is called spermarche O Takes place around age 12 0 Secondary sex characteristics Not directly related to reproduction Things that change into adulthood Changes begin in the endocrine system c All are hormone based 0 Hypothalamus releases gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH 0 Located in brain 0 Trigger secondary sex characteristic 0 Release increases in middle childhood a year or two before the earliest changes Release increases when level of body fat is reached 0 Triggers FSH and LH which develop sperm and eggs Low body fat can create a delay Body is on a feedback loop until you reach your set point 0 See if it needs to release more or less hormones 0 Body eventually reaches a set point 0 Optimal level or hormones in the body 0 Asynchronous development 0 Uneven growth takes time for everything to catch up and be symmetrical Early developing females 0 Show changes around 89 0 Have higher risk for depression anxiety drug use and early sexual behavior 0 Have social problems Late developing females 0 Have higher risk for depression anxiety drug use and early sexual behavior 0 Have social problems Late developing males 0 Have higher risk for depression anxiety drug use and early sexual behavior 0 Have social problems Early developing males 0 Have more positive than regular aspects 0 Less concerns 0 Developing same time as girls 0 Biologicalphysical changes 0 Peak height velocity When growth spurt is at its maximum The amount of growth measured on average during a growth spurt 0 Have rapid growth spurt 0 Girls are 3 12 inches per year 0 Between ages 1113 0 Boys are 4 inches per year 0 Between 1315 Asynchronous o Extremities hands and feet grow first then rest of the body catches up Boys experience greater muscle growth because of more testosterone 0 Ratio of body fat Girls will have a ratio of 5 to 4 muscle to body fat Boys will have a ratio of 3 to 1 muscle to body fat Boys grow wider shoulders Girls grow wider hips Heart grows double its size and slows down 0 Boy s heart rate slows down more 0 Decline in physical activity Boys exercise more than girls Increase in obesity rates 0 Increase in physical functioning Emerging adulthood 20s is a time when the body is at its healthiest and peak condition Emerging adulthood is peak of physical function 0 Cultures reaction 0 Meaning and significance of changes depends on culture Meaning in uences the way adolescence interpret their changes 0 Rituals for changes EX girls rst period EX boys go through trials to show manhood O Puberty beings earlier in cultures with good nutrition and medical care Genes establish a range of possible times for puberty to begin but environment determines the actual timing Chapter 3 Cognitive changes 0 Cognition 0 Thinking problem solving etc 0 Children are active learners o Schemas 0 Mental representation of our world 0 Interpret and organize what is going on around 0 Two ways we make schemas Assimilation 0 Take new information and move it into a preeXisting schema 0 New information is altered to fit into an eXisting schema 0 Ex anything with fur and four legs is a dog Accommodation 0 Changing schemas and making new ones so information makes more sense 0 Changing the schema to adapt to the new information 0 Ex some things are dogs some are cats some are squirrels etc o Piaget 0 Found children answered questions the same ways Showed how children at various ages thought about questions differently 0 Stage theory Idea that there are distinct periods of time where we think certain ways and at the next stage there is a great cognitive leap Theories o Sensorimotor O From birth to 2 years old 0 Learn about the world around them by sense and motor skills 0 Learn to coordinate motor and sensory activities EX catching a ball 0 Preoperational 0 Ages 2 to 7 O Egocentrism Bad at perspective taking 0 Don t understand people see things differently than they do Test for end of egocentrism o 3 mountain problem 0 Concrete operation 0 711 years old 0 Still reality based Need to touch point etc 0 Better at using mental operations Leads to more advance understanding of the world 0 Conservation Can change aspects of things without changing what it is 0 Ex volume conservation of numbers 0 Formal operations 0 12 0 Able to manipulate abstracts and hypothesis Think about things not directly in front of them 0 Adolescent egocentrism Thinking it s all about them Helps with figuring themselves out Imaginary audience 0 Think everybody s watching them 0 Due to trouble distinguishing between our own perspectives and others 0 Personal fable o Vygotsky Believe their experiencesthey are unique NeoPiagetian 0 Extended on Piaget s work 0 Not as cohesive as