Full month of notes: J1100
Full month of notes: J1100 JOURN 1100
Popular in Principles of American Journalism
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
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OO 00 00000 0000 0000000000 000 Journalism and Democracy Journalism fills the gaps connects citizens to society it39s essentially a bridge quotJournalism and democracy are two words for the same thingquot James Corey You cannot have one without the other Journalism can help democracy flourish if you take journalism away democracy will have a shakyfounda on News could not be produced Journalism keeps the government in check Journalism and Society Journalism is a social institution a reflection of society it helps broaden society Why we have the journalism we have Economic advertising relationships Political heavily slanted journalism for a political party Legal can publish a substantial amount of work without punishment Cultural a system geared toward liberty Technology creates certain possibilities History of US Journalism mirrors the history of the US Broadly libertarian Concerned with freedom Emerges out of enlightenment philosophy US Journalism US Society Core ideas Publication as an extension of free speech no restrictions or punishments Free competition leads to the triumph of truth and falsehood Free press best achieved through free market Principle enemy of freedom is the state Origins of US Journalism First US newspaper 1690 Publick Occurence Both Foreign and Domestick Boston Early press was noisy and partisan No notion of objectivity or public service Goal was to support political parties and make money quotGreat inconvenience may arise by the liberty of printingquot Powerful interests don39t like scrutiny Power changes people John Adams Emergence and character of US press as part of a broader movement John Milton English poet 1061674 Licensing order of 1643 Allowed and denied permission to print Areopagitica published 1644 a passionate defense of free speech Originate of quotmarketplace of ideasquot concept quotTruth and falsity of grapplingquot 0 OO 0 quotGive me the liberty to know to utter and to argue freely according to conscience about all libertiesquot Very influential on John Locke Rational Man Argument Reason is the source of truth not authority or tradition Part of shift away from authoritarianism to democracy Age of Enlightenment revolutions in philosophy Democracy Free election Full enfranchisement Each vote is equal Majority rule I depend judiciary Equality before the law Civil liberties guaranteed What democracy needs from journalism Information dissemination what the society ought to know about Having people make informed decisions Giving people capacity for self rule Accountability hold the powerful to account Representation counterbalance institutional power ensures voices are heard Deliberation and conflict resolution Vince region as the cornerstone of community The three metaphors The mirror reflect society as it is not as we would like it to be The watchdog will bark to sound the alarm and will bite to defend the little guy The marketplace will provide a robust marketplace of ideas to ensure we get a range of topics views and issues How does the press fulfill democratic needs Journalism informs analyzes interprets and explains Journalism is a bridge connecting the citizen to society Helping explain politics and complex stuff to society Journalism turns raw information to news Journalism investigates and cast journalists in an adversarial role quotA relentless adversary of the powerfulquot Etlema Using sources and public conversation that helps generate social empathy Helps us appreciate diversity and difference and connects us with one another to recognize our common humanity Journalism encourages accountability Thomas Clyde says that journalism is a quotfourth estatequot 00000 0 0000 OOOOOOOOOOOOOOO Potter Stewart quota fourth institution outside of governmentquot Government cannot keep itself accountable Other institutions need to be held accountable proportionate to their power and influence Free Speech Government is not the only threat to journalist free one there is Cutbacks The quest for ratings Cost of entry into the marketplace Advertiser pressure Source pressure The Hutchins Commission A commission on Freedom of the Press Commissioned by quotTimequot publisher Henry Luce to investigate condition of press freedom in the US in 1942 The commission argued that press freedom was in danger but because of press performance Rights come with repsonsobilities quotFreedom fromquot vs quotfreedom toquot Positive vs negative liberty Enshrined idea that journalism is a public services and ought to be conducted professionally Social responsibility Importance of Free Speech Hutchins Commission 1947 quotit promotes and protects all the restquot The Recommendations quotA truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day39s events in a context which gives them meaningquot Take care in reporting Get authentic sources Avoid hearsay Know what questions to ask Clearly separate fact and opinion Isolated facts are useless Context is king quotA forum for the exchange of comment and criticism Promote freedom of expression Represent important viewpoints and promote alternative thought Avoid anymore sources whenever possible quotThe projection of a representative picture of the constituent groups in societyquot Challenged stereotypes by promoting fact Pay close attention to words and images Remember our charged humanity quotThe presentation and clarification of the goals and values of the societyquot O 000 IOIIOIOIIO 000 OO 0 Educational role values democracy freedom quotFull access of the day39s intelligencequot Make information available to as many people as possible Write for broad based audiences Can journalism provide what democracy needs Consider Lippman and Dewey39s views Lippman Was pessimistic about the founders vision Would was too complex for an ordinary person to take in Factors limit is limitations of social contact comparatively meager time in a day for paying attention to public affairs Dewey More optimistic about the founders views More to democracy Conversation as root of democracy Keep talking to one another and we39ll be okay Lippman saw democracy as an outcome and Dewey saw it as a process What is Journalism