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Sept 10 - Sept 24

by: bridget berning

Sept 10 - Sept 24 HIS 104

bridget berning
GPA 3.0
History of Native Americans
Linda Clemmons

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Notes from Sept 10th to 24th
History of Native Americans
Linda Clemmons
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This 26 page Bundle was uploaded by bridget berning on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HIS 104 at Illinois State University taught by Linda Clemmons in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of Native Americans in History at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 09/24/15
History 104 sept 10th The causes of the French and Indian war 0 BritishFrench 0 Ohio country contested o 1750 exclusive control 0 England 1 Forts 2 Land company gt the ohio company 1753 France Forts Fort Duquesne War broke out in 1754 3 The indians Choose sides Neutral wanted to remain neutral who would help them most or hurt them the least Majority of tribes sided with the French 1 Trade had better goodsest trade routes failry treated 2 French fur tradeBritish agriculture gt land loss a Ohio land company Algonquin indians located upper midwest lower canada upper east coast English Iroquois nation Mohawks Oneidas Onondagas Cayuga Seneca Problems 1 Switched sides 2 Not well trained 3 Own goals 4 Fighting the war 1754 0 George washington failed to capture Fort Duquesne o Built and lost Fort Necessity 200 virginia OH country He thought it would be easy to convince Indians 0 But he really only convinced 40 then they abandoned him Since he failed with Duquesne he built Fort necessity 0 then the french took over Fort necessity 1755 o The british sent Major General Edward Braddock to lead British efforts to defeat the French Braddock attempted and failed to capture Fort Duquesne he alienated native allies some offered to help if you promise to help us retain our land 1St 12 of war French dominated Until 1758 o In 1758 the tide turned in favor of the English 0 William pitt sent sizeable numbers of British soldiers The british captured Fort Duquesne held peace conf with the ohio Indians 0 protect their lands 0 Made peace with British abandoned the French 1759 0 British took Fort Niagra captured Quebec 0 Frances major city in the North America 1760 Montreal fell ghting ended in America and switched to Europe 0 quotgerman warfarequot British General Jefferey Amherst he suggested using small pox infested balnkets 1763 war actually ended 3 years earlier 0 British and French signed Treaty of paris which formally concluded the war 0 France lost all colonial holdings in North America England Canada Atlantic gt Mississippi river 5 Results of the war 1 Geographic dislocation gt forced to move multiple times because of continuous warfare a New york gt ohio b Ohio gt Missouri 2 Political disruption Civil chiefs War chiefs Daily war seasonalsmall scale War became continuos large scale War chiefs 3 Indians worried about British a After treaty British controlled North America i agriculture gt land History Sept 15 Native Americans and the Revolutionary War 1 Taking sides British or American a Proclamation of 1763Quebec Act 1774 b Neutral Allies end 0 Most choose to align with British 0 French Indian War 0 American British 0 m British 0 m American 1 Trade a Good trade goods b Established trade routes 2 Experienced lndian Agents a Indian agency i N S Superintendent 3Land 1 Proclamation of 1763 a Was a British Act prohibited settlement west of Appalachian mountains b American colonists ignored the proclamation 2 Quebec Act 1774 a Stop American settlement in West b Americans ignored the Act 3 Declaration of Independence 4 Win Back ost lands 5 British promised to all tribes that they could take part in any treaty negotiations at the end of the war American Indian Department Superintendent they were kinda successful Ind Mass Oneidas lriquois confederacy gt sided with Americans I Native Americans and the war Partic Rev war battles Frontier raids NY PN SC NC GA 0 Conducted by indian and British 0 Usually by indians and supplied by british guns Diverted American efforts to frontier 1 1776 Cherokees GAcarolinasVI 1777 5000 soldiers burned cherokee homes eldslivestock 0 quottotal warquot Cherokee ed to appalachian mountains o Ceded 8000 acres of land 2 Iroquois NYPN a 1779 Washington i destroying 40 towns Violence frontier West america raids violentdeadly Amer communitites scalped Indians homefront Female warriors hunt harvests 0 They suffered from starvation Cutoff trade Political division 0 Civil Chief War chiefs Ill The treaty of Paris 1783 British gt Amer Independence