Piaget thought 0 Learn over a period of time Gradual and steady o Something s may come in younger than predicted O Depends on the child 0 Proposed fth stage 0 Postformal operations Sophisticated problem solving 0 Complexity in considering O Pragmatism 0 Ex multiple variablesoutcomes 0 See shades of grey in things 0 Ex politics 0 Sociocultural theory They don t learn on their own but in social environment Children learn through others and require assistance to learn 0 Zone of proximity development 0 Intelligence The difference between where child is and where they could be if they are helped Gap between what children can accomplish alone and what they are capable of doing if guided by an adult 0 Scaffolding O Differing levels of assistance offered Like a ladder Need less help when they get higher up the ladder 0 Should gradually decrease as children become more competent at a task 0 Also called g How we see intelligence 0 Gardner Multiple intelligence 0 Traditional ideas of intelligence 0 Linguistic intelligence 0 Logical intelligence Mathematical intelligence Figure things out quickly and good at problem solving 0 Spatial intelligence 0 Ex using maps 0 Manipulating 3D objects o Bodily kinesthetic intelligence 0 EX athletes O Able to manipulate your body 0 Musical intelligence 0 Interpersonal intelligence 0 Managing relationships 0 EX making people work as a team 0 Interacting with others 0 Intrapersonal intelligence 0 Helpingunderstanding individuals 0 Selfunderstanding o Psychometrics O IQ testing Fluid intelligence 0 Problem solving thinking on feet analyzing new information 0 Peaks in emerging adulthood 0 Looks at speed of analyzing Crystalized intelligence 0 Facts knowledge accumulated over time 0 Early adulthood peak time o Accumulated knowledge 0 Test is broken into 2 main parts Verbal 0 Ex de nitions similarities in words Performance nonverbal 0 Ex puzzle blocks 0 Gives full scale IQ score FSIQ o Adolescence decision making 0 Behavioral decision theory 0 Five step thinking process Identifying possible choices Identify possible consequences of choices Evaluate desirability of each consequence Assess likelihood of each consequence Integrate 14 for decision 0 Information processing 0 Information is processed by multiple areas at once 0 Sensory register 0 Short term memory Holds information for about 30 seconds Holds 7 2 pieces of information Tricks to hold information for longer 0 Rehearsal O Repetition 0 Works unless you have interferences distractions o Chunking 0 Working memory Manipulating memory Processes things Where you keep information you are working on 0 Long term memory Unlimited capacity Unlimited duration How to help with encoding ling o Elaboration 0 Adding details to information 0 Relating to things 0 Give information more meaningdepth o Sensory information o Incidental learning 0 Has strong emotional component 0 Ex remembering 911 0 Executive functioning Monitoring newly remembered information efficiently Combining cognitive abilities Ex spelling test Ex are my study habits working Chapter 4 Cultural Beliefs 0 Culture is O Traditions O Standardsrulesethics of behaviors 0 Sense of right and wrong 0 Ex stories told food etc o Beliefs 0 Tell us our roles Gender roles Age expectations 0 Commonly held norms and moral standards of a culture 0 Ontogenic 0 Something that occurs naturally not due to cultural in uence 0 Socialization O Collectivist Looking at when you can do to help the group instead of just yourself Ex Native American tribes Amish Asian cultures How information is passed down 0 Ex traditions and values 0 Narrow socialization process 0 Information comes from a small number of sources Look at individual s place in the larger organization that existed before the individual was born 0 Individualistic Emphasis on the success of the individual EX Western cultures Information passed down 0 Broad socialization 0 Get information from a lot of different sources 0 EX many news channels intemet O Creates generational con ict 0 Outcomes of knowing information passed down Socialregulation o What the norms for behaviors is in the culture 0 EX what we see on TV 0 Selfcontrol to comply with social norms Role preparation Sources of meaning 0 Who s the authority 0 Where you get your example of who to be and how to be 0 EX the pope in religion celebrities etc 0 Indicate what is important what is to be valued and what is to be lived for 0 Religion 0 Secular Based on nonreligious beliefs and values Most developed countries 0 How people identify Committed traditionalist o 15 of US population 0 Religion is a significant part of their daily life 0 EX services decision making etc Selective adherents o 30 