Dividing lines Information vs advocacy Is there anything journalists shouldn39t be neutral about Wouldn39t opinion columnists call themselves journalists Information vs entertainment Does this mean journalism can39t be entertaining Hard news vs soft news Where is the dividing line What if soft news is more popular Professionals vs citizens Can anyone quotdoquot journalism Ideals vs Realities Surveys indicate quotThe Daily Showquot is a primary source of news for many millennials Those who watch have been more well informed on matter of public policy Blurred Boundaries Journalism should be viewed as a concept Why does this matter Should you be required to have a journalism degree to be a journalist Is it necessary to define jots list from non journalists OOOOOOOOO OOOOIIIIO 0 000000 To emphasize the credibility of journalists to help audiences navigate the media system Who is a journalist Some journalists have argued that defining journalists is a dangerous activity but others find it necessary ls journalism a profession What is a profession Full time occupation Standardized education system Membership in local and national association Enforceable codes of precessional ethics License to practice Monopoly over its field Journalism has had a long Exeter monopoly over their field and has protected it39s turf It39s a profession without baggage a We do not abandon professionalism Citizen Journalism People with no journalism background education or training are breaking down journalisms monopoly With technology Shoot edit and share video Blogs Factchecking journalists Opening up the conversation about journalism Said to have a quotWikipediaquot approach anyone can get on and add or edit what they please quotCrowdsourcingquot the news Covering what mainstream journalism misses EX Oscar Grant killed in train station by a police officer but was being respectful and obedient towards officer Craft and Davis39 Argument quotAre they journalistsquot Is the wrong question We should instead ask quotis what they are doing journalismquot Our Definition Transparency show the reporting and sources that support your work Collaborate with the audience Courage and attribute information responsibility Offer disclosures and statements of values Correct website and social media error effectively Independence goal is to maintain independence from those you cover The process gathering verifying and reporting OOOOOOOOOOO IOIIO OOO Verify truth Involves confirming and establishing Journalism akin to the scientific method Truth is more than just facts Placing facts into context give it meaning News Making The process lnfo goes to gatekeepers the journalists and they turn it into news News depends on an audience or culture Need to have something that grabs attention News Values Timelessness Impact Currency Conflict Novelty Prominence Proximity Only people can decide what is newsworthy How do we define impact When do news organizations financial concerns define these values When do hours lists conventional practices define us Gatekeepers choose which info becomes news lnfo competed to convince gatekeepers to turn it into news What does news look like Types of reporting Best stories local government hard news assigned Soft news human interests stories features sports assigned Enterprise freelancing investigate explanatory not assigned Reporters usually move fluidly among these types of reporting Roles Reporter gather write news Editor oversees reporting process Sub editor oversees specific division Copy editor proofreading tone AP style Design editor directs presentation Producer broadcast specific editorial supervisor News director oversees editorial process Newsroom Structure varies in each newsroom OOOOOOOOOOO IIIOIIIIOIIIOO 0 IO IOIOIO Technological strengths and constraints of reporting with various media Newspapers Strength space time for depth context Constraint space is finite TV Strength visuals audio Constraint time broadcast not cable Radio Strength audio imaginative visuals Constraints time actual visuals Online Strength space depth context interactivity multimedia Constraints bandwidth How is news made Inverted pyramid follows structure of most important to least important Origin came from journalists having to report via messaging and suddenly stop their main goal was to make sure they got the most important information through to the public It varies from company to company and the different styles of reporting Benefits Recognizable structure for audiences Standardized practice Forces reporters to craft strong leads and quotnut graphsquot Cristicsm Antiquated model Product of very specific medium Works well for breaking news Assumed that scarce attention requires front loading information Alternative methods lnfographics data visulstization Timelines Q amp A Storytelling in chunks How do Horus lists take care of the news gates in this new environment Alternatives to old gate keeping model Citation or aggression Traditional gatekeepers present audiences with a menu of the most important info to pass thru Gatewatching Bruns 2005 Traditional gatekeepers show audience which gates to look thru Second art gatekeeping Singer 2014 Traditional gatekeepers deciding what user generated information is most important in the public sphere Going viral Audience as gatekeepers 000000000 0000000000000 How do journalists ensure that the news has value when we have a surplus of information Citizen journalists have the potential to open their own gates How is news made Making news involves time honored formulas as well as risk taking with new models of delivery It is a negotiatory process involving many actions Individuals and non professional journalists are involved in the news making process more than ever before Journalists today must understand their role in the news making process and understand that their role is always changing Economics of Journalism What are the various ways in which journalism is paid for How did we arrive at today39s business models History Party press into the penny press late 19th century into early 20th century Increased printing capacity Growth of advertising Objectivity became profitable Communication Act of 1934 Established the FCC quotPublic Interest Convenience and Necesityquot PICAN Who decides government or private enterprises Early days of broadcasting entertainment