Exam #1 Bundle.pdf
Exam #1 Bundle.pdf 2210
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This 25 page Bundle was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday September 22, 2014. The Bundle belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/14
Human Nutrition 2210 92214 1206 PM Week Four Chapter FourFive Carbohydrates 6 classes of nutrients Carbs proteins lipids energy yielding Vitamins minerals water no energy Carbohydrates C H O Produced by plants via photosynthesis Simple carbohydrates monosaccharide s and disaccharides Polysaccharides complex starch potatoes glycogen fiber 6 Carbon dioxide 6 water energy glucose C6 H12 06 Monosaccharide s simple Glucose blood sugar diabetes Fructose high fructose corn syrup 0 Created by taking corn cornel and extracting the starch adding glucose and enzymes to create fructose more sweet Galactose part of lactose Sugar alcohols monosaccharide derivatives 0 Xylitoe mannitol and sorbitol Pentose 5 carbon 0 Ribose and deoxyribose DNARNA structure Splitting glucose to produce ATP glycolysis 0 6C 3C 3C 1C 2C 2C dioxide energy ATP Functions of Carbohydrates Supplies energy presencesabsence of oxygen 0 Protein sparing preserving protein rebuilding not energy Prevent keotosis burning fat too extensivelyproduced liver from lipids Sweetener taste good Disaccharides 2 monosaccharide s linked by a condensation reaction Alphabeta C O C bonds connect them Maltose least common Glucose and glucose alpha bond Sucrose one of major tabe sugar Glucose and fructose alpha bond Brown sugar molasses iron vitamins minerals Lactose more difficult to digest lactose and tolerant different chemical bond Galactose and glucose beta bond Childhood to adulthood enzymes are lost and it becomes more difficult to have lactose as an adult Complex Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides 0 310 sugar units 0 raffinose and stachyose found in beans 0 indigestible bacteria fermentation gas Polysaccharides 0 Contain many glucose molecules 0 Alpha or beta bond determine digestibility o Digestible Polysaccharides Starch plants 2 Amylose straight chain 2 Amylopectin branched Glycogen animals 2 Storage form of glucose in human body 2 Liver glycogen 90g blood sugar 2 Muscle glycogen 300g glucose for muscle use 0 Indigestible Polysaccharides Total fiber dietary fiber functional fiber added fiber Soluble fibers pectin gum muciage s and some hemicelluloses 2 Ex inner part of an apple Insoluble fibers cellulose hemicellulose and lingnin 2 Ex apple skin Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber Absorbs and holds water insoluble soften stool Larger stool promotes peristalsis go to bathroom easierregularlylarger feces Promotes regularity insoluble Lower risk for cardiovascular disease soluble Decrease hemorrhoids and diverticula insoluble Ex Banana peel insolubleactual banana soluble Carbohydrates in foods Starch Fiber Nutritive sweeteners o Mono and disaccharides 0 High fructose corn syrup 0 Sugar alcohols gum Alternative non nutritive sweeteners 0 Yield no energy 0 Acceptable daily intake ADI o Saccharin Warning label cause cancer in lab animals pulled off market and backlash put it back on Oldest alternative sweetener couldn39t cook with Develops bitter taste when cooking Aspartame Can39t be used in cooking Contains phenylalanine amino acids 2 Risks some people can39t metabolize and it can become toxic and cause severe mental retardation screen for it at birth If you lack the enzyme you have to avoid products containing phenylalanine O o Neotame Similar to aspartame but not digested Acesulfamine K can be used for cooking made from sucrose Tagatose isomer of fructose prebiotic Stevia plant stevia rebaudiana 2 Recently approved by FDA for use in foodsbeverages 2 Purified form Rebiana A is generally recognized as safe GRAS Recommended intake of Carbohydrates 45 o 65 o of total energy needs Limit added sugars and calorie sweeteners RDA 130 grams Fiber Recommendations Men 38g Women 25g Most of us aren39t getting our daily intake Typical American intake Carbs o 50 of total energy needs 0 16 added sugars recommendations 10 added sugars Dietary fiber way under 0 2550 less than recommended 0 average 1 fruit1 or fewer whole grains Functions of digestible carbohydrates in the body Provide 4kca Spare protein Prevent keotosis Indigestible o Bowel health reduce obesity risk reduce cholesterol absorption enhancing blood glucose control Carbohydrate Digestion Break down big things into smaller things Effects of Cooking Softens fibrous tissues Easier to chew and swallow ex eating raw potato Carbohydrate Digestion Mouth salivary amylase begins digestion Small Intestine specific enzymes breakdown