of US population 0 Religion is important but does not impact them daily Spiritually open 0 15 of US population 0 Don t identify with one particular religion but do believe in something Religiously indifferenthostile o 40 of US population 0 Not actively following a religion or believing there is a higher power 0 Fowler How we gain our own faith Theory of stages of religious development Poeticconventional faith 0 See there s more than one way to experience faith 0 Understanding other religions Individuatingre ective faith 0 Going into what we believe and away from our parents 0 Taking ownership of what you believe 0 Developing a more personal faith 0 Moral judgment 0 Kohlberg Looked at moral reasoning in moral dilemmas o Heinz dilemma 0 Man stealing medicine for sick wife Looked at how you arrived at that judgment 0 Looks at why and reasoning you put into it Different levels of reasoning 0 Level 1 O Preconventional Considered with extemals o Rewards and punishment Based on perception of likelihood to receive a reward or punishment Seen mostly in kids 0 Ex stealing the cookie and getting caught 0 Level 2 0 Conventional Social order 0 Trying to avoid chaos Most people s reasoning Conforming to the social expectations of others 0 Level 3 O Postconventional Decisions made on basis of universal principle Depends on individual s judgment Criticized for not having realistic dilemmas o How we say we ll react is not how we always will 0 Gilligan Wondered if women reasoned differently Level 1 0 Self 0 Decision based on what it s going to do for them Level 2 0 Good for society Level 3 o Morality of care 0 Looking at grand scheme of things Chapter 5 Gender 0 Sex 0 Biological 0 Normally XX or XY 0 Gender 0 Roles social categories 0 Culture dictates many things 0 Whether the focus is on our job or family 0 Sexual expectations 0 Manhoodwomanhood What do they mean What are the expectations for you c Historically 0 Female expectation Intellectual work 0 Girls were not expected to take any 0 Focus was on their children 0 Thought to damage their ovaries Virgin until marriage Physical appearance 0 Male expectations 3 PS 0 Provide 0 Protect o Procreate 0 17th and 18th century Communal manhood o Male s responsibility to put family and community first 0 19th century Selfmade manhood 0 Looking at the individual 0 Making his own way 0 20th century Passionate manhood 0 Focus on independence 0 Looked at men s emotional needs 0 Emotional freedom 0 Allowed selfexpression and selfenj oyment over selfcontrol 0 21st century Unclear rules 0 Why is it important Gender intensification hypothesis 0 Teen years are more intense due to trying to find out who you are 0 Differences between genders become more pronounced due to pressure to conform to gender roles o Feminine O Gentle affectionate O Cheerful shy affectionate loyal sympathetic understanding compassionate softspoken warm tender gullible childlike gentle o Masculine O Tough aggressive 0 Independent athletic assertive forceful dominant aggressive leader competitive ambitious o Androgyny 0 Combination of masculine and feminine traits in a person 0 Real gender differences 0 Girls tend to have better language skills 0 Boys tend to have better math and spatial skills 0 Most differences are culturally in uenced EX toys given to children 0 Girls tend to be closer to their parents 0 Why assume there are large differences Gender schema theory 0 What they should expect 0 Affects What we see and interpret Social roles theory 0 Differential socialization 0 Different things they see 0 In different populations Latin 0 Follow traditional roles o Machismo 0 Male dominance over females 0 Idea of manhood African American 0 Female are seen as disposable o Supposed to fit into stereotypes 0 Ex aggressive not good in school Chapter 6 The self 0 Large selffocus 0 To figure themselves out 0 Focus on What could behypothetical 0 Formal operations stage Gives more capacity for selfre ection 0 Change in selfconcept 0 Who am I 0 What kind of person am I 0 Changes in selfesteem 0 Changes in selfidentity 0 How do we fit in with the world around us 0 Selfconception 0 Actual self Who am 1 today Perception of the self as it is 0 Possible selves Perception of self as it may be Ideal self 0 Person we aspire to be Feared self 0 More complex sense of self More nuanced More contradictory 0 Ex I m shy but False self 0 Person you present yourself as but not who you arewant to be 0 Presentation 0 Selfesteem O O O Person s overall sense of worth Selfimage Person s evaluation of qualities in relation to someone else Selfconcept Person s view of themselves Include physical characteristics as well as traits and personality