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A bundle of notes PSYC 1101-004
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Popular in Psychlogy
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Date Created: 09/26/15
PSYCH Notes Ch 1 102313 912 PM Historical Perspective Influence of early Greeks 2 different ways of thinking 0 Monismone way of thinking 0 earth air fire and water the four atoms 0 they counted on the universe to explain it s self 0 Dualism ex Gods reasons for unexpected happenings o Quintessence the 5th element humans have a touch of this which can make us God like 3 Blows to the Human Ego Copernicus 14731543 not the center of the universe 0 The Copernican Revolution 0 The Revolution of Heavenly Bodies written in 1530 published 1543 o Developed theory that everything around the sun rotated simple model 0 Religious Backlash o Circles vs Ellipses planets aren t circles they re ellipses the plants HAD to be circles because God created a perfect universe and circles are perfect 0 Charles Darwin 18091882 evolved o The Voyages of The Beagle o The Origin of Species 1859 Natural Selection how evolution happened a Organisms do not change a Animals who can eat easier from trees reproduce more a If you are more adapted to your environment you strive more diseases goosebumps He DID NOT come up with evolution the Egyptians did The Ten year delay he knew the church would be mad so he didn t publish it until Wallis had the same idea then it became Darwin Wallis theory of Evolution 0 The Cornerstone of all modern science 0 The Religious Backlash Religion didn t like the theory of natural selection because it would need 1005 of millions of years to work and the bible was not that old Now we know the world is 4 billion years old and it works 0 Sigmund Freud 18561939 the most influential the most wrong Scholar and Neurosurgeon Coke addict Almost Public Menus o The Interpretation of Dreams 1895 promotes the idea that there is an inner life and that effects our decisions 0 Psychic Determinism humans are living things and consciousness has evolved No quintessence your life is shaped from experiences that you have had and it influences you These thoughts escape into your dreams 0 Impact on 20th century thought All these developments and wants are part of our biological existence Free Will You re not in control and every reaction you have is not your choice so just let it happen 0 Psychoanalysis the influence of unconscious motivation 0 Impact of early childhood Early Psychologists Wundt o Founded the first psychological laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879 o Structuralism the elements of consciousness periodic table of consciousnessquot William James 0 Functionalism 0 Flow of Consciousness Gestalt Movement 0 The German Influence o Gestalt the whole conscious is impossible to study if you look at it in parts 0 John B Watson 0 The Principles of Behaviorism O O The denial of conscious processes The observation of behavior as the only legitimate concern of psychology The operational definitionquot USE SCIENCE USE MEASUREMENTS Impact of Behaviorists An Epilogue his wife caught him cheating with 2 young college students and he was shunned legend says he went to Manhattan and met an advertising firm owner J W Thompson He shaped advertising by making people think they need something Ex Deodorant then we didn t want it now we NEED it Ex Applied principles of marketing that was used to buy and sell groceries so they knew what you preferred and the amount of error in the calculation Give me 3 infants and I will make of them what I want doctor lawyer etcquot Evolutionary Psychology 0 Considers contemporary human behavior within the context of our evolutionary heritage The Selfish Genequot providing for the things we find closer to us ex Feeding our family community America 0 Contemporary Psychology 0 O O 0 Synthesis of earlier schools of thought Impact of Behaviorism The scientific method The many subfields Clinical prescribing industrial and organizational deciding who s best for jobs social analyzing who we are and why developmental study of human development neuroscience look at the relation between the brain and behavior others Research Methods the importance of a question 0 4 Methods 0 1 Case Study focuses on a single case generalizations are difficult to make from a single case sometimes only method available 0 2 Naturalistic Observation eliminates or reduces contamination of lab setting often lacks control studies without influencing should be considered an essential element of other research designs whenever possible 0 3 Correlation used with tests and surveys Measures 2 of more dependent variables DV DV is a variable that is measured Ex Violent behavior DV1 and viewing TV violence DVZ could be measured and correlated to study the relationship between watching violent behavior TV and using aggressive behavior Graphing relationships ex bivariate plots and measuring correlations R 00 no relationship R 02 weak relationship R 05 moderate relationship R 09 very strong relationship Positive Correlation both variables go up Negative Correlation one variable goes up 08 is stronger then 07 just negatively correlated Correlation does not mean causation violent TV 0 4 Experimentation research method that manipulates ex violent TV you would need to change the type of TV they watch and make sure they only watch that in doses they want But nothing else could change power is derived from the independent variable IV and manipulation and control 0 Importance of Sampling 0 Randomness significance in GENERABILITY most important 0 Sample Size Substantial larger better 0 Scientific Method 0 Rules of the Scientific Method reliable observation Operational definition Repeatable 0 Theory Construction guesses formulated through reliable observation 0 Theory Test additional observations DOES IT MAKE SENSE Support Reformulation a little thing is wrong and you have to change a theory Rejection sometimes its completely wrong and you have to change the theory entirely 0 Covering Evidencea scientific theory must be testable Ex cigarette smoking and health Initial Observations a negative correlation emerged between smoking and health Hypothesis smoking negatively effects health Additional Observation others had the same observation Refine Hypothesis cigarette smoking may give you cancer Theory refined and developed hypothesis Additional Observations AAFacts Theories and ScienceAA Ch2 Biological Basis of Behavior 102313 912 PM Neurons