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Notes for G107 from EC1 - 13

by: Deon Low

Notes for G107 from EC1 - 13 G107

Marketplace > Republic Polytechnic > G107 > Notes for G107 from EC1 13
Deon Low
Effective Communication

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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Deon Low on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to G107 at Republic Polytechnic taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 147 views.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
Ec1 State the importance of communication using communication model CAPS Apply CAPS into the assessment questions Analyse the audience not homogenous not general public The same message in a different context may not work and may back re For instance the letter V mean victory in Sg but offend others in Africa EC2 Identify the 7 type of text structures 3C 2P 15 1T PREP Point Reason Example Point Text structure Intro body1body2body3Conclusion Apply PREP in the bodies of the text It is possible for a text to contain more than one structure There is more than one way of structuring information There is no perfect txt structure but based on your purpose of communication decide on the best EC3 TIPS Use more fact than opinion Avoid plagiarising Ensure accuracy EC4 Do not assume that the receivers experience physiological noise unless the questions say so EC5 Don39t assume that we can interpret a no verbal q accurately Effort is needed Context it is the extent which the present environment in uences the way you act towards others Think is term of the occasion the social and cultural force at play the style of communication and the form or medium of communication Audience Understand the audience39s motives demographics and psychographics to help us craft the message more effectively Purpose Inform Persuade Entertain Structure Intro body conclusion Ways to structure the intro Use a quotation or catch phrase Give an example Ask questions Give statistics Apply a hypothetical situation Give a brief demonstration 3 main ideas with fact information and personal stories to explain the point Reemphasize the main point Closing thoughts Types of structure 7 Chronological The structure of the message is written in time order from one point in time to another Transition words are used here to help reader understand how events relate to one another It is necessary to include date and time to avoid confusion for the readers Compare and contrast The structure of the message shows how two or more similar ideas or item are similar or different to one another Using this text structure often embedded in other text structures as an author needs to explain the similarity or difference Cause and Effect The structure of this message shows how one or more causes that led to one or more effect either directly or indirectly Words such as cause effect as a result consequently and because are used to tell the audience what did the initial cause led to the eventual effect There might not only include a cause that lead to an effect but rather it might be several causes that led to several effects Problem and solution The structure of this message shows a problem and also gives an solution as to how can the problem be solved In such message the problem always have a solution that solves it Progressive The structure of this message allow us to list our ideas from the least compelling idea to the most compelling ideas and vice versa However it may or may not be on an idea itself Sequential The structure of this message shows arranged information according to a stepbystep sequence that describe a particular process and each main section of information symbolise a step that leads to the eventual outcome The points included within each main section means the sub step that the readers would follow should be supported with details and evidence to enhance the passage s credibility Approaches consideration Purpose Audiences needs demographics and psychographic Time constraint of the channel APPLY PREP in each paragraph Points Reasons Examples Reiterate point Be able to identify text structure and also PREP Facts A thing that is proven to be true or known to be true and it is objective Facts are universal and can make the persuasion more effective Opinions A view orjudgement formed about something that is not necessarily based on fact or knowledge Opinions are subjective and often in uenced by personal feelings or taste Opinions differ from one another however opinions sometimes are supported by factual information Examples of plagiarism includes Failure to acknowledge the source Quoting wholesale Paraphrasing without acknowledgement Ctrl c and Ctrl v Helping with plagiarism Wrong citation Creating false information Misrepresentation Is to give information that is untrue or false which misleads the targeted audience in order to obtain advantage However there are cases where an false representation of a fact or opinion was made but unintentionally Disclosure of privacy Making something private known publicly To share a person39s private and con dential information publicly Stereotyping A xed idea of a thingperson or a particular group of people Often these opinions are generalized and are often untrue in reality and was not based on facts Consideration when writing an article Respectlnterg