Notes from the Water video
Notes from the Water video BIO 180-01
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This 11 page Bundle was uploaded by Sophie Stegelitz on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIO 180-01 at a university taught by Caleb Bailey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
These notes clearly summarize the Water Composition cohesion Temperature Moderation Density of Water Solvability Molecular Mass Molarity Percent Solution pH scale Buffers and HendersonHasselbach equation chapters Explanations of concepts de nitions cartoons amp equations included Enjoy Water solubility amp pH Water is essential for life on Earth all forms of life needs water to survive Body made of millions of cells organized in tissues organs and our whole body Cells are surrounded and lled with water which helps cellular shape and participates in most chemical reactions necessary to life Universal necessity gt qualities of water result from its molecular structure Molecule of water H20 in a 39v39 shape Hydrogens covalently bonded to the oxygen molecule they share electrons gt electronegativity chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons or electron density towards itself The more electronegative an atom is the more electrons it attracts toward it Oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen so it pulls electrons towards it electrons then spin more around 0 than H This causes a partial negative charge around the 0 but a partial positive charge around H atoms This is called polarity Opposite or atoms attract each other Here H is considered very weak Cohesion Cohesion Hydrogen bonding of water to other water molecules Adhesion Hydrogen bonding of water to other polar surfaces With trees and plants absorption through the roots gt travels through the trunk gt evaporates through the leaves Surface tension Where the hydrogen bonds between water molecules cause the surface of the water to hold together gt hydrogen bonds are stronger than the forces that the waterstrider puts on them Moderation of Temperature gt prevents temperatures from spiking Kinetic energy E of motion can be transferred from 1 object to the other Water molecules are constantly moving gt kinetic E Heat and temperature are related to the kinetic E of these molecules Heat measure of matter39s total kinetic E due to motion of its molecules also depends on the volume Temperature measure of heat intensity that represents the average kinetic E of the molecules regardless of volume Calorie amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C Speci c heat amount of heat must be absorbed or lost for 1g of that substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C gt 1 calgdegree C III of ethyl alcohol 06 calgdegree C Difference gt H bonds in H20 gt when water39s cold molecules slow down so more H bonds form this formation releases Eheat When you heat H20 the input of E breaks H bonds and allows molecules to speed up BUT The heatE is not translated immediately into kinetic E so it doesn39t heat up as fast The reverse is true also gt as water cools down it gives off E because lots of H bonds are forming Coastal temperature moderation During the day heat is given off by the sun and the E produced is absorbed by water which will slowly increase in temperature throughout the day The reverse happens at night water is warmer than the air and will give off Eheat into the air as the water will cool down and the air will heat up Instantaneous gt so you can39t notice it This is how California39s coastal temperatures are so moderate throughout the season Density of water Water expenses when it freezes As it goes from a liquid to a solid it actually becomes less dense only water does this H bonds in ice are more stable than in liquid water in which bonds are always breaking and forming In ice water there 4 H bondswater molecule meanwhile in liquid water you have 32 hydrogen bondswater molecule Ice water LiClUid water thndsri stable rzg al g rw 4 H bondswater 32 H bondswater molecule molecule 10 less dense ls less dense cause than liquid water molecules can pack because of the air closer together and that uses most of become more 133 39 32 the quotemptyquot space dense D this is why muondmater 3quot2 quot5 quot quot ice oats on water mm mnl cu39mmmge lf ice didn39t oat life would be possible because the ice would sink and remain frozen and accumulate over time which would lead to completely hard frozen lakes and seas Floating ice insulates water beneath it so this water remains warm enough to maintain aquatic life Water as a solvent Solvent liquid in which we want something to be dissolved or mixed water Solute the substance we want dissolved salt Solution result of solvent solute Hydrophilic water loving made up of polar molecules and ions Hydrophobic water fearing nonpolar molecules like oil d Solution Combination of solvent and solute Sodium chloride will dissolve because it39s made of hydrophilic ions These ions and the water are equally attracted to each other because of opposite charges D opposite nitrogen attracted to negative chlorides amp negative oxygen are attracted to the positive sodium Water molecules surround the ions creating a hydration shell and shield the ions from one another and allow them to remain dissolved in the solution Molecular mass Concentration how much of a substance is dissolved in water Molecular mass mass of 1 molecule of a substance TO nd the mass 1 chemical formula for sucrose C12 H22 011 that shows how many of which atoms are in the molecule and 2 atomic mass of those atoms found on periodic table That mass is calculated in DALTONS unit used to measure the mass of atoms aka Atomic Mass Unit Still with sucrose we can nd the atomic weight of the atoms in this molecule Carbon D 12 daltons x 12 144 Hydrogen l 1 x 22 22 Oxygen