and Synapses Neuron the basic building block of the Nervous System about 1 billion of them 0 Life functions and vulnerability neurons are extremely delicate Anatomy 0 Cell Body Soma Dendrtes Axon carries information Axon Terminals extends from the Axon Myelin Sheath like the plastic covering on wire keeps out viruses 0 Action Potential Ion Exchange across semi permeable membrane some come out others come in and it creates an electrical charge THIS OCCURS QUICKLY AND OFTEN 0 Base Rate from resting state Excitation how quickly you realize someone stepped on yourfoot Inhibition Synapse where you knowledge information and memory is it also stores the information so your body knows how work 0 The point of the chemical interaction between neurons 0 Synaptic Cleft o Neurotransmitters there are dozens of them Acetylcholine Norepinephrine chemical that provokes adrenaline Serotonin chemical that provokes excitement 0 Lock and Key Model Excitation Inhibition Modulation Drug Effects Can effect your synapses by stimulating them prohibiting them or blocking them clogging 0000 O know the anatomy the life functions the ion exchange across the membrane base rate and the synapse neurotransmitters and modulations The Nervous System 0 The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic NS Autonomic NS 0 Somatic NS Efferent Motor and Afferent Sensory o Autonomic NS Sympathetic what we feel and Parasympathetic controlling you bodily functions automatically These two systems coexist to balance each other out and keep us alive 0 The Central Nervous System Brain Spinal Cord o All incased in bone 0 Spinal Cord Calculator operates automatically very quickly like a reflex o m Computer The Cortex directly connects to the spinal cord the old brainquot controls the Autonomic NS Encephalization the growth of our brain a Evolution Cortex Covering Convolutions Lobes n Frontal n Parietal n Occipital n Temporal includes the Broca and Wemicke s area that controls speach Primary Motor Sensory Visual and Language Projection Areas a Middle Front Side of Brain controls Motor a Middle Back Side controls Sensory a Back Controls Vision In Your fingers tongue and eyes have more cortex then your back Right side of brain controls left side of body and vice versa Lower part of the brain controls the highest part of your body and moves up and down accordingly The Right side of the brain is considered the DOMINANT side because it controls verbal aspects 0 Left Side of the Brain Number Skills Written Language Reasoning Spoken Language Scientific Right Hand 0 Right Side of the Brain Insight 3D forms Art Awareness Imagination Music Left Hand 0 Subcortical Areas forebrain Thalamus like a yoyo one part one either side a Highest point of evolution before mammals all about defense Primal and all about staying alive n Relay Center things come in then relay somewhere else a The only thing that does not go through the thalamus is smell because smell is older then the thalamus Hypothalamus translates needs for survival n Motivation n Emotion n Autonomic NS 0 Controls all animal instincts Subcortical Areas hindbrain n Pons n Medulla n Spinal Cord n Cerebellum Endocrine System Overview of Glands o Pituitary The master glandquot located completely in the center of the brain Anterior and Posterior Widest Variety of hormones and effects Role of Stimulating Hormones Thyroid Role in Growth and Metabolism Concentration and Irritability 1 Hormone Thyroxin iodine Adrenals Role in Stress Reactions Medulla and Cortex 2 Hormones Adrenaline and Steroids Interaction with ANS Pancreas Controls levels of sugar in blood system Hormones Insulin lack of is Diabetes and Others Pineal Seat of the Soul Center of the brain May control of regulate activity levels over the day Responds to light and dark cycles helps animal s instincts figure out when to mate Evolutionary significance Pineal gland doesn t do much but it regulates mating behavior in many species and therefore is evolutionarily important 0 Gonads Testes males n Hormone Testosterone Ovaries females n Placenta n Hormones Estrogen Genetics and Behavior 0 Genetics INFLUENCES everything they do not DETERMINE anything 0 Conception and Prenatal Development 0 The Eggs The Sperm Concep on The Zygote Prenatal 0 Development 0 Chemistry of Inheritance 0 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid 0 46 chromosomes 0 23 pairs united at conception 0 Protein synthesis and metabolic control 0 Single Gene Traits o Mendel39s Model of Single Gene Traits Dominant Recessive Homozygous Someone only has one type of gene 0000 n Ex BB Heterozygous Someone who has 2 types genes n Ex Bb Phenotype What you see Genotype What is underneath it Behavioral Genetics 0 Polygenic Traits Influenced by multiple genes 0 Family Studies and inheritance 0 Twin Studies Identical Twins MZ Fraternal Twins DZ 0 Environmental Effects 0 Nature vs Nurture In Intelligence o Paired Correlations Genetic Relationship Rearing Condition Unrelated Apart 00 Together 22 Siblings 40 51 Identical Twins 72 86 o Other Traits o Trait Correlation Rate for Twins Fraternal Identical Schizophrenia 15 48 ManicDepression 24 93 Alcoholism 30 65 Adult Crime 34 71 Homosexuality 12 96 Ch3 Sensation anc Perception 102313 912 PM Vision Visible Light and Electromagnetic Spectrum 0 All things we see are light Energy determines color through wave length 0 Structure of the Eyeball o Focusing Cornea Lens Iris Pupil o Photoreception reception of light 0 Retina Fovea how you see sharply Blind Spot Structure of the Retina n Rods n Cones n Connecting Neurons a Light and Dark Adaption Color Vision on the Retina n The interaction of the cones from four a Color Mixing red green blue 0 The Optic Nerve 0 Visual Perception Nature vs Nurture Kittens in a carousel experiment a Cat 1 is able to move in light Cat 2 is completely restrained Cat 1 is restrained in dark Cat 2 is able to move but with out vision Cat 1 is normal Cat 2 is not coordinated at all If done for 3 months the cat can adapt If done for 6 months the cat 2 will not be able to adapt Upside down glass n We adapt to vision through learning The visual world of the newborn a Stand 3 ft back then zoom in makes them freak out into focus a Development starts with just eyes then moves to neck then other parts of the body Research on congenital blindness a Blind people have special awareness In Their senses are more finetuned o Perception of Depth Monocular Cues Binocular Cues n Retinal disparity Nature vs Nurture Visual Cliff Infancy Newborns Crossspecies kenge Audition