Chapters 1-3 First Exam information
Chapters 1-3 First Exam information PSY 331
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Psychology of Learning Chapter 1 Learning Introduction Learning is a biological process which supports survival Must have the ability to predict changes in the environment Acquisition of behaviors Loss of behaviors Historical Antecedents Descartes and Re exes Voluntary versus Involuntary behaviors Humans versus Animals The MindBody Problem see previous notes and class lectures MindBody Problem This is the problem of how electrical activity in the brain is transformed into a phenomenological experience It attempts to reconcile quotthoughtquot with the physical existence of the body brain This is one of the oldest philosophical problems It may never be solved satisfactorily Assumptions The Body brain is physical and can be measured and quanti ed The Mind is nonphysical and cannot be measured or quanti ed o Ethereal astral ephemeral soul spirit The physical and the nonphysical do not interact with each other The Mind and the Body do interact Possible Solutions Monisms o Mentalism living in the matrix 0 Materialism Mechanism only material things exist Dualism o lnteractionist view taken by Descartes mind and body exist and interact o Nonlnteractionist clockmaker analogy mind and body exist but do not connect like 2 clocks Study of the Mind Descartes innate ideas Locke empiricism all knowledge comes from direct experience 0 British Empiricists and Association 0 Contiguity 2 diff ideas become associated based on the fact they show up together in time red apple 0 Similarity once you have learned one association it ts with all you know how a chair works you know how all chairs works 0 Contrast some you learn because they are different from each other concept of up versus down 0 Intensityhow strong is the stimulus Frequencyhow often is the stimulus presented Relevancehow important is it for your survival Dawn of the Modern Era Comparative Cognition and Evolution of the Mind 0 Charles Darwin Functioning of the Nervous System 0 Pavlov and Nervism Developing animal models 0 Skinner and Relevant Features De nition for Learning 0 Learning is an enduring change in the mechanisms of behavior involving speci c stimuli andor responses that results from prior experience with similar stimuli and responses LearningPerformance Distinction Performance refers to an organism39s actions at a particular time Affected by in addition to learning 0 Opportunity 0 Motivation 0 Sensory and motor abilities Use of NonHuman Animals in Research of Learning Rationales for the use of animals 0 Public rebate about the use of animals 0 Food965 Hunting26 Killed in Shelters 04 Furs 02 Teaching and Research 03 0000 Ethics of Animal Research 0 Alternatives 0 Observational only Techniques 0 Plants and Tissue cultures 0 Computer Simulations Learning Chapter 2 Habituation and Sensitization Elicited Behavior Re exes o Eliciting Stimulus 0 Corresponding Response Re exes Monosynaptic 1 synapse 2 nerves 0 Stretch re ex Disynaptic 2 synapses 3 nerves 0 Afferent Neurons interneurons Efferent Neurons o Withdrawal re ex Polysynaptic 3 synapse 4nerves o Rooting Sucking Grasping Respiratory Occlusion Re ex Babinski Response Modal Action Patterns MAPs Fixed Action Patterns Response sequences Sign stimulus or Releasing Stimulus Effectiveness of the Sign Stimulus Supernormal Stimuli o Herring Gull Egg Retrieval Sequential Organization of Behavior 0 Responses are organized into speci c sequences 0 Eating behavior is o Appetitive behavior Consummatory behavior 0 General search focal search food handling 0 Noneating examples Effects of repeated stimulation 0 Visual attention in human infants Salivation and hedonics for Taste Startle Response in Rats o Stabilimeter chamber Habituation and Sensitization Habituation leads to decreases in behavior Sensitization leads to increases in behavior 0 Other causes of behavioral changes sensory adaption fatigue DualProcess Theory Habituation process 0 SR system shortest neural path Sensitization process 0 State system level of response 0 Both may be active simultaneously Characteristics of Habituation and Sensitization Time Course 0 Short Long Spontaneous recovery Stimulus Speci city Strong Extraneous Stimuli Extensions to Emotional Responses Drug Tolerance one of many Opponent Process Theory of Motivation Homeostasis Primary Process a process Opponent Process b process Effects of habituation Learning Chapter 3 Classical Conditioning 0 Early years of Classical Conditioning 0 Ivan Pavlov and Edwin Twitmeyer Discoveries of Wolfsohn and snarsky 0 Focus on salivation orosensory stimuli Object learning Classical Conditioning paradigm Basic Terminology o Unconditional stimulus food 0 Unconditional response salivation o Conditional Stimulus tuning Fork 0 Conditional Response salvation to tuning fork Experimental Situations Fear Conditioning 0 Conditioned emotional response conditioned suppression o Suppression ratio Eyeblink response 0 Sign Tracking Autoshaping Taste Aversion Learning Excitatory Conditioning Shortdelayed conditioning Trace conditioning LongDelayed conditioning Simultaneous conditioning Backward conditioning Measurement of Conditioning 0 Strength of conditioning may be measured using 0 Magnitude of the CR 0 Probability of response proportion of response 0 Latency of response Exam 2 starts here Inhibitory Conditioning CS signals the absence of the US It only occurs in conjunction with a periodic excitatory context Standard Procedure pairs CS with CS and no US Differential Inhibition pairs CS with US and CS with no US Prevalence of Classical Condition 0 Acquiring food preferences and aversions in people 0 Implications for disease states 0 Infant and maternal response Conditioning of sexual behaviors
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