British gt Vast territories Sgt Great lakes Egt Mississippi Ngt Florida spain Partic Treaty reg IV After the Treaty Punished Indians allied with British by taking their lands Stockbridge lnds Ma Upstate NY Oneidas 1818 IN 1822 WI Settlers west 0 1790 80000 settlers moved into western areas 0 social dislocation land loss 0 Post war world 0 Debt no tax But they had the western land to sell to pay their war debt 0 But Native Americans were living on the land History Sept 17th Lecture 8 The New Nation Indian policy 1 Developing an American Indian policy a Goals of Post Revolutionary Federal Indian Policy i Gaining control of lands 1 Land ordinance of 1785Northwest Ordinance in 1787 New Territory midwest OHINMIILWIMN Land only traded on paper 0 Indians were living on the land 1 Wanted land so Americans could livework on the land 2 US in debt from Revolutionary war a American gt Articles of Confederation i There were no taxes b They wanted the land to pay off their debt since they didn t have taxes 3 Squatters they would squat or live on the land without buying it 4 Philosophical reasons a Small farmers Land Ordinance New Ordinance Used to survey and sell NW Territory surveyors supposed to turn the territory into a grid so it would be easier to sell 0 Land ordinance NW ordinance 0 States 0 Banned slavery in NW territory 0 Indians gt they wanted the indians removed that was one of their main goals 2 Civilizing Indians a Civilizing indians i settled lives ii farming iii physical apperance they will look like the rest of Americans men will have shorter hair no face paint b The language will be English c They know how to read and write d Chrisitian Protestant e Euro American gender roles i The women farm ii Men homechildren Removal quotcivilizingquot 0 Force them to settle in one place 0 If one place there will be no more hunting gt they were forced to farm SchoolChurch Missionairies help teach convert Native Americans 0 NOT scienti c racism gt culture rel inferior B How was the Government going to achieve these goals 1 Creation of an Indian Department war department 2 Regulating Trade 0 Indian Trade and Intercourse Act 1790 o Fed licensed traders 0 quotTrading factoriesquot NW territory Non indians traveling through Ind Country States individuals couldn t purchase Indians lands 0 All land sales have to go through the federal government 3 Negotiating treaties with Indian tribes a Federal government needs to negotiate i Treaties that include land cessions ii Treaty signed rati ed 4 Carrying out the Federal Indian policy a Carried out poorly i Trade traders failed to get licenses 1 They continued to take land didn t use the quottrading factoriesquot b People continued to travel through indian land i Squatters continued to settle on Indian lands c States continued to negotiate treaties even though they werent supposed to i Some individuals continued to purchase lndian Lands Con ict gt Removal of Indians 0 Con ict over trade 0 Claims on lands ll lndians Response to the New US Government a Overt Military Resistance 0 Joseph Brant 0 Battle of Fallen TimbersTreaty of Greenville 1795 0 They didn t like losing land the indians didn t like that they were trying to be kicked out they didn t want to become civilized They didn t want their land to be surveyed Local level small scale raids o Raids against settlers who were living on their lands There were many raids back and forth 0 Large united resistance on NW frontier 1780s Joseph Brant Mohawk gt he became the spokesman for NW tribes formed confed of tribes devoted to resisting American settlement on Indian lands There were 9 different tribes in this group Iroquois heuron delaware shawnee atoua ojibwa pottowatta miami wabash 1786 Delegates from each tribe met and held a council to gure out how to deal with Americans 0 They drafted and sent a message to the US congress They said they wanted peace no war 0 No settlement West of Ohio river 0 Any treaty that US signed would have to be signed with all 9 tribes If US violates this there will be war The US responds George washingtonsecretary of war knox they also wanted Peace US didn t have money so war would be a last resort 0 As years past things heated up Americans still were settling on lands Squatters 0 So war broke out in 1790 heated up in 1791 0 At rst Indian won lopsided victories o seemed like US would have to negotiate US army stepped back to rebuild regroup Divisions appeared in Brant s confederacy 0 US 1 million Gen Anthony Wayne 0 To train a new army 0 August 1794 tribes more divided Americans met indians at battle of fallen timbers 1794 lost to anthony wayne 0 had to negotiate treaty with wayne Treaty of greenville 1795 