Selfperception Person s view of their characteristics and abilities Harter There is a baseline selfesteem 0 Basic sense of how we feel about ourselves o Daytoday feelings 0 Stable Barometric selfesteem o Fluctuation throughout the day depending on events Selfesteem tied to 0 Help form sense of self 0 Scholastic competence 0 Social competence 0 How do we fit in 0 Athletic competence 0 Physical appearance 0 How we feel about ourselves 0 Your thoughts on yourself 0 Job competence Romantic appeal Behavioral conduct Close friendships Global social economic 0 All those categories added together Depends on weight put on certain categories as well 0 How do they make us feel overall 0 Long termbigger picture 0 Identity 0 Erikson psychosocial theory Each stage we encounter a crisisdevelopment issues 0 Holds the potential for a healthy path and an unhealthy path 0 Identity crisis 0 The intense period of struggle the adolescent s eXperience in the course of forming an identity Trust vs mistrust o Birth1 year old 0 Dependent on those around them 0 Will the world be able to provide for me 0 Can we depend on the world around us Autonomy vs shamedoubt o 23 years old 0 Autonomy O I can do this 0 Being independent 0 Shamedoubt O Leads to low selfesteem Identity vs role confusion 0 1218 years old 0 Trying to gure out who you are 0 Healthy path 0 Establishing a clear and de nite sense of who you are c Unhealthy path 0 Failure to form a stable and secure identity 0 Negative identity 0 Identity based on all the bad things they see 0 Normally people eXperience role confusion Intimacy vs isolation 0 20s 0 Look at romantic relationships and friendships 0 Form deeper connections 0 Marcia Exploration and commitment How do we get that sense of identity Go through four different paths 0 Identity moratorium 0 Trying lots of things out 0 Never really decide on one Never experience commitment 0 Identity foreclosure 0 No exploration 0 There is commitment to things 0 Ex military families 0 Identity diffusion O No exploration 0 No commitment O Floaters 0 Identity achievement 0 Ideal 0 Had exploration 0 Have commitment O Postmodern identity Idea that identity is complex and highly varies across context and time Identity is not consistent 0 Changes depending Who you re around 0 Changes over time 0 Hybrid identity Integrates local culture with global culture Ex join fastpaced economic sector but still prefer an arranged marriage 0 Social loneliness 0 When people feel they lack a sufficient amount of social contacts and relationships 0 Quantity 0 Emotional loneliness 0 Feel the relationships they have lack sufficient closeness and intimacy 0 Quality Chapter 7 The Family 0 Most adolescents rely on parents 0 Family systems theory 0 Looks at how each relationship in the family in uences the Whole 0 All relationships are bidirectional What parents do affects children What child does affects parents Actions affect everyone in the family in some way 0 Ex bad things such as going to jail Very interactive Normally is a sense of disequilibrium O Explains Why people act the way they do They are affected by the family s attitudes and behaviors 0 Types of families 0 Divorced Higher risk of divorce for children Higher risk for drug use higher risk for early seX poor school achievement 0 Dual earners Higher risk for drug use higher risk for early seX poor school achievement 0 Other factors affecting impact of these variables Parental con ict 0 More con ict the more at risk 0 Put child in the middle of the argument 0 EX telling child bad things about other parent Amount of stress custodial parent is under 0 After divorce custodial parent Will normally be less warm 0 Due to stress Age of child at the time of the divorce 0 Different problems based on age 0 Young children don t understand 0 Blame themselves 0 Old children have adjustment issues 0 More likely to have academic problems Contact with noncustodial parent Longstanding psychological characteristics the child has 0 EX coping with stress 0 Siblings O 80 of people have siblings O Sibling relationships Few different patterns Caregiver relationship 0 Most common 0 Act as parent Buddy relationship 0 Treat each other as friends Critical relationship 0 Lot of con ict 0 More talk than action Rival relationship 0 Competition Causal relationship 0 No emotional relationship Can have a combination pf relationships Become more casual with age 0 Parenting styles 0 Kinds of practices that parents exhibit in relation to their child 0 Two dimensions Demandingness 0 Control 0 Degree to which rules and expectations are set Responsiveness o Warmth 0 Degree to which parents are sensitive to their child s needs 0 Four styles