External Ear o Auricle or Pinna 0 Exterior Ear Canal 0 Eardrum of tympanic membrane 0 Eternal Ear Infections Middle Ear Conduction o The middle ear 0 The Ossicles Malleus hammer Incus anvil Satpes stirrup The Oval Window The Eustachian Tube Middle Ear Infections o Musicales of the Middle Ear Inner Ear Auditory Reception o The Cochlea Because bones are softer an infant hears differently then adults OOO o The Organ Corti o Basilar Membrane Frequency Hair Cells responsive to motion Volley and Place Theories n Membrane responds to different pitches o Timbre The color of sound How you can tell the difference between the quality of instruments 0 Related Auditory Phenomena 0 Sound Localization Inborn or learned Interaction of hardware and software 0 Mechanism for filtering and focusing sound 0 Chemical Senses o Olfaction Smell we know the least about this Nine primary odors The role of olfaction in taste a taste barely exists Its mostly all smell Link to Phylogeny oldest sense a We have very little smell compared to dogs especially greyhounds Pheromones n Ants example with finding good food a Everyone has a specific body odor Olfaction and the menstrual cycle a Explains a women s sense of change of taste when pregnant also related to milk production a Sense of smell effects the synchronizing of menstrual cycles Olfaction and Emotional Memories n Your comparison between smells and events from childhood and it brings emotion Olfaction and Sexual Behavior Olfaction and mate preference I Men s tshirt study In Women tend to prefer men with opposite blood molecules to increase disease resistance in offspring o Gustation Taste Lock and Key Model Four Qualities Sweet Sour Salty Bitter o Somesthesis Touch Gate Control Theory 4 Primary Qualities a Pressure a Hot n Cold a Pain sense vs perception 0 Balance the Vestibular Sense Dealing with motion sickness o Phylogeny evolution 0 Lock and Key Model of Reception Ch 5 Learning 102313 912 PM Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior cased by experience 0 The best comprehensive way learn about human beings Principles of Learning 0 Classical Conditioning 0 Russian Physiologist Ivan Pavlov Studied how salivating relates to food how it can relate to sounds a gong that means he s going to get food images him walking into the room to feed the dog or physical food Relationship between two modulations Ex hitting podium and lights flashing a US unconditioned stimulus meat dilating n UR unconditioned response unlearned salivation a CS conditioned stimulus tone a CR conditioned response salivation 0 Higher Order Conditioning using a previously established CS and US FOOD 9 GONG 9 BELL a Bell produces salivation even though it was not directly associated with food 0 Ex of Classical Conditioning Preferences likes and dislikes Fears phobias Emotions Generally involves reflexive autonomic emotional and involuntary behaviors always involves autonomic nervous system 0 Instrumental Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behaviors are emitted to earn rewards or avoid punishment 0 Thorndike The lever and the cat experiment 0 Reinforcement stimulus that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated 0 Ex of Instrumental Conditioning Early Childhood learning punishment and reward a Ex punishing getting caught rather than the negative act because if he doesn t get caught he gets the cookie Schoolgrades a Gold star grades hugs and smiles job money food pellet Not so different from rats Salaries Most other goal oriented behaviors a Every time he gives you a food pellet reinforce that behavior by pulling the leverquot Who s in charge Free Will Instrumental vs Classical Conditioning Instrumental Classical Voluntary Involuntary Autonomic Skeletal Reflexive NonReflexive Emotional Goal Oriented Learning Phenomena Rat economy rats get tokens if they work to get food some of the bigger male rats realize they can steal the tokens from the smaller rats rat economy is developed Extinction partial reinforcement O Decrease in response strength following the removal of reinforcement n Continuous reinforcement results in fast extinction Varied reinforcement results in rarely no extinction n Ex Solid Jobs with paychecks no paycheck you won t go to work Partial Reinforcement Other schedules of reinforcementquot Some applications a Gambling n Durability of prejudice stimulus generation n Superstitious behavior 0 Schedules of Reinforcement 0 Escape Learning Seligman s Research I Learned helplessness 0 Dog on a shuttle with shock experiment with stepping over the barrier Memorization vs Rationalism Children in school ABCs example a Resistance to learned helplessness 0 Put the dog in the box with the high barrier and kept them in there with the shock for days When he would lower the barrier the dog would stay put a Application to depression 0 Relationship to experiment 0 Example of dumped girl not wanting to go out not wanting to get over it o Avoidance Learning add a cue or a warning Bandura s Research with Primates n Gives them a cue a shock is coming then they learn very quickly to hit the bar to counter act the shock they ll never get shocked again General resistance to extinction for behaviors established by avoidance learning a Girl doesn t want to be alone so bad that she gets a boyfriend that abuses her and she takes it because its better than being alone n Relationships should not be to avoid the unknown they should live in the positives Internal cues may serve as stimulus Applications to human behavior Sefpunishing behavior Biofeedback o Involves the instrumental condiditoning of traditionally classically conditioned behavior 0 Early work of Miller Applications In Exercising increased control of autonomic behaviors Pull back from your body s response and your mind will follow a Medical uses 0 Secondary Reinforcement money grades Ch6 Memory A Higher Cognitive Process 102313 912 PM Information Processing Approach 0 Three Memory Systems 0 Sensory Memory veryshort term working memory 0 ShortTerm Memory active memory 0 LongTerm Memory 0 Sensory Memory VSTM Iconic Memory 0 Sperling s Study of Capacity of Sensory Memory Sensory memory holds more information than subjects are able to report completely because of visual fades n 1 Subjects fixate on a cross on a screen a 2 Subjects look at array of letters flashed on the screen for 120 of a second a 3 High tone top row a Medium tone middle row a Low tone bottom row 0 A high medium or low tone is sounded after a half second has elaped Pitch of tone determines