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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Carly Notetaker on Friday September 25, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PHI 192 at Syracuse University taught by Ryan Hubbard in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views. For similar materials see Intro to Moral Theory in PHIL-Philosophy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
PHI 192Introduction the Moral Theory 912015 Metaethics Ethics Ethics is a Subfield within Philosophy Religion and Relativity Is morality relativeThis is a metaethical issue Moral Development Moral Psychology Utilitarianism The theory of right Is war ethical ever justified We will be examining concrete issues we face in the world Area s of Ethics 1 Metaethics The Status of Morality a Are their any moral truths 2 Value Theory What is good What is intrinsically valuable How should we live What ultimately makes our lives go well a Theories of wellbeing 3 Normative Ethicswhat ultimately makes an action right or wrong 4 Applied EthicsBioethics 9 3 20 1 5 Reading CS Lewis Law of Human Nature 3 Parts of Morality Main Issue Is morality real How do we characterize morality SubIssuesCharacterize The Law of Human Nature People know The Law of Human Nature Thesis Morality or moral laws are objectively real Character of Morality 9 Consists in Standards of Behavior 9We really care about Morals more so than other standards 9Everyone knows what these standards are 9 Everyone implicitly agrees to these standards The difference between Laws of Nature and Laws of Human Nature You can t disobey Laws of Nature because they are de nite while Laws of Human Nature are not and therefore can be broken or disobeyed Engaging in moral practices is inescapable We are forced to believe in a real right and a real wrong A Moral Realist believes there are at least some moral truths that are real Function of Morality Directions for running the Human Machine 1 Standards of Behavior 2 Inner Harmony 3 General purpose meaning of the Human Machine People believe different things these things could be different from culture to culture or religion to religion 982015 Reading Harry Gensler Cultural Relativism Thesis There are some moral norms that are objectively true Moral Reasoning Deductive Argumentsif the reasons are true then the conclusion is true Inductive Argumentsthe conclusion is true based on the probability of reasons Examples Deductive p1 All bachelors are unmarried males p2 Socrates is a Bachelor Conclusions Socrates is an unmarried male A Good Argument 1 Valid assume the premises are true Assuming the premises are true is it possible for the conclusion to be false 2 Sounds If the argument is valid are the premises actually true Moral Obj ectivism There are at least some moral claims that are objectively true 9 Truth is independent of the endorsement of a person or culture Cultural Relativism A moral claim is true only is it is endorsed by a culture Considerations that Support Cultural Relativism 1 In some cultures a particular action is deemed wrong in another culture that same is action is deemed right 2 In order to judge what is rightwrong we have to appeal to our cultures moral standards are right 3 There is so much moral disagreement 4 We can not know what is absolutely right or wrong 5 Cultural relativism is a good thing because it supports tolerance Problems with Cultural Relativism 1 How to critique your own culture 9102015 Problems with Moral Obiectivism 1 The absence of categorical reasons undermine Moral Objectivism 2 Moral motivation undermines moral objectivity 3 Values have no place in a scienti c world Many people believe that even if you don t care about doing something you promised to do you have a moral obligation to do it since you promised The Nature of Reasons Practical Reason 1 Categorical ReasonsA consideration is a reason regardless of whether or not it get you what you want care about or bene ts you 2 Hypothetical ReasonA consideration is a reason to something only if it gets you what you want you really care about or if it bene ts you We will be working with Normative and Practical Reasons DesireSatisfaction Theory of Welfare welfare consists in the satisfaction of our desires If you get something that are happy about you are receiving a desiresatisfaction According to DesireSatisfaction What makes your life go well is satisfying your desires It is the fact that a desire is satis ed that bene ts us that makes our lives go well not the felling of happiness that we get
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