disaccharides o Maltase maltose sucrase sucrose lactase lactose ase ending enzyme 0 Fiber is not broken down 0 Major site of releasing pancreatic amylase intestinal cells release enzymes Maltose maltose yields glucose glucose Sucrose sucrase yields glucose fructose Lactose lactase yields glucose galactose o Monosaccharide s are absorbed CHO Absorption Glucose galactose active absorption energy is expended low to high concentration gradient Fructose facilitated diffusion using a carrier no energy expended Carbs Absorption Liver converts fructose and galactose to glucose Blood glucose used by cells Glucose storage muscleliver glycogen used when not eating and need energy Excess glucose converted to fat by liver stored in adipose tissue Health concerns related to carb intake excess of any nutrient can have negative health effects too many calories Very high fiber diet gt 50 60g 0 High fiber low fluid constipation hemorrhoids blockage decrease absorption of certain minerals High sugar diets 0 Increase risk of weight gainobesity 0 Increase risk of dental carries cavities 0 Cardiovascular disease heart disease excess calorie intakeweight gain 0 Moderation is KEY for all nutrients Lactose Intolerance 0 Primary decrease lactose production 0 Secondary disease that damages lactose producing cells Glucose Intolerance o Hypoglycemia low blood sugar 0 Hyperglycemia high blood sugar 0 Regulation normal 70 100 mgdl regulated by liver Insulin pancreas hormone that facilitates transfer of glucose from blood into cells lowers blood glucose level 2 Glucagon cortisol epinephrine use when have high sugar Norepinephrine growth hormone raises blood glucose level 2 Use when have low sugar Why is maintaining blood glucose levels critical Blood glucose control liver and pancreas 0 Role of liver regulates glucose that enters the bloodstream 0 Role of the pancreas regulates Release of insulin when glucose is high in blood Release of glucagon when glucose is low in blood Functions of Insulin lowers Lowers blood glucose Promotes glycogen synthesis Increase glucose uptake by cells Reduces gluconeogenesis new glucose formation converts non carbs into glucose ability to synthesize make glucose Net effect lowers the blood glucose level Functions of Glucagon raises Breakdown glycogen released as glucose to increase blood glucose levels Enhances gluconeogenesis stimulate liver to start making glucose Net effect raises blood glucose level EpinephrineNorepinephrine other hormones Fight or flight response quickly needing energy Breakdown glycogen Raises blood glucose level Problems regulating blood glucose levels overtime Type One Diabetes Mellitus juvenile destruction 0 Insulin producing cells in pancreas are destroyed autoimmune disease 0 Insulin therapy for life 0 Diet must be incorporated with insulin exchange system carb counting 0 Increased cardiovascular disease blindness and kidney disease glucose can be toxic in the bloodstream Type Two Diabetes Mellitus progressive 0 Most common in the US 90 of cases 0 Insulin resistance low normal high insulin production 0 Obesity associated o Treatment diet physical activity medications insulin regulation can be restored Consequences of uncontrolled blood glucose levels 0 Keotosis leading to ion imbalances dehydration coma death 0 Degenerative diseases nerve damage heart disease kidney disease blindness o Atherosclerosis 92214 1206 PM 92214 1206 PM Human Nutrition 2210 91614 912 PM Week Three Chapter Three The Human Body Just because you are eating the food doesn39t mean you are immediately getting the nutrients The Digestive System 1 Mouth mastication chewing taste saliva solvent enzymes mucus o Elderly issues with chewing and saliva dry mouthmalnutrition 2 Esophagus long tube epiglottis covering lower esophageal sphincter prevent acid from entering the stomach heartburn 3 The stomach sphincters pyloric sphincter gastric juices holding tank formation of chime particularly digested food mix prevention of auto digestion 4 Stomach Acid denature activity of protein activate digestive enzymes partially digests dietary protein assists in calcium absorption makes dietary minerals soluble for absorption 0 Peristalsis muscle contraction to push food trough the body 5 The small intestine approximately 10feet long folded walls villi finger like sidings absorptive cells responsible for getting nutrients into body rapid cell turnover 0 Most digestion of food and absorption of nutrients happen here 6 The intestinal cells barrier to invading microbes immunogobuin s protection from infection mucosal membrane effects of nutritional deficiency 7 The nutrient absorption not done just by eating 0 Passive absorption 0 