which row of letters the subjects will report a 4 MPZGquot Subjects report letters in circle 0 Multitasking switching rapidly back and forth between tasks 0 Short Term Memory learning and active memory 0 Limited Capacity Holds about 7 pieces of memory 0 Maintenance rehearsal 0 Strategies for transfer to Long Term Memory LTM Organized storage facilitates retrieval Elaborative rehearsal Creating Semantic meaningful connections a Method of Loci 0 Begin by thinking of locations like a home that are in sequence Then visualize one of the items to be remembered in each location 0 Ex grocery shopping 0 Chunking When you study you are chunking by trying to learn it Memory is completely unrelated to intelligence the way you organize or chunk it depends on the memory Ex Plate Bowl Cup Saucer Napkin Fork Knife Spoon a People with mild retardation have trouble chunking I Really smart people chunk EVERYTHING everything you know is related to something else ex square root of 3 is the same as George Washington s birthday which is the same as 0 Long Term Memory 0 Virtually Unlimited Capacity 0 Retrieval Mechanisms how well you manipulate the knowledge You learned it and you know it you just can t find it 0 Memory Phenomena 0 Serial Position Curve you tend to recall things in the end and the beginning better than the things in the middle 0 Eyewitness testimony psychology played a large part Accident vs Memory construction Students watched video of an accident then researcher asked questions like did the glass breakquot was anyone hurtquot but after a couple days the student who were asked that would remember what she asked you the glass broke someone was hurt o Repressed memory syndrome Day Care Center Case Therapy recalling of molestation case 0 Infantile Amnesia o Reconstructive memory Car Accident Recalling events after hours have passed days have passed months and years have passed Biological Basis of Memory 0 Most memories are stored in carious locations through out the brain 0 We THINK hippocampus works on active memory to store things that happen in long term memory in different parts of the brain 0 Where memories are MADE 0 Tips of the hippocampus are the amygdale o Damage to the hippocampus will keep you from storing new memories Ex 50 first dates damage your hippocampus on Feb 28 then you will live March 1 for the rest of your life Ex Alzheimer s is the result of damage to the hippocampus Ex Bonnie Cone Ch7 Language 102313 912 PM Communication in other Species Communication is common in most species 0 Even insects plants and various microorganisms communication at an elementary o Dolphins can hear other forms of communication and ease dropquot 0 Met intelligence you are aware others are thinking When a mother monkey loses her child then she will just call out unless there is a danger then she knows not to call out because that will alert other animals 0 Bees doing the wagon dance bee finds honey then flies back does a wagon dance and if you remove the original bee from the hive the other bees know where to go o Protozoa can release chemicals to tell other protozoa that bacteria is present 0 Human attempts to communicate with Primates o Chimpanzees Viki spoken words n Raised as a child for the first two years Viki was way ahead of the child then the child started talking I Could not talk but could understand Washoe ASL n Genius chimp that used prepositions etc a Only animal ever known to be able to lie I When put into a Zoo she had babies and taught them to sign the chain stopped there Lana Computer 0 Gorillas we usually work with Chimps because gorillas are so strong they wouldn t know they re hurting you They could rip a tree out of the ground to get the fruit at the top Kanzi ASL Nature of Language Phonology Sound o Phonemes smallest possible sound that is still language sound 3 sounds of cat kuhh ahh tttt 3 phonology o Morphemes built upon phonemes or multipule phonemes Smallest MEANINGFUL component of a language Ex ing Ex a syllable Syntax Structure 0 how you say the sounds Semantics Meaning 0 Denotation What a word denotes to what the definition is o Connotation Emotional baggage associated with word Ex words associated with age 13 to 19 n Teenager devious a Young Adult suck up n Adolescent young I Youthful jealous Pragmatics Gestures 0 You may know the language but people know you re not from that place II Early Language Development 0 Cooing o All children do this doesn t matter what you hear 0 Within the first month of life 0 Babeng 0 complicated Echolalic Babbling phonemic contraction 0 Starts to be based on what you hear deaf vs hearing 0 Starts to take on the form of their language 0 First Words 0 Expressive vs Receptive Language Knowing the meaning of words Average vocabulary 30000 to 35000 words a You got into college because you have a larger vocabulary Largest indicator of a leader study leader was chosen with largest vocabulary o Expressive vs Receptive Language What they are able to communicate what you understand is Receptive language 0 Semantic vs Syntax training Semantic Meaning I Give the toddlers meaning and words so their vocabulary explains a Reading to a child is about learning words Syntax Grammer n Commonly used when talking to toddlers and repeating what they say u Toddlers can conjugate words without realizing it ex goed a Language Instinct LAD Language Acquisition Device o Vocabulary Growth Rapid vocabulary growth will increase between 1St and 6th year 0 Bilingualism 0 Early Studies 19005 Large immigration rate where immigrants did not know the language could not take the tests Bilingualism used to be viewed as a serious problem 0 Contemporary Research Children who have a Spanish speaker teacher after 3 months will be able to fluently speak Spanish 0 Applications of early bilingualism to the acquisition of additional languages Children who are bilingual younger the more languages they will be able to learn at a older age 0 Deep Structurequot Growth and flexibility children who grow up with no language are distended to be mentally retarded I ex deaf and dumbquot when you learn a language at a young age will have a deep structure intertwined with that language a children who learn 2 languages will have a flexible deep structure and therefore can learn more languages Intelligence Historical Perspective 0 Early recognition of the differences in human abilities Early work of Francis Galton British 0 Intelligence was a quality you either had or didn t have and you could measure it as compared to great intellects