rityCredibility 4 types of noises Physical ls noise that is interference in our environment examples are noises made by other around Dim or bright lights spam and pop up ads extreme temperature and crowded conditions Such noises can take place both visually and verbally Visual noises includes posters presentation slides as the images used are too clustered which hinder us from interpreting the message the image is try to send Spoken noise includes the volume of surrounding noises will affect the exchange of ideas between the sender and receiver Physiological is noises that is distraction due to hunger fatigue headaches medication and other internal factors that affect how we think or feel Such noises may be either temporary or permanent Psychological is noises that refers to the state of mind that affect how we communicate and interpret others often incorrect explanations or close mindedness It can also refers to prejudice views of stereotyping a group of people or an organisation Semantic ls noises that exist when words used are not mutually understood between the sender and receiver which causes a breakdown in the conversation This noises surfaces when people sometimes uses jargon or unnecessarily technical languages It can also occur when gestures are misunderstood because they are assigned different meanings Accent is also a factor leading to semantic noises as it causes ambiguity and could potentially lead to confusion between the sender and receiver Strategies to avoid noises Anticipate 0 Avoid 0 Reduce Be mindful of using idioms as it is a form of a language that is spoken in a particular area and that uses some of its own words grammar and pronunciations Jargonshort forms Republic Poly RP Nonverbal communications includes Paralanguage Kinesicsbody languages Facial expression Physical appearance Paralanguage it is the nonverbal qualities and modi ers of the voice Volume pitch rhythm use of pauses taking turns in the conversation can be used to place emphasis on certain words The tone used and the quality of the voice are independent of the meaning of the spoken words used Tonal variations could be used to make the speech sounds more interesting and enhance the message effectiveness during conversation Kinesics is the study of body languages It refers to the gestures postures body movements and signals made by a person through his body language The use of kinesics can place emphasise on point if it is times and executed correctly 4 zones of personal space lntimate16th inches or less Personal15ft to 4 t Social4ft to 12ft and Public more than 12ft The distance we put ourselves against others send a message to the others zones of personal space lntimate16th inches or less Personal15ft to 4 t Social4ft to 12ft and Public more than 12ft The distance we put ourselves against others send a message to the others Facial expression are nonverbal cues that are shown through the face while conversing Expressions executed with facial muscles can disclose feelings and emotions Facial cues such as the eyes eyebrows eyelids cheeks nose mouth lips and chin can convey our emotions and attitudes to the receiver Such cues can be made on purpose or spontaneous Physical appearance are nonverbal cues that we sent across which portray the background personality and values of us 7 types of questions Ambiguous They are questions that are made such that there are many other ways to interpret the meaning of the question However the meaning of such questions are often unclear due to its phrasing and choice of words Embarrassing They are questions that are made to cause awkwardness for the respondent to respond to Double barrelled They are questions that are made such that the question contain two different and distinct parts EXM Were you scared after the accident and having a mood swing Clarifying questions They are questions that are made to seek con rmation or clari cation from the respondent Leading They are questions that are made to give the user an answer that is expected from the person who asked the question Probing They are questions that helps to get in depth information of an initial question Such questions are used to bring out more details from the respondent when they are answering the question Rhetorical They are questions that does not have an de nite answer but rather a broad range of answers depending on the respondent Open type of questions encourages the respondent to engaged in the interview and also encourage him to give more response Closed type of questions discourage the respondent to be engage in the interview but rather give a short simple and concise answer Identifying key points 0 Name the who or what the passage is about 0 Tell the most important detail about the who or what Conclude the main idea in less than 10 words Passive readers are able to decode and understand the text however they might encounter problems when answering detailed questions about the text Meaning of English words might differ from time to time depending on how they are used Summary writing tips Skim the text and divide it into sections Focus on heading or sub headings found Make sure you understand before trying to summarize Read the text to feel the author s tone style and main idea Pay close attention to details in the text Underline topic sentences and key facts Label area that could be refer to for summary