Authoritative 0 High in demandingness and responsiveness 0 Set rules and explain reasons for setting rules 0 Effects 0 Tend to be dependent creative socially skilled and selfassured 0 Allow autonomy independence responsibly Authoritarian 0 High demandingness low responsiveness 0 Show little emotional attachment 0 Effects 0 Are dependent passive and conforming Permissive 0 Low in demandingness high in responsiveness 0 Effects 0 Immature and irresponsible Disengaged 0 Low in demandingness and responsiveness 0 Effects 0 Impulsive O Delinquent 0 Early sex and drug involvement Chapter 8 Friends and Peers 0 During early adolescents and early adulthood peers and friends become more in uential 0 Peers 0 Share some aspectstatus of lives Ex age coworkers fellow students 0 Friends 0 Connection Valued mutual relationship 0 Development of friendships 0 Dynamics change Early childhood 0 Based on proximity toys playing etc Adolescent 0 Based on intimacy shared values 0 Share personal knowledge thoughts etc o Con de hopes and fears 0 Friend pressure 0 O O O Aka peer pressure Friends have strong in uence but peers have weak ones Can be positive or negative Bad in uence or good in uence Can be a support group Based on selfreports Behavior may not re ect actual behavior Perceive friend s behaviors as more similar to own when not Selective association In uenced or doing bad things prior 0 Correlation between risky behavior of friends and own risky behavior Choose friends similar to self 0 Relationships with friends changes relationships with family 0 O O 0 More close to friends than family Friends can mirror eXperiences and emotions Feel more free and open to talk and share Offer different kinds of support To take care of different needs Informational support 0 Advice guidance Instrumental support 0 Help with specific task 0 EX homework moving Companionship Esteem support 0 Make you feel good 0 All about emotional support Friends can offer more than one kind of support 0 Best friends normally offer all 0 Social status group status 0 O Crowds Group with some characteristic in common May not share interest EX jockathletes Social categories 0 Elites Athletes Academics Deviants Others Cliques Group you voluntarily enter Small tight knit Speci c rules and expectation to be part of Know each other well and do things with 0 Individuals Populars 0 Positive rating few negatives Rejects 0 Few positive lot of negatives 0 Normally aggressive Neglected 0 Not a lot of positive or negative ratings 0 No attention is paid to Controversial 0 High positive and negative 0 You love or hate them Average 0 Not a large split Can have different rating depending on who is asked 0 Bullying 0 Extreme form of peer rejection 0 Three components to bullying Aggression Repetition Power imbalance High in early adolescence Boys are more likely to be bullies and victims Both are at high risk for problems 1A of bullies are also victims Cyberbullying Does not need repetition Bullying behavior via email intemet or phones 0 Youth culture 0 Youth as a whole 0 Subterranean values Value excitement adventures and irresponsibility You as a youth value what older or younger people might not Style of youth culture 0 Distinguishing features 0 Image 0 Things you see Ex way you dress 0 Demeanor O Gesture walk etc o Argot OOOOO 0 Language vocab 0 Ex text speak 0 Erikson 0 Identity vs role confusion Through nding group and peer pressure in group people nd their identity Crowds help give some sort of identity Relational aggression o Nonphysical aggression that harms other s by damaging relationships 0 Gossip spreading rumors etc 0 Intimacy vs isolation Chapter 9 Love and Sexuality 0 Early to middle childhood 0 Believe in cooties Makes relationships dif cult 0 Dating and relationships 0 Historically l Liking 2 Dating 3 Going steady 0 Boy would give girl object to let everyone know they were together 0 Ex pin jacket etc 0 Modern Hooking up hanging out talking predating booty call F buddies etc Sexualities o Heterosexual homosexual bisexual asexual pansexual Transsexual 0 Changed Trans gender 0 Feeling Transvestite 0 Enjoy wearing the clothes of the other gender Coming out o Recognizing sexual identity and disclosing the truth to friends families and others 0 Stemberg O Passion intimacy commitment Passion is physical aspect 0 Ex heart beats fast Intimacy is closeness O Liking Intimacy only Most friendships O Infatuation Passion only EX celebrity crush 0 Empty love Commitment only 0 Romantic love Intimacy and passion Crushing and starting dating 0 Companionate love Intimacy and commitment O Fatuous love Passion and commitment Foolish love EX getting married after 3 days 0 Consummate love