British Royal Society 0 Alfred Binet39s France father of intelligence work to indentify children who would experience difficulty in school 0 Identified children they knew would not be ready for school and developed the mental agequot instead of a chronological age 0 Binet 0 Develop procedures 0 Mental Agequot Concept 0 Reliability they would do the test over and over MOST IMPORTANT PART of an experiment 0 Validity same different questions does it actually predict something Way they answered the questions w Helped measure their intelligence 0 TestRetest 0 Contribution of the Lewis Terman 0 US Translation of Binet s Test Standford Binet o Terman s introduction of the Concept of IQ Mental Retardation IQ MACA 100 Mental Age Chronological age based on variation on 1 Look up STANDARD DEVIATION CHART IQ 100MEAN 115 1 SD ABOVE MEAN 84th percentile ETC Medical Doctors have an average IQ of 130 Surgeons have an average IQ of 141 o Terman39s Research instead of researching the unglifted kids he started looking at the gifted kids Characteristics of the gifted El El 90 went to higher education income when adults were in the upper quarter of the top 1 on average these people had fewer acne fewer marriage failures children were highly intelligent UNCC perfect student ex Developed new torque in contact lenses part time IQlt 2 SD is below mean 0 In order the best to worst is Mild 90 Moderate 6 Severe 3 Profound 1 Originate prior to 215t year 0 You can t be deemed mentally retarded if your IQ drops after 21St year Maladaptive Behavior Etiologies 0 Parental and Postnatal 0 Genetic o Infections 0 Physical Injury 0 Others 0 Associated Conditions oCP o Sensory Impairments o Epilepsy Contemporary Measures of Intelligence LOOK UP IN BOOK 0 Stanford Binets Wechsler Scales o WPPSIIII o WISC III 0 WAISIII Scales of Infant Development The Bayley Special Measures of Intelligence 0 WICS III Sub Scales Full Scale IQ GPA o Verbal Scale General Information Comprehension Vocabulary Arithmetic Reasoning Digit SpanMemorizing Digits Similarities 0 Performance Scale Picture Completion Picture Arrangement Block Design Object Assembly Puzzle Coding Mazes 0 Intelligence is Nature Nurture Based Born Environment Ch8 Motivation and Emotion 102313 912 PM The Story of Ik Nomadic group of people that traveled with in a small region of Africa and never had contact with other people never knew they existed in a beautiful land Discovered in 20th century 0 No sense of ownership no marriage children raised by the tribe no violence Evi Alieen 705 Dictator moved the Ik to build a national park 0 Human Civilization is about a bounty o Perception of bad and good people and areas are based on the bounty of that area Primary Drives Principle of Homeostasis o Homeostasis means Balance 0 Primary or Basic Drives 0 Food Hypothalamus tells your body when your hungry 0 Water 0 Oxygen 0 Temperature Room gets cold you shiver Room gets hot you sweat 0 Sex Stimulus Drives 0 Curiosity o Exploratory Behavior about exploring the environment 0 When you explore things that do not necessarily need to happen 0 Younger Age Higher Curiosity 0 Animals are hardwired we adapts so we need software like a computer Take away a lake a frog will leave Build a city a mouse will adapt and stay CURIOSITY Aggression 0 Drive that involves harming others Ex Bus Stop in England and America Ex Aggression is okay when justified ex Movies Instinct and Imprinting Ethology study of animals in their natural environment 0 Jane Goodall was student of Lorenz Instincts Ex closing hands in humans 0 Imprinting critical period learning when an animal is programmed to do something 0 Lorenz s work with newly hatched ducklings After 5 or 6 hours they start to wander After 15 hours they developed fear If a larger object is moved around in their presence between these two times then the ducklings will follow that object 0 Attachment in Primates o Harlow s work with Rhesus Monkeys Studying maternal and infant instinct Use of fake mothers to test maternal instincts People thought that the monkey would prefer the mother that provided food but he preferred the mother that was soft and provided warmth When fear was inflicted he went to the warm mother Maternal Love and Human Attachment 0 Instinct or the result of a critical period Result of the Critical Period 0 Baby that was raised with terry cloth mothers were negligent 0 Baby raised in isolation bit off it s baby s head The Sex Drive 0 Sex as a primary motive necessary for the species survival 0 Sex as a secondary motive how we chose our mates dance Evolutionary Psychology Perspective where genes not gene vessels are the unit of analysis 0 Not about us individually about us as a species 0 Dependency to maintain preserve and pass on genes 0 The dominant lion will create his tribe by impregnating the female if a different dominant male comes to the tribe they will kill all the offspring because they are not his 0 Females need to be selected because they can only reproduce so many times 0 Females need confident males males are not selective because they can reproduce as many times as they want Males select based on health age and symmetric 0 Male species are more attractive because the female is selective Maslow s Need Hierarchy 0 Physiological needs food water safety needs belongingness needs esteem needs selfactualization needs 0 Noncontingent Love nonconditional Contingent Love Conditional Love Ch9 Human Development 102313 912 PM Origin and Blue Print For Life 0 Conception DNA all neurotransmitters are determined by DNA Prenatal Development 0 Conception union of sperm and egg 0 Zygote the first cell dizygotic makes twins 0 Ovum Undifferentiated all cells are identical Embryo Differentiation and Organogenesis origin of organs 0 Fetus Growth Terragens Look up in book Birth and The Neonate Prenatal Period the birth process 0 When people started washing their hands before giving birth the population leaped o The process went from a cultural tradition to a surgical procedure 0 Common Birth Problems 0 Infection 0 Oxygen Deprivation 0 Heat loss 0 Capacities of Newborns Human Growth 0 Maturation Biological Unfolding Cephalocaudial head gorws first body grows second and Proximodistal Development growing from top to bottom Milestones windows in which standards for babies occurs walking talking kicking Cognitive Development how you process and manipulate information 0 Jean Piaget o A Child Prodigy Paper he wrote at 8 12 won a national award Unusual kid Epistemology nature of knowledge 0 Early work