o indians lost 23 of Ohio and part of indiana lnd Supposed to have lasting boundry 10000 indians received for lost lands 0 they received this in yearly payments that was less than 10000 actually 0 The payments were quotcivilization fundsquot plows seeds 0 This was the civilization program 0 B Cultural and Religious Responses handsome lake and the longhouse Religion senecas lndians turned within gt to their traditional religion culture 0 Some tribes rejected American trade goods 0 Some rejected alcohol 0 Religious ceremonies gt rejected christianity Other tribes developed new religions culture 0 Combined traditional with American culture and religion quotsyncretismquot blending Handsome lake was a Seneca 4 million acres gt 200000 acres 0 seneca faced poverty diseases alcoholism handsome lake was an alcoholic 0 he suffered from poverty also He was close to death from alcoholism He had this vision then he stopped drinking alcohol quotLonghouse Religionquot He said they should live in Peace with everyone 0 also he said people shouldn39t drink alcohol civilized o farming male 0 some education he proposed this 0 He said NO more land sales Formed a syncretic religion Seneca reused christian stuff as well His 104 Sept 22nd Thomas Jefferson Lewis and Clark and Native Americans 0 May 14 1804 Sept 23 1806 1 Thomas Jefferson and Indians Enlightenment mid 19th century Origin Degenerated environment Inferior culturereligion OOOO civilized o reservation Scienti c racism mid 19th century 0 Different races different origins inferior Remove indians and put them on reservations Scientists did experiments 0 Morton had a lot of skulls Phrenology The map of the skull and characteristics 0 They would feel the bumps on the skulls 2 Why explore the Louisiana Purchase LA purchase US purchased Loouisiana from france in 1803 Jefferson was president o 530 million acres of land 800000 miles 0 paid 15 million or 3 cents per acre Why did Jefferson want to explore LA 1 To test Myths a The terrain of the region b Animals gt unicorns buffalo 7 foot tall beavers cMaps d quotNorth West passagequot i eastwest 2 American animals NOT inferior to European animals 3 Jefferson wanted to establish area and trade a Ex furs 4 Support US 5 Collect info about the region he wanted explorers to map area take note of the foliage animals there among other things Meriweather LewisWilliam Clark 0 They were in charge with 250 other men Clarks slave had to go with them on the adventure 0 Hired half french man named Drouillard gt he would serve as their translator o All of these men formed the Corps of discovery 3 The expedition leave and their rst Encounter with the Yankton Sioux nakota St Louis May 14 1804 Sept 23 1806 0 1st 3 months didn t encounter any North Americans they were upset about that o The rst group they encountered was the Yankton Sioux Nakota o The Yankton Sioux lived on the border of SDNebraska They called a council meeting with the Yankton Sioux 0 English gt French gt Nakota sometimes there was a language barrier Needed N Americans for provisions guide 0 Jefferson told Lewis and Clark to warn the Native Americans about the US being in charge 0 At council Lewis gave prewritten speech 2500 words long 0 After Lewis and Clark gave out gifts to the Indians there Mirrors hankerchiefs facepaint tiny beads bunch of other stuff However it wasn t fair because they didn t ask the indians what they wanted 4 Wintering with the Hidatsa Mandans Took notes about religion culture gender roles 0 These notes were fairly accurate Oct 24th Mandan Hidatsa these were 2 separate tribes but they were close by eachother so they were often clumped together 0 4500 population very large village 0 They needed to replenish their trade goods Needed to nd a guide that would lead them West 0 During Winter they all mingled 0 French Trader gt Charbonneau gt he visited a lot He brought shoshone tribe wife named Sacagawea When Sacagawea was 12 years old she was kidnapped 0 Later she was sold as a slave sold to Charbonneau She helped translate a lot 0 She had an infant Jean Baptiste she was 16 at the time of this They all stayed 6 months at the wonter camp because it was very cold One of the coldest winters in history Avg temp was 4 degrees 0 Since they stayed there for so long they had a lot of time to gain info 0 Clark also wrote 45000 page report to Jefferson He sent 1 explorer back to give it to Jefferson 0 Maps 0 Samples 0 Wild animals prairie dog and others 0 The animals he sent were alive but some died on the journey 5 Sacagawea term She was a translator She diffused some con ict 0 Encountered Shoshone in Idaho 0 The Chief of the tribe was actually Sacagaweas long lost brother 