l 16 x 11 176 Add them up aaaand it goes like this 144 22 176 342 of Molecular Mass freakin Molarity Molarity way of expressing concentrations as number of particles moles Molarity way of expressing concentrations a5 number of particles Suwanee EEHEED Sal2 daltnna 6322s quotIDES i T lIECLIIEE 1 molecule 3 1 mole 41 3amp2 1H II gt 39I39 l 391 Avogadro39s 1 mole 602x1023 molecules How to get the concentration you want while preparing different solutions DO NOT add 1 mole to 1 L of water concentration under 1 molar Take about 80 of your nal desired volume add 1 mole of sucrose which will display water and raise the volume add water until you reach your desired volume of 1 liter 1 molar solution If you want a 2molar solution do the same thing but add 2 mole of solute per 1 L of solution I39 llljrityr Liter Eli 1MDI3F21m lesmlute ElEnter 1 39 1 litertotal 1 39L solution Percent solution This is the equation for percent solution 39lution a 1E Su lule Solution 100 ml total solution volume We39ll go through how NOT to prepare a percent solution so you can understand how to do it properly 1 Do not add the total amount of solvent you want just add 80 of it 2 Then add your solute FBS it will cause a slight delay in the volume of water hence not putting all the solvent in the rst place 3 Now add the remaining 20 of the solvent Let s do the same thing again but with a different percentage and solute luti l l cpl solute 1l39DlllTlI total solution VMume Poroont Solution 43E ml of 3 NaCl 19 7 HoGI l ml solution 4 35 Q NaifLI 4GB ml Solution i199 solute a l l ml aolution ml 7 EDD ml Dissociation of Water Water molecules often go through a process called dissociation These bonds between the molecules break while other reform When they break it creates new smaller and lighter molecules Then you get different new molecules Knowing that water has 2 H and 1 0 they can randomly break and create new molecules that contain the same atoms but not the same number For example OH Hydroxide ion andor H30 Hydronium Ion form This process can be reversed H proton doesn39t actually exist by itself but exists as a Hydronium ion We talk about proton concentration not about Hydronium ion concentration lll y r niunm Hyd f xifat inn H3351 l 1 Hl IllE39Ci 9 Hi H39 Proton Pure Water s protons concentration H OH39 H 1x10397 M OH39 1x10397M HOH39 1 x 103914 H20 l H OH39 If you have whatever increase or decrease in one of them the opposite happens to the other In other and much simpler words if H increases OH39 decreases And vice versa Why you say Because the product of these two ALWAAAYS has to be 1 x 1014 A LWA Y S Acids amp Bases If you add an acid to a solution its proton concentration will decrease and hydroxide will decrease Since bases have the opposite effect if you add a base to a solution proton concentration will go down and hydroxide will go up EXAMPLE TIIIME If you add Hydrochloric Acid HCI to a solution this will cause an increase in proton and a decrease in hydroxide concentration HCI dissociates molecules into protons and chloride ions They are what increase and decrease the concentration of the solute in the solution What happen is that hydroxide protons and they for WAAATER This lowers the hydroxide ion concentration Bases have the opposite effect if you add Sodium Hydroxide NaOH to a solution it will decrease the proton concentration and increase the hydroxide concentration Here again molecules are dissociated Na and OH39 are created Therefore increase hydroxide concentration and lower the proton concentration There are both strong and weak acids and base s According to their level of acidity or quotbaseityquot they will more or less dissociate molecules It also allows vou in some sort of wav to gure out what vour solution is made of Strong acid HCI D H Cl39 Strong base NaOH D Na OH39 Both of those are very dissociative to molecules while weak acid H2CO3 HCO3 H amp weak base NH3 H NH4 pH Scale Same rule of molar concentration mentioned above applies How to determine the pH of your solution The pH of a solution is equal to the negative log of your proton concentration D pH ogH Take the pH of your solution then do this H 1 x 104 So pH 4 this is TOMATO JUICE acid If the H has a concentration of 10393 So pH ogH H 1x10393 pH 3 if we work through to get read of the negative knowing that we get 3 SopH3 Emil solutionquot H Eullr al a luiimn EH39 aw Hquot H39 lin QH W H m Emir solution In m i l T 2 Q Neutral 41 ian mmmilanagl ly Hamlin Hui EH1 pH Email l l 39 lEa l tErgracitl E G ti i ti i e llemonjuine 3 il39iilnear beer wine min 7 1 Tamale1mm 5 Miami E l airmaiiar e Ei lLliniine Ealliua r i Purewater Human blood tears El seawater gl in Mill mlmagnaesia 7 ll Householdammania 1 2 quot Household 131 lilaanli Guam cleaner 39 5 L The lower the pH the more acidic Why Because of the proton concentration pH decreases as H increases D this is how you know how basic or acidic your solution is Buffers BUWWS Substances that minimize changes In the cncentratione of H and EH in a so Iiuition quot Human incti pH 31 1 3 Ear Hi1 Emma FINE Wai r FiH W 31 IiiEm E HQ 1 m l a Hakim to a tin M pH Ham D t39m T 39 Her Ht iii65151 Piaf H1 cam I r utl p iii iiii H ExitEMF Harmsrm if if i quot 311th 5 39E Blood contains a buffer water doesn39t Brace yourselves the HendersonHasselbach Equation is coming aka fascinating hassle Remember buffers are made up of a weak acid and its conjugate base They work best when pH pKa which only happens when HA A39 Step 1l Ca rho min A id Conjugate laErE 39l I Di smialed acid 1 39 quot V n F I I 1 WA quot Ul lE JllESDClatEd 34 log Ha 6mg i log N h 31 law il ngt l F I 1 A r El t l ml 41 ligl M q lii39In 391 PH 2 Elm lug Sources Campbell Introduction to Biology Camtasia Water ALL Cartoons slightly modi ed or taken from the Water video
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