with Binet Was sent out to test children and found its not what they know its what they didn t know 0 Formulation of theory All 5 year olds gave answer they think the same 0 Emphasis on Maturation What makes children s cognition is how they know it Knowledge comes natural its just the way we think it o Readiness to Learnquot Piaget s Theory of Cognitive Development 0 Sensorimotor Period Birth through 2 years Begins with reflex Responses are connected to stimulation out of sight is out of mindquot a peek a boo game can be endless and it s still funny I do not respond to memory they respond to physical event object permanencequot a after around a 6th month period they learn that the object is still there and peek a boo no longer works a around same period babies will start to realize who is supposed to pick them up and they become distressed when a person they don t know tries to comfort them 0 PreOperational Period illogicalness Piaget operation 2 through 7 don t use logic NonConserving the conservation tasks Egocentric me and my perspective a World is seen in a personal way only from their view a Baby loves mom baby loves dad baby doesn t comprehend that mom and dad love each other n Hide and Seek experiement Illogical 2 2 what ever you say Liquid in the jar experiment tall jar vs wide jar Early Childhood Jokes Early Childhood Morality a Good Reward U Bad Punishment 0 Concrete Operations Period 7 through 11 years LOGIC RULES n Principles vs Rules Rules dominate behavior and thnking Logical thought Inflexibility black and white reasoning Logical Morality n Failure to reconcile extenuating circumstances a All Goodquot or All Badquot 0 Formal Operations Periods Adolescents Abstract Reasoning n Wanting child home after dark adolescents want to know why and why its dangerous etc Flexibility in thought process The emergence of Personal introspection I Believe in value systems Moral reasoning I Provides for shades of greyquot and the flexible application of principles in moral reasoning Concrete Formal Issue a How you get there vs if you re there a 100 think you re right you re concrete 0 Piaget A Final Comment Applications to Morality ex Divorce n Concrete rigid about which parent did it and the other is perfect a Formal concerned about what s going to happen to them Criticisms of Piaget Life Span Personality Development 0 Erick Erikson 8 consecutive crises that emerge throughout the life span Trust vs Mistrust 1St years of life a Trust faith in the predictability of the environment optimism about the future Trust is reasonable if child grows up in decent situation a Mistrust suspicious fearful and overly concerned with security Children of war victims do not have good trust everyone is out to get them Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt ages 13 a Autonomy gain control over bodily functions and coordination n Shame and Doubt hostile rejection of all controls selfdoubt about ability to control body Initiative vs Guilt ages 36 a Initiative parental support for trying new things leads to joy in exercising initiative and taking on new challenges a Guilt feelings of guilt unworthiness and resentment may occur if scolded for exercising initiative Industry vs Inferiority ages 613 In Industry learning the skills of personal care productive work and independent living 0 When you learn who you are n Inferiority failure to learn these skills lead to feelings of mediocrity inadequacy and lowself sufficiency a Role Confusion failure to integrate these roles leads to lack of personal identity and despair 0 When you develop an identity by not caring what others think Intimacy vs Isolation early adulthood Intimacy In order to love another one must have resolved all earlier crises Isolation failure at intimacy brings a painful sense of loneliness and incompleteness Why young romance fails because it was built upon trying to make each other happy not growing together Generativity vs Stagnation middle adulthood El Generativity experience meaning and joy in all major activities of life Stagnation failure to remain productive and creative leads to life becomes a drab routine feel dull and resentful Integrity vs Despair late adulthood El Integrity acceptance of one s life a sense that it is complete and satisfactory little fear of approaching death Despair despair at the loss of former roles and missed opportunities fear approaching death Ch1012 Personality Stress and Health Psych Disorders 102313 912 PM Personality an individual s unique patterns of thoughts feelings and behaviors that persists over time and across situations Classes of Personality Theories Psychodynamic Theories personality is the result of unconscious motivations and conflicts o Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis Interpretation of Dreams 1895 explains principle of psychic determinism our behaviors are based on everything that led up to that behavior from nature and nurture everything happens for a reason Psychic Determinism Impact on 20th century thought Structure of personality I Id the collection of all unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression 0 Source of all energy functions entirely in unconscious wants pleasure I Ego the part of the personality that mediates between the demands of reality the id and superego Operates at all 3 levels reality principles I Superego the social ad parental standards the individual has internalized Strives for perfection which is unrealistic READ DEFENSE MECHANISMS ch12 The Ego Defense Mechanisms n Anxiety struggle between the good guyquot on the right shoulder and bad guyquot on the left a Repression not thinking about what is bothering you Suppression knowingly not thinking about it n Maladaptive When normal defense methods become over used mental illness I Sublimation where you take a goal and replace it with a more attainable goal a Fantasy fantasizing about something you want u Rationalization logically argue against a problem a Projection when you blame others for faults n Displacement physically take it out ex anger stomping because you re mad I Regression moves back ex when a girl gets upset she cries n Reaction Formation take on the opposite of what you really want ex political figures that opposes homosexuality ended up being gay Carl Jung Alfred Adler Karen Horney Erik Erikson Humanistic Theories o Humanistic Personality Theories any personality theory that asserts the fundamental goodness of people and striving toward higher levels of functioning Trait Theories measurement oriented