0 Sacagawea didn t get to stay with her brother she continued on the journey with Lewis and Clark Cultural women and baby did not travel with a War party 0 That s why they knew that Lewis and Clark were not dangerous She had Lewis and Clark eat healthier 0 She found nuts and fruit for them to eat instead of always eating meat May 14th 1805 boat she was riding in capsized she saved the important documents that were on the boat She did not receive compensation for helping them on the journey o 6 years later she gave birth to Lisette Dec 22nd 1812 she died from an unknown cause she was 25 0 Clark adopted her children he brought them to St Louis to raise them The son went to germany to 6 The failures and successes of the Expedition Failure No NW passage Lewis and clark opened the way for poor relations with Indians even though they had a good relationship with them 0 On their way back they saw settlers going into the region they just explored to take the N Amer lands This pushed the N Amer out of their lands Success Found a route to the Paci c Provided a lot of info 0 Indians terrain owers minerals etc His 104 sept 24th Native Americans and the war of 1812 1 Continued Problems with Indians and Britain in the Northwest territory Lands resources trade Britain Were supposed to abandoned the forts No indian trades UUNH No relations with the Native Americans 0 Americans blamed the British they thought the British were inciting the Indians to resist they were right about this 1 British supplied Indians with guns 2 Supported Indians resisting Americans Indian reasons 1Lossand 2 Squatters onto Indian lands II Tecumseh Tenskwatawa The Prophet and resistence to Americans Shawnee Disliked trade goods hated them coming on their land and they hated everything else about them 0 Pan Indian alliance Goals 1 No squatters 2 No furthur land cessions 3 Hold on to culturereligious no quotcivilizationquot reject christianity no syncretism Tec political alliance Ten religious alliance Tec gt 1768 OH Shawnee Moved Westward IN lL MO mother First military encounter 1782 tried to act like a warrior Battle of fallen timbers Pan indian confederacy Started in Northwest gt went south The message that he spread or his goals 1 Wanted a large confederacy a Great lakesMexico 2 Strong alliance single political body a Leaders 3 Agree NOT to sell their lands a NW territory successful i In the south NOT successful Ten guy 0 Not a respected warrior Alcoholic o 1805 he had the vision tried to reject christianity wanted everyone to go back to Indian ways His message reject all of christianity 0 NO intermarriage with own Americans 0 NO Chrisitianity 0 Return to traditional diet Reject all trade with Americans and British except for guns No alcohol He was very young 14 warrior got scared and ed rst battle then he said he would never run away from a battle ever again 0 He got a lot of followers lll Government response to Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa lN Tippecanoe prophets town gt they established a village there where they thought they would be isolated William Henry Harrison gov of W at the time 0 November gt 1811 Tec Was away on a mission in the South Battle of Tippecanoe Harrison set out camp in Tippiecanoe for the talks and negotiations the next morning but the indians decided to attack instead of talk The indians from Tippiecanoe attacked Harrison element of surprise 0 They won that one but the Indians and Ten eventuaHylost 2 days later Harrison burned tippiecanoe The curse of Tecemsuh 1840 William Henry Harrison gt died of pneumonia 0 1860 Lincoln gt assasinated 1880 Gar eld gt assasinated 1900 Mckinley gt assassinated 1920 Harding gt Heart attack 0 1940 FDR gt cerebral hemorrage 1960 JFK gt Assasinated 1980 Reagan shot but he did survive 2000 Bush grenade thrown at him but he is still alive 0 2020 IV Tecumseh Tenskwatawa and the war of 1812 alliance with the British 0 war of 1812 they sided with British over the US lt 0 British supplied food guns ammunition Indians supplied Battles against US during the war of 1812 Oct 5th 1813 Tec killed at Battle of the Thames 0 After his death the alliance broke up V Treaty of Ghent Dec 24 1814 ended the war of 1812 AmerBr treaty did nothing for them but end the war 0 The indians however lost a lot of land 0 N Amer could participate in the treaty negotiations However they were not allowed to participate in the end 0 Reservation permanent lands the indians were promised That didn t happen either John Quincy Adams said he would never give the Native Americans land lndians lost the NW territory 0 They were pushed out of their own land


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