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Chapter 3- Classical Conditioning

by: Aimee Castillon

Chapter 3- Classical Conditioning PSYC 304

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 304 > Chapter 3 Classical Conditioning
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy

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About this Document

Lecture notes from chapter 3
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
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Popular in Principles of Learning

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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/24/15
Organization name m e e C a St I I O n a acasti7amuedu PSYC 304 0 Fall 2015 UV c mi 9 39 im quotif 57 i quot212 0 392 722 5 139quot39 397Lml 322 5quot 697 quot1quot CT 3 2 f2 f2 quot 3911 31 gill 33quot31 ulxgxgmugll l W5 llquotE4l h 39 j l w u lxglqg all ngl E gz g nasal M u U413 Hi i mg elicit draw out or bring Elicited behaviors and classical conditioning forth elicited behaviors often thought of as involuntary behavior eg sneeze reflex other examples of elicit reflex most basic type of elicit behavior behaviors simple automatic involuntary response to a stimulus eye blink eg patellar reflex doctor strikes the patellar tendon startle Moro reflex stimulus and then leg jerk response orienting response reflexes often have a survival function salivation infants rooting sucking pupillary response reflex arc simple reflexes are mediated by three neurons stimulus activates a sensory neuron afferent neuron an interneuron in the CNS transfers the information to a motor neuron efferent neuron that activates the muscles involved in the response why do have reflexes quick response to a potentially harmful situation ie eye blink contribute to wellbeing eg opposite limb flexion in examples of fixed action quadrupeds patterns adaptive behavior before learning can take place e cat scratching to cover reflexes in infants up urine or feces fixed action patterns AKA modal action patterns a sequence of dog rolling over to response instinctive show submission more complex than a simple reflex male betta reacting to stimulus sign stimulus or releasing stimulus another male responsefixed action pattern male stickleback a sign stimulus m a fixed action pattern reacting to another tend to be speciesspecific male s red underbelly modal action patterns occur in complex situations can be difficult to goose eggrolling identify the eliciting stimulus items eg herring gull chicks peck at their parents bills to solicit food parents then regurgitate food for them pecking by chicks could be elicited by color shape length of parent s bill Nikolaas Niko Tinbergen Dutch ethologist tested chicks with models to determine which aspects of the situation were the eliciting stimuli simple mechanisms of learning habituation a decrease in the strength of an elicited response after repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus tends to be stimulus specific ie you notice when you car sounds drives or rides differently eg you habituate to traffic noise while in the city notice it again when you return after spending some time away from the city sensitization an increase in the strength of an elicited response after repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus tends to generalize ie once you become sensitized to a loud noise like fireworks you might startle more than normal to the sound of a car backfiring eg you become sensitized to a speaker saying umm during a long speech which increasingly annoys you but you don t find it annoying when your friend says umm the next day after a period of time during which the eliciting stimulus is absent responding generally goes back to baseline level habituation vs sensitization intensity of the stimulus lowintensity gt habituation highintensity gt sensitization intermediate gt sensitization habituation adaptive significance more likely to habituate to something that has no evolutionary significance eg train vs wasp habituation and sensitization occur across species help us separate relevant from irrelevant stimuli have survival value Solomon opponent process theory f quot A 7 I H mil in layg l H H Pia239 lic39a39squot E LIr El n hU lf HELLicing 3 nu m u 39nla a w l l H g 5 ll auntsm1 g EF 39 a a mil ag mg n In D W a IE I39l f n uranii iHi39 H 39 It39l jnl m b 39 r a w me39e39rE39 a b H39EFEallii Era IIral H I H Fi 7 T l39F39W39lI d 39i 39l Wu IT39IE39 ratarty I i t CamillaSci w traitH43 M F iLIQLE f l Ell ii HUT 39 LIEI39fi l39JE illi Li39 AE ITquot IIIquot Slainan Gm I Ihl II39HI L39Ii gEgf LEE IKE5r Em 12 71 u39h2 m fS try a39 PawsIf iI U39 EEtEE gg39n mint Mm jg rg mug55 m alg39 gi x 39IEiE JfE 31 rrri 1r E rmer may l lfr iimhmi gunman I39 LMy w ij JEE EI I1E5E39IEE39I i EIE39IJ EIaiErr E3939 5111an z wri39m uialil u aprocess primary process bprocess opponent process counteracts aprocess homeostasis eg heart rate in a dog exposed to electric shock characteristics of the a and bprocesses the aprocess correlates closely with the emotional event chasing the high Example NS a dog Dog NS Bite US gt Pain UR Dog CS gt avoidance CR Fear conditioning 30 tone NS 1 shock US gt fear UR 30 tone CS gt fear CR the bprocess is slow to increase and slow to decrease with repeated presentations of the stimulus the bprocess increases in strength and duration application of opponent process theory include understanding risktaking behavior revictimization drug abuse and addiction eg John Belushi Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov 18491936 physiologist studying digestion unconditioned unlearned stimulus US stimulus that naturally elicit a response unconditioned unlearned response UR response naturally elicited by the US conditioned stimulus CS previously a neutral stimulus NS with respect to the UR comes to elicit a response after pairing association with the US conditioned response CR comes to be elicited by the CS after conditioning neutral stimulus anything that doesn t elicit a response until it is paired with a US m rcwmm 545 Liai I L15 L Fit Druml we i n L f IEa39ull ll 39 uiE T311 t ull39iIIF Hr zli IiiLr MiIEIIZl ii l ilEr We Nothing lf39i i hil n39mi i PJ39L39IEIL39I I39lf l39l LEIun niH 11 minute eff Feud rl39j kit r min ltmr39g T31 1EI39II39IILIErI I Helm Emmi 2 lm rillam Iquot Milr31 ail fa7 IIII ism2 riffIE the CR is often similar but is not identical to the UR even when they appear similar eg salivation the CR is usually weaker than the UR Appetitive and aversive conditioning appetitive the US is something the would approach aversive the US is something the subject would avoid Fear conditioning often occurs rapidly sometimes just 1 trial can account for fearsanxieties has yielded information about how fears can occur m be eliminated conditioned suppressionconditioned emotional response CER paradigm subject is trained to engage in an ongoing behavior ie pressing a lever for food Example a rat presses the lever 20 times in the 30 seconds before the CS tone is presented The rat doesn t press the lever during the 30 seconds of the CS tone presentation fear conditioning is then introduced eg 30sec tone is followed by a 1sec shock how much fear the tone comes to elicit can be measured by the degree to which lever pressing is suppressed when it is presented conditioned suppression is measured by a suppression ratio suppression ratio of responses during CS of responses during CS of responses preCS the lower the number the more the suppression Excitatory and inhibitory conditioning excitatory conditioning the NS is associated with the presentation of a US the CS comes to elicit a response CR inhibitory conditioning the NS is associated with the absence or removal of a US the CS suppresses the CR Four ways in which presentation of the NS and US can be temporarily arranged delayed conditioning conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US and the two stimuli overlap trace conditioning Conditioning procedure in which the onset and offset of the NS precede the onset of the US simultaneous conditioning conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS and the onset of the US are simultaneous backwards conditioning conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS follows the onset of the US S interstimulus interval time between the onset of the NS and the onset of the US the role of the NS CS as a predictor of the US affects the ease and strength of conditioning


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