All three 0 Why we have love relationships 0 Early adolescence Middle school and high school Fun and recreation Learning 0 Practice ground to see what we do and don t like Method of status Companionship O Collegelate high school Focus on intimacy Long term Courtship 0 Dating scripts 0 Models that guide interaction 0 Males follow proactive scripts Initiating and taking the action 0 Females follow reactive scripts Responding to and going along with things 0 Romantic relationships 0 Pros and cons to being in one 0 Pros Can lead to social acceptance friendships romantic competence O Cons Higher risk for drug use and higher sexual activity 0 Concerns about starting relationships younger O Consensual validation Attracted to others like themselves Like nding someone in agreement of their characteristics in order to validate their view of the world Ex sharing religious beliefs 0 Adolescent love 0 O Mainly passion Seen cross culturally Don t act on it in the same way 0 Normally experience fatuous and romantic love 0 Break ups O 0000 Personal fable Think their experience is unique The less alike two people are the more they re likely to break up Girls are more likely to initiate the break up Boys are more likely to get depressed over it If no breakup Cohabitate andor get married 0 Cohabitation is not a good predictor for marriage 0 Sexual activity 0 O O Abstinence only Abstinence plus Focus on abstinence but also other options and precautions as well Does not cause more sex Birth control Don t take because 0 Adolescent are inconsistent forgetful etc 0 Personal fable 0 Ex captain of volleyball team can t get pregnant 0 Bad planning 0 Sexually transmitted diseases 0 0 Peak time for diagnoses is early adulthood Possible to contract something but not know until early adulthood Symptoms vary Asymptomatic o Show no symptoms 0 Normally don t realize they have something Curable treatable manageable 0 Can still be passed on Latency period 0 Time between they are infected and show symptoms 0 Can be years Asymptomatic Very common Can get genital warts Reduce reproductive health Linked to cancer Vaccine offered for three most common types Chapter 10 School 0 Compulsory schooling until 16 years old 0 No child left behind O NCLB 0 Make sure all children are being educated O Standardized high stakes testing Make sure they re making standards 0 Ex FCAT All 31 d on 31 d by 3rd 0 All 31 d graders should be reading on a 31 d grader level by 31 d grade 0 But 0 Developmental differences 0 Moving from NCLB to common core NCLB focuses on preparing you for the test Common core focuses on critical thinking 0 Cross culturally 0 Most developed countered follow the same teaching method Illiteracy in developing countries Type of education you get depends on money you make Tracking Put children on path Where they think you re heading 0 College prep 0 Vocational track 0 Professional track 0 EX if you want to be a teacher US does not do tracking anymore 0 School climate 0 Quality of interactions Student to student Staff to student 0 Do best Authoritative style 0 In structure environment 0 Some kind of warmthemotional support 0 Engagement 0 Being psychologically committed to learning 0 Not normally a priority 0 Whose fault is it for not being engaged Parents teachers children peers O Socioeconomic status related Low income families are less engaged 0 Cultural aspects 0 Extremes in achievement 0 Gifted Having IQ of 130 OOO Characteristics 0 Precocity 0 Independence 0 Don t want help 0 Drive for masteryperfectionism o Excellence in information processing 0 Learning disabilities Diagnosed 2X more in boys than girls By adolescence 0 Normally dropout 0 Fewer future prospects 0 Why dropout Difficult work Repeated grades 0 No friends Behavior problems 0 Adventureseeking 0 Have trouble working alone sitting quietly and listening to others Family factors 0 College 0 70 of people in US 0 Average bachelor s degree takes 56 years 0 Prediction of retention rate Previous academic performance 0 Good in high school good in college etc Socioeconomic status Ethnic backgrounds o Minorities are more likely to drop out o Subcultures O O O Represent different kinds of goals in college experience Characteristics Academic subculture Drawn to knowledge Get engaged in material study hard etc Collegiate subculture Centers around Greek life dating drinking sporting events and campus fun Professors and grades are a secondary priority Vocational subculture Practical view of education 0 Look at gaining skills to get a better job Normally work while in school Rebel subculture Nonconformist Skeptical of professors Enjoy learning when the material is interesting and relevant o