Facilitated absorption nutrient binds to transporter 0 Active absorption requires energy to ATP 0 Phagocytosis and pinocytosis 8 The large intestine indigestible food stuff fiber no villi or enzymes absorption of water some minerals vitamins elimination o Bacteria 1000 types of bacteria 100triion micro organisms probiotics and prebiotics o Elimination 9 Rectum elimination from the body 0 Muscle contraction o Diarrhea kills 2195 children everyday dehydration Accessory Organs assist in digestionabsorption of nutrients Liver from cholesterol important for digestive fat bile gallbladder bile storage place enterohepatic circulation recycling process Pancreas digestive enzymes releasing of hormones glucagon and insulin reductionrelease regulating blood sugar levels diabetes pancreatic juices bicarbonate helps neutralize acidity Urinary system complex removes waste and produce urine kidney maintain fluid urine loss of water blood acid based balance pH amount of acid in the blood Nutrient storage capabilities Maintaining reserves Adipose tissue primary storage for fat Glucoseglycogen converting excess nutrients Amino acids maintain a pool Vitamins and minerals calcium in bones Common Problems with Digestion Ulcers o Wholes and sores in lining of gastrointestine track 0 Can occur in esophagus stomach small intestine 0 Causes NOT stress bacteria Hpylon bacteria found in stomach NSAIDS aspirin and ibuprofen Heartburn want to keep the stomach acid in the stomach Constipation Hemorrhoids Irritable bowel syndrome 0 Symptoms cramps bloating frequency increases diarrhea constipation 0 Causes altered intestinal peristalsisdecreased pain threshold 0 Individual treatment elimination diet moderate caffeine low fat small and frequent meals stress reduction Diarrhea Gallstones Celiac disease 0 Allergic reaction to gluten o Flattens villi 0 Limits absorption of nutrients 0 Treatment elimination of wheat and rye estimated that 25 million in the US are undiagnosed 91614 912 PM 91614 912 PM Human Nutrition 2210 91414 117 PM Week Two Chapter Two Science of NutritionTools for diet design A healthy dietfor who how to establish a particular nutrient recommendation Place a person on a low deficient diet and correct problem Nutrient status vs intake Biochemical measures andor molecular function in relation to nutrient intake Examine nutrients intake of infantshealthy people Epidemiological observations Animal experiments Looking for optimal functioning RDA recommended dietary allowances Daily nutrient intake amounts sufficient to meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals 97 98 o in a lifestyle Meets the needs 97 of all individuals Set 20 above what an average person needs Accommodation for people with higher needs RDA s by definition are generous allowances Set only for 19 nutrients Improvement in health are not expected if consume more than the RDA amounts Goal is to eat close to the RDA amounts Short term deficiencies appear harmless RDA for vitamin C Need to prevent scurvy 10mgday Other immune functions for vitamin C Estimated average requirement EAR is 75mg for men and 60mg for women RDA is EAR x 12 90mg for men and 75mg for women smokers add 35mgday cigarette smoke destroys vitamin C Using the RDA Planning and producing food supplies for population For broad populations not individuals RDA is not really to be used on an individual level All foods are not created equal Nutrient density comparison of vitamin and mineral content to the of calories Energy density comparison of calorie content to weight of food 0 Ex potato chips Empty calories junk food RDA tablefood label daily values Nutrition standards for food labels Standards are set for people older than 4 years exceptions infants toddlers pregnancy lactation Based on typically highest RDA values Nutrition facts panel Standardized serving size based on typical American serving size Must list 0 Total calories Calories from fat Total fat Saturated fat Cholesterol Sodium Carbs Fiber Sugars Proteins Vitamin A and C Calcium 0 Iron Fortifiednutrients mentioned in health claim must also be included adding on extra Food label claims 1 Nutrient label claims low fat closely regulated by FDA 2 Health claims may be lower risk for heart disease closely regulated by FDA 3 StructuredFunction claims calcium builds strong bones not FDA approved Dietary guidelines for Americans balance calories to manage weight physical activity OOOOOOOOOOO My Plate foods and food components to encourage low 0 sodium fats refined grains alcohol food and food components to encourage high 0 vegetables fruits whole grains fat free building healthy eating patterns preparing foods Puts dietary guidelines into