Write the main idea of each section and include the key point not minor details Write a thesis statement to show what the entire text was trying to achieve Use TS as the introduction sentence and use transition words Revise to check for any spelling grammar mistakes made Proportion Balance Direction Emphasis or Focus White Space and Contrast Balance is the arrangement of the object in a given design as it relates to their visual weight within a composition Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design The issue is the relationship between objects or parts of a whole The bigger the proportion the more eyecatching it is Which helps the reader identify which detail is more important Direction is the visual path our eye will follow Focus refers to the object or element which rst capture our attention With strong colour and central placement it makes it easier for the reader to spot the product or item on sale Contrast occur when two elements are different The greater the difference the greater the contrast The key to working with contrast is to make sure the differences are obvious White space is the empty space between and around the elements of a design or page layout The bene t of using white is that it helps to make the poster look uncutter which helps to send across the message effectively and also making the poster ook un messy Usage of symmetrical balance helps to give the audience a calm and stable feeling which make the author look more reliable EC9 Pathos is appealing the audience39s emotion appeal ways such as vivid language emotional language and numerous sensory details can be used to arouse the audience interest Logos is the rational appeal where the author uses logical reasoning to support a claim so as to make the claim more credible Evidence facts and statistics can be used to support the claim to gain the audience39s trust Ethos is appealing to the audience through credibility The speaker39s authority through his expertise and knowledge or reputation and character EClO Power Distance is the acknowledgement that inequality exist and is an inherent characteristic of society Individualism The person has a thought for himselfherself only They put themselves above the rest and are concerned with their own needs interest and goals They place themselves above everything They also value independence and selfsuf ciency Collectivism The person has a thought for a group including himself They place group interest over self interest and they would share resources and are prepared to sacri ce personal interest for collective interests They also have a greater tendency to maintain social harmony High Power Distance Top down leadership and management style There are many hierarchy levels and the people also accepts that power has it s privileges It is expected that there would be inequality and power differences Low power distance Decentralized authority and the decision making are given to the subordinates There are not many hierarchy levels and the people are able to question authority The people are conscious about one s rights Tendency towards egalitarianism High Uncertainty avoidance The tendency of avoid risk is high and they have the need for predictability and highly resistant to change and lack tolerance for differing behaviours and opinion Low Uncertainty Avoidance The tendency to take risk is high and they are exible They aren39t resistant to change and are more tolerant of differing behaviours and opinions Masculinity The society s people are assertive tough and dominant which meant that they do not place importance on compassion kindness and goodwill Their priorities are to achieve successful achievements material welfare and individual growth Place importance on the value of mastery such as the job mastery Gender roles are clearly distinct The men needs to have a career while it is optional for women to have a career achieve successful achievements material welfare and individual growth Place importance on the value of mastery such as the job mastery Gender roles are clearly distinct The men needs to have a career while it is optional for women to have a career Femininity The society s people are nurturing and compromising they also places importance on compassion kindness and goodwill Their priorities are family relationships and quality of life They prefer nonmaterialistic aspects of success The gender roles overlap and it isn t compulsory of both gender to have a career Recognize that you and your target audience are culturally different Never assume that your values attitudes beliefs verbal and nonverbal cues are the same Do not stereotype the people who are culturally different This will reduce your psychological noise during intercultural communications as well Competing To make it either your way or the high way Which means to insist to meet your own need at the expense of others It may also mean to make a point stand up for what you believe in or just simply trying to win It is more common in individualistic culture as individual opinions and interests are valued over group consensus While it is less typical in Asian country as the group s goal is placed above individual s goal Collaborating To satisfy both party s need where the solution would be good for both parties It will lead to complete fulfilment of the needs concerns and goals of both parties It