Selectively studios Chapter 11 Work 0 Adolescent employment in other countries 0 Providing for community 0 Girls gather and care for children 0 Boys hunt 0 Debt bondage Family owes money to someone in community that they can t pay Give children as servant to family 0 Prostitution 0 Adolescence in US 0 Babysitting 0 Cutting lawns 0 Fast food 0 Farm work 0 Family business 0 How many hours should adolescent work 0 10 a week 0 Pros of working 0 Discipline Time management Value of money Experience Responsibility Selfesteem and con dence Independence 0 Putting work before school 0 Occupational hazardsdeviance 0 Older people 0 Sexual harassment 0 Minimum wage 0 Basic skills 0 Read at least a 9th grade level 0 Math at least a 9th grade level 0 Solve semistructured problems 0 Communicate effectively In writing and orally 0 Work a word processing program 0 Collaborate with a diverse group of people 0 Unemployed 0 How to help find employment Vocational education Volunteer opportunities 0 Adolescent tend to have higher selfesteem and con dence high ideals overlap in real and ideal self 0 Peace Corps and AmeriCorps 0 Military 0 Retention rate 0 Number of participants who continued taking part in study after the first year Chapter 12 Media 0 Music news TV internet magazines advertising etc o 70 of homes in the US have at least 1 TV 0 64 are on during meals 0 90 of homes have computerintemet access 0 Theories of media in uence 0 Cultivation theory The more media you re eXposed to shapes your world view 0 Ex gay marriage legalized headline depending on source will change view Mean world syndrome 0 The more TV you watch makes the world seem meaner and scarier 0 Social learning theory Bandura bobo doll study 0 Novel aggression 0 Creating new forms of aggression on bobo doll 0 New ways to be aggressive Most often behavior is seen done the more likely it will be repeated More likely to behave the way our models do 0 Uses and gratifications approach Same product but different reaction Role media plays is more compleX than a simple causeandeffect relationship View people as active media consumers 0 See people as different with different interest 0 People will also respond to media differently from others 0 Aggression and media 0 Age of exposure desensitization O Huesmann Looked at link between aggressive media and behavior Started at age 8 for a baseline Looked at again at age 19 and 30 The more likely you are to watch violent media the more aggressive you are 0 Cathartic effect Media relieves unpleasant emotions EX heavy metal can relieve anger in a harmless way 0 Media is O Adolescent driven O Goes over adult s heads Not as immersed in it 0 Functions as a super peer Tells you what you should be doing have etc 0 Can promote negative ideas 0 Ex 16 and pregnant 0 Show things not appropriate to teens O Controversial music Rap and heavy metal 0 Present women as objects violence and racial stereotypes Promotes unhealthy and morally questionable tendencies 0 Media practice model 0 Tell how kids interact with media 0 Four main steps teens go through when consuming media All starts with how teens see themselves 0 Will motivate how they take action and what media they will pay attention to O Level of attention will determine you how you interact with it You evaluate and interpret media 0 Depending on evaluation you will applicate it by incorporating it or resisting it 0 Uses of media 0 Entertainment 0 Identity formation 0 Sensation seeking Person enjoys intense sensations O Coping 0 Youth culture identity Gives a way of connecting with others Chapter 13 Problems and resilience 0 Developmental problems 0 Times development does not go as it should 0 2 categories of things we look at O Intemalizing Seen more often in girls Anxiety depression etc Suicide attempts O Extemalizing More likely to see in boys Anger driving fast road rage fights etc Suicide completion Risk behavior 0 Problems that involve the risk of negative outcomes 0 Risky driving drug use etc Problem behavior 0 Behavior that is thought to be the source of problems 0 Delinquency 0 Ex unprotected seX etc 0 Violations of the law committed by juveniles 0 More male than female 0 Crimes Status offenses Truancy and alcohol use before age 21 o Violations of law only because they are committed by juveniles Property damage Taking or damaging property Violent offense 0 0 Two groups ALDs Involve physical harm Adolescent limited delinquency Tend to show trouble during adolescence not before or after PLCDs Persistent life course delinquency Neurological issues 0 Ex ADHD Normally from highrisk environment Exhibit problems at an early age
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