programming paid for news programming What does commercial media look like today Media Ownership the big six Time Warner TV CNN HBO TBS TBT CN Entertainment Warner Brothers New Line Cinema DC Comics Print Time Magazine People Sports Illustrated Entertainment Weekly Real Simple Online TMZ News Corp TV Fox NewsSports Nat Geo Channel Big Ten Network Entertainment 20th Century Fox Books Harper Collins Online Hulu 37 Walt Disney TV ABC ESPN AampE Lifetime Disney Channel History Channel Entertainment Disney Pictures Pixar Touchstone Pictures MiramaX Marvel Hollywood Records Lucasfilms IIOIIOIIOOOOOO00000000000 OOIIOOOO OOOOOO Online Hulu 27 Other Disney parks Buena Vista Concerts Disney Mobile Viacom TV Nickelodeon MTV VH1 CMT BET Comedy Central Spike CBS Corporation TV CBS CW Showtime Entertainment CBS Films CBS Records Books Simon and Schuster Online CNET Other CBS outdoor Comcast TV NBC MSNBC Bravo Oxygen Golf Channel USA E NBCSW Weather Channel Entertainment Universal Studio Online Hulu 32 Other Universal Studies Utility Cable Internet Xfinity phone service Other major international players SonyJapan Sony pictures Sony Music Entertainment Bertelsmann Germany BMG Random House Vivendi France Universal Music Group Activism blizzard Media Ownership Radio lheart media Clear Channel Owns 880 radio stations Owns 90 syndicated programs and broadcast on 5800 stations 213 million listeners Created and alliance with Cumulus media to facilitate content delivery to markets Cumulus owns 500 stations delivers content to 4500 stations Dominance of these two companies led to a direct result of the 1996 Telecommunications Act No limit to totally number on radio stations that a single entity could own nationally Limit on number of stations defined by market by market Media Ownership Print Major players in US Print Media Hearst Tnbune EW Scripps McClatchy Gannett Gatehouse OO OIOIIOIIOOOIO 000000 00000 Lee Enterprises NewsCorp Horizontal integration owning companies that explains the breadth or reach of your products and services Vertical integration owning companies that streamline the production of your products and services Interlocking Directorates members of the board of one company sit on the board of another company NewsCorp Disney Viacom Time Warner have 45 interlocking directorates Implications of Content Media Content Potential decrease in diverse voices Potential decrease in risk taking increase in duplicate content Desire to maximize certainty Journalism Content Tension between quotpublic spherequot and quotproductquot models of journalism Concern that streamlining of business operations could lead to cost cutting of most valuable assets Devoting resources to more profitable content Unrealistic conceptions of nominal annual growth 1970s80s Gannett 3050 1990s across the industry 29 Greater reliance on syndicated and wire content Potential decrease of local voices Potential homogenization of wire content Lack of print competition 19203 43 of cities had multiple newspapers 2000 1 Potential decrease in risk taking covering of underrepresented voices Desire to maximize certainty Potential desire to attract affluent audiences Economics of Journalism quotNewspaper Crisisquot of late 2000spresent Factors contributing to crisis in business model Newspaper chains carried loads of debt High expectations for annual growth not being met Monopoly on news challenged with the rise of blogging citizen journalism Change in consumption products among young people High operating costs for print media OOO 000000000 000000000 Decline in classified revenue Online ads not worth as much as print ads Online delivery seen as complementing prong delivery quotDollars to Dimesquot Print Advertising Publishers set rates Rates based on size color location Max exposure potential is publication circulation Print had monopoly on information audience Online Advertising Advertisers have more power over setting rates Rates based on impact Exposure and impact are highly trackable Print has lost monopoly over information audience Loads of Debt Tribune Co 12 billion 2008 McClatchy 25 billion 2008 Journal Register Co 628 million 2008 Gatehouse 12 billion 2008 Lee Enterprises 995 million 2011 Rationale newspapers were returning exceptionally high annual profit margins Today debts are 520 times greater than the annual revenue Social Factors Younger adults weren39t as concerned about newspapers not existing 75 of their ability to get information would not be affected Responses from newspapers Layoffs buyouts redundancies 35000 jobs 25 cut from newsroom jobs Concessions furloughs Closures online only publications Closures 2009 105 2010 151 2011 152 Closed Rocky Mountain News Seattle Post Intelligencer Moved to online Christian Science Monitor Reduced Circulation Detroit Free Press New Orleans Times Picayune Impact on Content 35 reduction in newspaper reporters covering state legislatures 20032014 Major reductions of regional newspapers having DC bureaus Major reductions in foreign bureaus 000 0 Movement away from beat reporting Layoffs of most experienced reporters Major decreases in professional photographers Copy editing and page design jobs taking major hit In 2013 31 of Americans left a news outlet because it stopped covering Closer look at the impact crisis on reporting on local government Reporters spread thin Loss of institutional memory Tendency toward pack journalism Rise of click driven journalism Local government reporting seen as a stepping stone job State and local politicians bypassing traditional gatekeepers and fact checkers Silver Linings Ritual newspapers haven39t suffered as bad as papers in metro areas However any cuts to the USPS disproportionately affects rural newspaper delivery What do the stocks say Growth continues to be insufficient to pay for newspapers debts Stock indicators alone do not measure responsible growth quotBusiness as usualquot behavior Key Takeaways Crisis in the traditional business models of news media Crisis felt differently across different platforms and markets but the main impact had been felt in the newspaper industry Multiple factors to crisis Economical Structural Social A journalism crisis in the senses at the business model crisis threatens the good journalism but not in the sense that journalism is the central problem
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