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Addiction part 1

by: Arielle Reiner

Addiction part 1 NROSCI 0081

Arielle Reiner

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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Arielle Reiner on Friday September 25, 2015. The Bundle belongs to NROSCI 0081 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Fanselow,Erika in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see DRUGS AND BEHAVIOR in Neuroscience at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
Addiction 092 52015 De nition Certain individuals use certain substances in certain ways thought at certain times to be unacceptable by certain other individuals for reasons both certain and uncertain 1984 Burglass and Shaffer physical dependence abstinence causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms that lead someone to start taking a drug again not all drugs are physically addictive compulsive drug seeking and drug use in an addict is driven by a craving for the drug chronic relapse an addict can have drug free periods called remissions but then will relapse to using the drug again despite negative consequences a behavioral pattern of drug use characterized by overwhelming involvement with the use of a drug compulsive use the securing of its supply and a high tendency to relapse after withdrawal 0 1989 Goldstein Addiction 0 Has strong negative connotationsassociations for many people 0 Not always urban poor 0 Because the term addiction has con icting de nitions and strong negative associations the American Psychiatric Association stopped using the terms addictions and addict o The American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic an Statistical Manuel of Mental Disorders used to de ne substance related disorders as Substance abuse may or may not lead to substance dependence Substance dependence more severe corresponds roughly with addiction DSM5 replaces those categories with substance use disorder a The individual has manifested a maladaptive pattern of substance use for at least 12 months that has led to signi cant impairment or distress by clinical standards a At least 2 of 11 additional criteria must be met including failure to stop when trying failure to ful ll obligations social impairments Historical use of drugs US drug use and cultural attitudes 0 About 200 years ago alcohol and caffeine were widely used and tobacco use largely chewing it was increasing o Opium was available for pain relief either alone or as laudanum opium extract in alcohol 0 No other drugs we currently identify as illicit such as cocaine heroin marijuana ecstasy meth LSD PCP 0 Also few drug control laws None at federal level Governmental regulation of drugs began to change 0 What factors increased the amount of governmental regulation of drugs There was an quotalcohol temperance movementquot which promoted abstention from hard liquor n Asserted that there were adverse physiological consequences of excessive drinking I Also asserted that drinking impaired quotmoral facultyquot leading to irresponsible and even criminal acts 0 This movement reaches its height in the 1920 s Prohibition Era 19201933 when all liquor was banned in the US 0 The effects of this attitude are still pervasive including equating drug use with criminal behavior quotWar on Drugsquot 0 Changes in chemistry techniques and routes of administration 0 Due to advances in chemistry in the 19th century it became possible to purify ie separate from the rest of the plant The primary active ingredient in opium morphine The active ingredient in coca cocaine 0 This means the drugs could be taken in a much more concentrated form which increased their addictive potential 0 Additionally the hypodermic syringe was developed in 1858 which meant that these puri ed drugs could be injected directly into the bloodstream Puri ed drug and lack of drug regulation 0 Many over the counter medicinal substances were sold containing cocaine morphine and later heroin 0 Some of these were marketed as quotnonaddicting when in fact they were highly addictive 0 With so many addictive substances readily available it s not surprising people would become addicted Medicalization of drug abuse 0 An additional shift in attitude about drug use occurred largely in the second half of the 20th century the medicalization of addiction 0 Addiction became thought of as a disease In the 1950 s alcoholism was declared to be a disease by the World Health Organization and the American Medical Organization 0 Laws Because addiction was considered a disease it came to be treated largely in medical settings Much of the research on drug use and abuse uses this medical model I There are critics of this approach 0 Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 regulated labeling of patent medicines and created the FDA 0 Harrison Act 1914 regulated dispensing and use of opioid drugs and cocaine doctors who had been providing maintenance doses of opiates or cocaine to patients who were addicted to them were no longer able to do this addicts had to either a turn to street dealers which made drug prices very high and drug sales ourished a stop taking the drugs abstinence but this caused withdrawal symptoms and treatment clinics largely failed to successfully treat addicts so they were still addicted and had to resort to the rst option 0 18th Constitutional Amendment Prohibition 1920 banned alcohol sales with alcohol content of gt5 except for medicinal use repealed in 1933 speakeasies sprang up everywhere and sold liquor illegally organized crime increased dramatically because there was money to be made in dealing illegal liquor o Marijuana Tax Act 1937 banned nonmedicinal use of cannabis overturned by the supreme court in 1969 o Controlled Substances Act 1970 established the schedule of controlled substances and created the DEA established the 5 schedules categories for controlled substances 0 historical perspective raises a few questions are drugs now over controlled Are drug laws consistent with available medical and scienti c evidence a Eg nicotine is more addictive than marijuana but nicotine is legal and marijuana is largely not


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