is used in individualistic culture to get employees for them to share a same goal rather than focusing on one s own interest Collectivistic cultures would adopt this style as they tend to share resources and contribute to group goals for collective interests Compromising Both parties take a step back to find a solution although they might not be totally happy with it This leads to partial fulfilment and neither party would gain or lose and both party meet at the centre point In individualistic culture compromising is more likely to happen as give and take While in collectivistic culture people are more likely to adopt the compromising style to maintain harmony Accommodating To allow a party to win while giving in It preserve harmony builds good will and leads to cooperative relationships Accommodating may take the form of selfless generosity obeying another person s order even when you would prefer not to or yielding to another person s point of view It is not preferred in the individualistic culture as winning is a must and might lead to another party feel that they just want to hear but doesn t mean it While in collectivistic culture people are more likely to adopt the accommodating style to maintain harmony Avoiding To not address the conflict and are indifferent to each other s needs and concerns and both party loses as rarely they would be able to find a solution Avoiding may take the form of diplomatically sidestepping an issue postponing an issue until a better time or simply withdrawing from a threatening situation This mode is not considered in individualistic cultures as a satisfactory longterm solution It is usually considered negative because one party may perceive the other party as not committed to the goal Collectivistic Infographics is any graphic that clari es andor explains This includes data diagrams eg bar charts pie charts line graphs etc with information presented in a visual manner eg brochures timelines etc Tables Helps to categorise data and structure information visually Used to compare two or more components Bar graph used to compare data through bars to represent amounts within a set Used to make comparison between different variable and it is easy to see Pie Graph Used to represent different parts of a whole The final percentage should always add up to 100 Line graph Great to show specific values of data especially when the nature of one variable is directly related to another For example to show trends or changes over time Media literacy 1Media constructs our culture 2Media messages affect our thoughts and actions 3Media effects are subtle 4Media effects are complex 5Media uses persuasive appeals 6No one tells the whole story 7Media messages contain quottextsquot and quotsubtextsquot 8lndividuals construct their own meanings from media 9Media convey ideological and value messages 10Media are most powerful when they operate at an emotional level 11Media messages can be manipulated to enhance emotional impact 120ur media system re ects the power dynamics in our society 13Most media are controlled by commercial interests Subtext Our interpretation of the message EC12 Parts of a research report 1 Title What the report is about Table of Content List of major sections and heading with page numbers Abstract Concise summary of the purpose method main ndings conclusions and recommendations in the report 4 Background What your research and why LR lnclude other relevant research in this area Methods What we did and how we did it Results What we found Discussion Relevance of the results and how does it ts with other research in the area 8 Conclusion Summary of the ndings and recommendations 9 References Written in APA citation format UJN Figures and table should have legends Conclusion should be 100 words or less Examples Citing a Book Author A Year of publication Title of work Location Publisher Doe J 2014 Effective Communication London SAGE Citinq a Journal Article Author A Year of publication Title of article Title of Journal volume number page range Doe J 2014 Effective Communication Journal of Communication 25 2329 Citind a Website Article Author A Year Article title Retrieved from URL Doe J 2014 Effective Communication Retrieved from httpwwweffectivecommsedug1 O7htm Citind an Online Database Article Author A Year of publication Title of article Title of Journal volume number page range Retrieved from httpwwwsomeaddresscomfullurl Doe J 2014 Effective Communication Journal of Communication 25 2329 Retrieved from httpwwweffectivecommscomg107htm Citind an Online Newsoaper Article Author A Year Month Day Title of article Title of Newspaper Retrieved from httpwwwsomeaddresscomfullurl Doe J 2014 July 29 Effective Communication Communication Times Retrieved from httpwwwcommunicationtimescomehtm Keep the abstract short and should be written in a paragraph and do not elaborate in the abstract section EC13 A good presentation Intro Body Conclusion Intro Catch the audience attention Preview our topic Body Main message of the presentation and supporting ideas Good use of visual aids helps to enhance the effectiveness of communication and also the good use if principle of designs enhances the effectiveness of the visual aids and presentation slides How to manage anxiety Relax Breathe Practice Imagine Focus Move Eat NP P PP NT


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