Geographic Concepts GEOG 200
Popular in Geography: The Global Dimension
Popular in Geography
This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Savannah Notetaker on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GEOG 200 at James Madison University taught by Mr. Case Watkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Geography: The Global Dimension in Geography at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Geography Notes Week 2 Geographic Concepts Converging Currents of Globalization Globalization 0 Increasing interconnectedness 0 Human and physical environments 0 Continual reorganization of global and local geographies Globalization and Changing Human Geographies Global consumer culture 0 Can create tension 0 Promotes Western values at the expense of others 0 Hybridization Controversy About Globalization Economic convergence Multinational organizations 0 The World Bank WTO and IMF Critiques of globalization 0 Not a quotnaturalquot process 0 Creating greater inequality between rich and poor 0 Exportoriented economies at the expense of localized sustainable activities Globalization vs Diversity Fundamental tension 0 Globalization degree of homogenization Moving toward quotsamenessquot 0 Diversity remains Language religion architecture foods etc 0 Globalization provokes strong reaction in some people and cultures that wish to resist homogenization and emphasize difference 0 Commitment to multiculturalism Difference and diversity are important cultural ecological and economic resources Geography Matters Environments Regions Landscapes Conceptual approaches 0 Physical geography 0 Human geography Perspectives o Thematic or systematic 0 Regional approach Areal differentiation 0 Difference in human and physical geography Areal integration 0 Linkages or connections between places Scale Geography Notes Week 2 Cartographic scale 0 Depicted size of a feature on a map relative to its actual size in the world Scale of analysis 0 The size of the unit at which some problem is analyzed Landscape County State Nannal Regional Global Regions Formal Functional and Vernacular Region 0 Unit of perceived spatial similarity Formal 0 Related to real physical or cultural forms 0 Uniformity FuncUonal 0 Where a certain activity takes place 0 Nodal central or connecting point Vernacular 0 Spatial stereotype o quotThe Southquot Regions Formal Formal regions 0 Discrete formalized boundaries Virginia Shenandoah Valley Shenandoah National Park The Appalachian Mountains Regions Functional Functional regions 0 Home to a speci c activity Often economic Usually nodal A central place and the surrounding region affected by that place 0 Viewing areas ofTV stations 0 Fan base of sports teams 0 Washington DC Metropolitan Area Regions Vernacular Vernacular regions 0 Shaped by people39s beliefs 0 quotSpatialstereotypesquot o The South 0 New England 0 Upstate New York The Cultural Landscape Space into Place Geography Notes Week 2 Coined by geographer Carl Sauer 1925 Visible material expression of human settlement Past and present Physical manifestations of humanenvironmental interactions Great diversity across the globe The Geographers Toolbox Location Maps Remote Sensing and GIS Latitude and Longitude o Latitude parallels 0 Run East and West but have North and South Locations 0 Run parallel to the Equator 0 Northern and Southern hemispheres Ariel photos 0 Photographs taken from the air Generally aircraft balloons or satellites Remote Sensing 0 Complex electromagnetic images taken from aircraft or satellites and processed with computers GlS Geographic Information Systems 0 A spatial database that gathers and analyzes various sources of geographical data Layers of georeferenced information LAT is at LONG looks long GPS receivers measure their exact distance from 4 out of 25 satellites Map Projections Various ways maps of the globe are projected onto at maps Maps are not objective but subjective cognitive renderings Thematic map categorical map Environmental Geography The Changing Global Environment Environmental elements fundamental to human settlement 0 Climate long term pattern of weatherin a particular area Weather is the state of the atmosphere over short periods of time Weather can change from hour to hour day to day month to month or even year to year A region39s weather patterns tracked for more than 30 years are considered its climate 0 Geology Earth39s physical structure and substance its history and the processes that act on it o Hydrology the waters of the Earth including their occurrence distribution and circulation via the hydroogic cycle and interactions with living things 0 Vegetation plants or plant life of a place Population and Settlement People on the Land gt7 billion people currently in the world Important points to consider 0 Rates of population growth varies widely around the world 0 Earth39s sustainable carrying capacity 0 Varying forms of population planning Geography Notes Week 2 Control