theories 0 Personality traits dimensions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways 0 Trait theories focus on describing one s current personality less emphasis on how the personality developed Cognitivesocial Learning Theories Objective Tests 0 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire 16 PF a personality test created by Cattell that provides score on the 16 traits he identified 0 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI the most widely used objective personality test originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis OOOO Clinical Scales of MMPIZ El Projective tests Hypochondriasis hypochondriac measure of your concern of health used to measure anxiety Depression concern for your tendency to view things in a negative way Identical twins will rear apart they re equally happy Hysteria originally associated with women who did not have children because of the part of the body Today it is VERY high level of anxiety 0 Cold their throat gets tight mentally anxiety is too high so you can t focus Psychopathic Deviation failure to conform to social norms 0 used to measure psychopaths and sociopaths Masculinityfemininity measures aggressiveness vs nurturing 0 Some people are trying to get it taken off the test because a lot sway in people Paranoia suspiciousness 0 Ex Hitler Psychasthenia obsessive compulsiveness 0CD obsessive refers to thoughts compulsion refers to acUons Schizophrenia high level of detachment from reality Hypomania overall activity level Social Introversion overall pull from society person who scores high on it are more introverted o Thematic Apperception Test TAT A test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story TAT for adults CAT for children uses cartoon images o Rorschach A test composed of ambiguous inkblots the way people interpret the blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality What is Abnormal Behavior 0 Mental health professionals generally define abnormal behavior as either maladaptive life functioning or serious personal discomfort or both 0 Insane is a legal term not a mental health term irresponsible DSMIV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition 0 A publication of American Psychiatric Association that classifies over 230 psychological disorders into 16 categories 0 Most widely used classification of psychological disorders Specifically used to diagnose any mental disorders by law 0 Factors that lead to the development of a mental disorder and relate to prognosis o Prognosis Expected outcome 0 Predisposing Factors Includes all events prior to the onset of a disorder that may have played a role in the development of the disorder genetics prenatal development previous substance abuse early social and personal development etc o Precipitating Event The actual event or events that occur immediately prior to the onset of a mental disorder 0 EX Good person bad situation boy with perfect future joins military and sees something horrific prognosis is excellent and he is supposed to be back on the line in 72 hours max Heavy precipitating event 0 EX Bad past shoots up store goes to mental hospital prognosis is bad Still a heavy precipitating event 0 Substance Abuse 0 Alcohol is the number one cause and contributing factor to mental disorders today Factors bigger than all other substances combined IMPACTS INHIBITIONS social marks of society Mental Disorders disturbances in mood or prolonged emotional state 0 Depression a mood disorder characterized by overwhelming feeling of sadness lack of interest in activities and perhaps excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness 0 Weight loss or gain can t get to sleep but wake up tired Mania a mood disorder characterized by euphoric states 0 Extreme physical activity excessive talking distractedness and sometimes grandiosity Bipolar Disorder a mood disorder in which periods of mania and depression alternate sometimes with periods of normal mood intervening 0 Also referred to as manic depression Causes of Mood Disorders 0 Most psychologists now believe that mood disorders result from a combination of biological factors 0 Genetics 0 Chemical imbalances in the brain 0 Psychological Factors 0 Social Factors 0 Ex women has an abortion in November so every November after she goes into a deep depression Relationship Between Mood Disorders and Suicide 0 Suicide is most likely to occur during swing out of depressionquot 0 In General Female are most likely to attempt suicide while males are more likely to commit suicide in AMERICA 0 Gender Race and Suicide 0 Old White men are more likely to commit suicide Women s chances stay constant with age 0 Men gt Women 0 In young adult years it is one of the leading causes of death along with accidents 0 In older groups it is about the 9th cause of death but there is more death than in young adult years Anxiety Disorders Disorders in which anxiety is a characteristic feature or the avoidance of anxiety seems to motivate abnormal behavior 0 Moderate levels of anxiety help you study high levels tends to fall off 0 Types of Phobias 0 Specific intense paralyzing fear of some object or fear ex heights 0 Social excessive inappropriate fears connected with social situations or performances in front of other people 0 Agoraphobia involves multiple intense fear of crowds public places and other situations that require separation from a source of security 0 Panic Disorder 0 an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent panic attacks 0 Panic Attacks a sudden unpredictable and overwhelming experience of intense fear or terror without any reasonable cause Were previously known as anxiety attacksquot 0 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 an anxiety disorder characterized by prolonged vague but intense fears that are not attached to any particular object or circumstance Sometimes they are depressed ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0 An anxiety disorder in which a person feels driven to think disturbing thoughts obsessions andor to perform senseless rituals compulsions Obsession refer to thought Compulsion refer to behavior Responds well to medication Conversion Disorder 0 Somatoform disorders in which a dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems 0 More common in earlier centuries 0 Can include a wide variety of symptoms such as blindness deafness or paralysis 0 Ex when the plague was around it was blamed on black cats When people started killing all the black cats the mice population