action 2011 revision of MyPyramid emphasizes fruit veggies grain protein and dairy food group plate size has grown portion size What is a healthy diet Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food Not eating the same old thing Choosing different foods within each food group Ensure sufficient nutrients Balance don39t over consume any one food 0 Eat foods from 5 major food groups Moderation portion size 0 Moderate don39t eliminate 91414 117 PM 91414 117 PM Human Nutrition 2210 91114 454 PM Week One Chapter One What you eat and Why Why do we eat Flavor texture taste appearance availability convenience peer influences access rural vs urban residence nutritional knowledge etc Nutrients come from food Provide energy calories Provide building blocks proteinsamino acids Vital for growth and maintenance Essential 0 A substance that when left out of the diet leads to signs of poor healthdeath Ex vitamin A deficiency night blindness adding back can reverse the condition If body can39t make essential nutrient it must be consumed in the diet Ex vitamin D sun exposure bone health Why is proper nutrition so important Avoid diseases heart disease cancer respiratory disease Nutrition plays a key role in development of these diseases Prevention is key Requires adequate nutrition Adequate Nutrients essentialnonessential 0 Energy yielding nutrients carbsprotein 0 Non yielding vitaminsminerals o Regulate the body processes 0 Energy providing carbslipids The 6 classes of nutrients 1 Carbohydrates carbon hydrogen oxygen 0 provide a major source of fuel for the body 0 basic unit monosaccharide glucose 0 simple and complex carbs 0 energy yielding 4kCa 2 Fats carbon hydrogen and fewer oxygen OOOOOOO basic unit fatty acid triglyceride is a major form of lipid fats are soluble at room temp oils are liquid at room temp unsaturated vs saturated fatty acids essential fatty acids energy yielding 9kCa 3 Proteins carbon oxygen hydrogen nitrogen O O O O 0 basic unit amino acid make up bones muscles other tissues and components lack of can lead to malnutrition 9 essential amino acids 1 non essential amino acid energy yielding 4kCa 4 Vitamins various elements OOOOO vital to life essential enable chemical reactions needed in tiny amounts fat soluble vs water soluble yields NO energy 5 Minerals inorganic no carbon 0 O 6 ooogoooo O vital to life essential function in cellular process nervous system water balance structural needs needed in tiny amounts not destroyed in cooking cremation minerals still present trace mineralsmajor minerals yields NO energy ater hydrogen oxygen h2o vital to life essential requires about 8 cups per day is a solvent lubricant medium for transport chemical processes temperature regulator makes up majority of human body Alcohol 0 Not an essential nutrient 0 Ex four loco Transforming food to create energy Build new compounds Perform muscular movements Promote nerve transmissions Maintain ion balance within cells water balance Calories measurement of energy Define the amount of energy of heat it takes to raise the temp of 1g of water by 1 degree C kCa calories on food labels Energy yielding nutrients Carbs 4kCag Protein 4kCag Fat 9kCag Alcohol 7kCag Examples 0 25g carbs 100 calories 4kcag 4x25100 o 50g protein 200 calories 4kcag 4x50200 o 78g fat 700 calories 9kcag 9x78700 0 Percent calories from 1000 total calories Carbs 10 Protein 20 Fat 70 Percentage recommendations for a healthy diet 0 Carbs 45 to 65 0 Protein 10 to 35 0 Fat 20 to 35 o no more than 10 o from saturated fat 0 Low carb diet beats a low fat diet for weight loss and heart heath Typical American Diet 16 of kcals as proteins 66 from animal sources 50 of kcals as carbs 50 o from simple sugars 33 of kcals as fat 60 from animal fats Number one nutrition problem in the US is obesity BMI body mass index Weight times 703 divided by height squared 1924 healthy 2529 overweight 3040 obese Health promotion and Disease Prevention Diet Physical activity Lifestyle Improving our diets Energy intake Salt sodium Alcohol Fat Adequate fluids Eat 5 a day Use supplements wisely Healthy people 2010 Promote healthy lifestyle and reduce preventable deathdisease Reduce obesity Increase fruit vegetables whole grain intake Lower intake of fat saturated fats sodium Increase calcium and iron intake Healthy promotion and disease prevention from diet High cholesterol causing elimination from diet may cause body to create more cholesterol on its own Physical Activity Lifestyle Recommended 0 Regular 0 30 minutes minimum most days 0 numerous benefits Recommended 0 Minimize alcohol 12 drinksday 0 Not smoking 91114 454 PM 91114 454 PM
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