vs encourage growth 0 Migration Rural to urban migration Population Growth and Change 0 Rate of natural increase RNI 0 Annual growth rate as o Birthsdeaths 0 Does not account for migration 0 Total fertility rate 0 Average number of children who will be borne by women to a hypothetical yet statistically valid population 0 Less than 21 negative natural growth 2 parents not replaced 0 24 globally 47 in Africa 16 in Europe Global Migration gt190 million people live outside their country of birth Push forces 0 Civil strife 0 Environmental degradation 0 Economic or employment Pull forces 0 Economic opportunity 0 Kinship Net migration rates 0 Statistic of inmigration and outmigration 0 USA 2 per 1000 people 0 Canada 7 0 Mexico 25 Settlement Geography 0 Population density 0 Number of people per unit km or miles 0 Urbanized population 0 Percentage of population living in cities 2009 gt half Earth39s population is urban Implications for food production urban sanitation economic structure Culture in a Globalizing World 0 Culture 0 Learned not innate 0 Behavior held in common 0 A way of life 0 Dynamic and ever changing o A process not a condition 0 Abstract Geography Notes Week 2 o Eg language religion ideology livelihoods value systems 0 Material 0 Eg technologies housing foods music etc 0 Cultural imperialism 0 Active promotion attempt at domination o Eg colonialsm 0 Cultural nationalism o Inward protection of defense of cultural systems 0 Cultural syncretism or hybridization o Blending of cultural forms 0 All cultures are hybrid and constantly changing Gender and Globalization 0 Gender 0 Sociocultural construct o Distinction of biological sexes o Often assign roles to genders Language and Culture in Global Context 0 Language 0 Fundamental to cultural cohesiveness and distinctiveness 0 Classi cation 0 Families gt branches gt groups 0 Dialects 0 Differences in different places 0 Brazilian Portuguese vs Continental Portuguese 0 American vs British English c Lingua franca o A common language between two or more groups especially for commerce The Geography of World Religions o Universalizing religions o Attempt to appeal to all peoples regardless of location or culture 0 Often proselytizing religions seek new converts o Eg Islam Christianity Buddhism 0 Ethnic religions o Identi ed closely with a speci c ethnic tribal or national group 0 Eg Judaism Hinduism Geopolitical Frameworks Unity and Fragmentation Geopolitics 0 Close link between politics and geography o Interactivity between political power and territory at all scales Geography Notes Week 2 0 Country 0 Self governing political entity 0 Interchangeable with State CapitaI S State country Lowercase state division within country 0 Nann 0 Large group of people with shared sociocultural traits o Nation state 0 Relatively homogeneous cultural group nation with its own sovereign political territory State Colonialism 0 Formal establishment rule over local peoples and territories by an imperialist government for the expansion of political and economic power Decolonization o The act of gaining or regaining sovereignty from a colonizing power 0 Neocolonialism 0 Economic and political strategies by which powerful states usually indirectly extend in uence over other weaker states 0 Imperialism Whereas coIoniaIism means direct rules of a people by a foreign state imperialism refers to the general system of domination by a state or states of other states regions or the whole world Thus poIiticaI subjugation through colonialism is only one form this domination might take imperialism also encompasses different kinds of indirect control Economic and Social Development Geographies of Wealth and Poverty 0 Development 0 More and IessdeveIoped countries 0 Global North and Global South 0 Economic Development 0 Indicators GDP Value of all goods produced within a country 0 GNI Combines GDP with trade revenue from outside the country 0 Human Development 0 Indicators HDI Life expectancy Literacy Educational attainment Genderequality Geography Notes Week 2 Income Summary Because globalization involves both positive and negative transformations it is a controversial and contentious topic In most regions of the developing world population and settlement issues revolve around four issues 0 Rapid population growth 0 Family planning 0 Migration to new centers of economic activity 0 Rapid urbanization A major theme in cultural geography is the tension between the forces of cultural homogenization and the countercurrents of local cultural and ethnic identity As the world becomes increasingly connected through international economic and political alliances the power of the traditional nation state lessens with doors opening for separatist groups seeking autonomy and even independence form larger political entities The theme of economic and social development is dominated by one issue the increasing disparity between rich and poor
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