went up but the disease was caused by a disease the mice were carrying Ex man believed that he had animal magnetism and could cure things by touching them His success rate was 50 because the people it worked on was people with conversion disorder 0 Ex Podiatrist from bones with his hand not working Hypochondriasis A somatoform disorder in which a person interprets insignificant symptoms as signs or serious illness in the absence of any organic evidence of such illnesss Dissociative Disorders Disorders in which some aspect of the personality seems separated from the rest Amnesia a rare dissociative disorder characterized by loss of memory for past events without organic cause Often results from an intolerable experience not the type when someone gets hit on the head 0 Amnesia is more rare than fugue 0 Now it is almost always seen in children 0 Fugue a dissociative disorder that involves flight from home and the assumption of a new identity with amnesia for past identity and events 0 Mental illness is based on exception in society Ex In Japan suicide is widely accepted 0 Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 A dissociative disorder in which a person has several distinct personalities that emerge at different times 0 Formally known as multiple personality disorder 0 So rare that some psychologists believe it does not exhist Sexual Disorders 0 Sexual Dysfunction involve the loss or impairment of the ordinary physical response of sexual function Includes premature ejaculation and female sexual arousal disorder Paraphilias sexual disorders in which unconventional objects or situations cause sexual arousal Includes fetishism voyeurism exhibitionism sexual sadism can only be aroused when giving pain sexual masochism can only be aroused when receiving pain and pedophilia object of sex is with a child does not respond well to treatment Personality Disorders 0 Disorders in which inflexible and maladaptive ways of thinking and behaving learned early in life cause distress to the person andor conflicts with orders 0 Paranoid Personality Disorder 0 Personality disorder in which the person in inappropriately suspicious and mistrustful of others 0 Paranoid personality disorder is NOT the same as paranoid schizophrenia 0 As the level of the disease progresses the name changes 0 Antisocial Personality Disorder APD o A personality disorder that involves a pattern of violent criminal unethical manipulative and exploitative behavior These individuals rarely feel guilt and often lack the ability to feel affection for others 0 In extreme cases people with this disorder are often referred to as Sociopaths or Psychopaths 0 Possible Causes Biological predisposition Freud s comment Adverse psychological experiences Unhealthy social environment Child Disorders 0 Attentiondeficit Hyperactivity disorder ADHD o A child disorder characterized by inattention impulsiveness and hyperactivity o More common in boys and girls Autistic Disorder 0 A childhood disorder characterized by lack of social instincts and strange motor behavior 0 Echolalia a speech pattern displayed by some autistic children in which they repeat words said to them Small differences but result in large differences in society Ex don t know when to smile or laugh Schizophrenic Disorders 0 Sever disorders that are primarily characterized by a retreat from realityquot Schizophrenia often involves disturbances of thoughts communications and emotions including delusions and hallucinations 0 Approximately 1 of people are afflicted during lifetime 0 Delusions false beliefs about reality that have no basis in fact 0 Hallucinations sensory experiences in the absence of external stimulation 0 Largest population in the hospital that ALL other mental disorders combined it s LONG TERM Types of Schizophrenic Disorders Disorganized Schizophrenia or Hebephreniaquot o Bizarre and childlike behaviors are common Tries to scare you then runs into a corner and talks to themselves 0 Catatonic Schizophrenia 0 Disturbed motor activity is prominent Patients may remain motionless in a bizarre posture andor display brief periods of rage or hyperactivity Takes on a bizarre posture naturally like a statue Swinging arms 0 Paranoid Schizophrenia o Marked by extreme suspiciousness and complex bizarre delusions Often believes they re talking to god Undifferentiated Schizophrenia 0 There are clear schizophrenic symptoms that do not meet the criteria for another subtype of the disorder Etiology of Schizophrenia Genetics ceary runs in families especially high in twins Excessive amounts of dopamine Abnormal pattern of connections between cortical cells Prenatal disturbance including high fevers family relationships Diathesisstress model notion that some people are biologically predisposed to negative cogitations DEFINE IN BOOK 0 Developing deals with the frontal lobe and when it starts to gain control Means brain is not working right Paranoia Marked by extreme suspiciousness and accompanying delusions Ex Charles Manson believed he was the son of god and created a follower group Ex Adolf Hitler most successful paranoid person was paranoid because he LOST WWII if he had won 0 DELUSIONS PARANOIAHALLUCINATIONSSCHIZOPHRENIA o Delusions of persecution o Delusions of grandeur believe they are a higher than others 0 If millions of people agree they are not paranoid no one agrees they are paranoid Ch14 Effectiveness of Psychotherapy 102313 912 PM swerdTherapy benefits 23 of the people undergoing it 0 Only 1 out of 3 people improve without therapy 0 In general no one form of therapy appears to be more effective than another Models of Therapy 1when people behave strangely the devil is inside them 2biological problem can be treated 3 anxiety 0CD not schizophrenia becomes defensive 4 learn how to effectively do things no roots of the problem not schiz 5 helps depression teaches them to think about a situation differently takes 68 weeks to treat 6 being mentally ill is being irresponsible just stop Effective in Alcoholism 7 idea of patient is the source of the problem Ex Daemon perfect family took out everything on Daemon Models Cause Treatment 1 Historical Demons Exorcism 2 Organic Biological DRUGSSurgeryETC 3 Psychodynamic Underlying Conflict Conflict Resolution 4 Behavioral Learning Relearning 5 Cognitive Faulty Thinking ReThinking 6 Ethical Irresponsibility Responsibility AA 7 Family Therapy Identified Patientquot Alter Environment 102313 9 12 PM 102313 9 12 PM 102313 9 12 PM
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