Understanding Religion: Texts & Ideas-- Exam 1 and Exam 2 Notes/Study Guide
Understanding Religion: Texts & Ideas-- Exam 1 and Exam 2 Notes/Study Guide RELI 10033
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Studying Religion Being religious: What is God saying to me in this text? Studying religion: What can this text tell us about the religion of Ancient Israel and early Christians? Religion- Refers to the dimensions of human life and culture in which people relate and respond to what they take to be the ultimate reality or realities that give life meaning and value Ninian Smart: The Dimensions of Religion o The Practical and Ritual Dimension • Tradition and routine o The Experiential and Emotional Dimension • A changing experience o The Narrative or Mythic Dimension • Story conveying meaning o The Doctrinal and Philosophical Dimension • Teaching/concepts and ideas o The Ethical and Legal Dimension • How to act according to God and laws of the land o The Social and Institutional Dimension • Groups and operations o The Material Dimension • Symbols, artifacts, crosses, churches etc. Questions We Will Ask 1. What does the narrative say? 2. What do we know historically about the people/events in the narrative? 3. How did the biblical text develop? 4. How does the biblical text function as scripture in religious communities? Terms to Know o bible- Greek word biblia means “little books” o The Hebrew Bible- Tanakh, The Protestant Old Testament o Tanakh- name for the Hebrew Bible, acronym of the consonants of the three divisions of the bible—Torah (Law), Nevi’im (Prophets), Kathuvim (Writings) o Septuagint- Greek version of The Hebrew Bible o Apocrypha- several additional books in the old testament found in the Catholic Bible o Deuterocanan- Seven books in the Catholic Bible o Masoretic Text- authoritative text for Judaism o Vulgate- Jerome’s Latin version of the Bible o canon- official list of documents that a religious community accepts as authoritative and binding o myth- a narrative about God or divine beings that conveys a meaning o Elohim- plural form of “God” in Hebrew o Yahweh- “He is” in Hebrew, a third person term for the Lord o covenant- pact or agreement, establishment of relationship o Noachan Covenant- God’s covenant with Noah in which He promises to never again destroy humanity again by drowning them, and established the bond between God and every living creature o Abrahamic Covenant- God’s covenant with Abraham (expressing his commitment to an individual) in which He promises to make a mighty nation of Abraham, bless his descendants and make them as numerous as the stars, give them the land of Canaan (promised land) and make a line of kings through them o Mosaic Covenant- God’s covenant with Moses establishing conditions that required the people to obedient, and in return God will deliver them to the promised land o Davidic Covenant- God’s covenant with King David in which He promises a line of royal descendants to rule Israel forever, and will not overthrow the Davidic Dynasty The Bible as a Religious Document Geography of the Ancient Near East Canaan- region along the Mediterranean Sea that God promised to the Israelites 4 geographical regions: o Central Hill Country- major mountainous area in Cannan o Coastal Plain- major geographical feature in Canaan along the Great Sea (Mediterranean) o Great Rift Valley- major geographical feature in Canaan, lowest place on the face of the earth when standing on the shore of the Dead Sea, contains 3 bodies of water (Sea of Galilee, Dead Sea, Jordan River) o Transjordan- arable region across the Jordan River 3 bodies of water: o Dead Sea- part of the Great Rift Valley in Canaan, water evaporates o Jordan River- part of the Great Rift Valley in Canaan, flows from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea o Sea of Galilee Valley of Jezereel- creates part of trade route and city of Megiddo Plain of Megiddo- creates part of trade route and city of Megiddo Mesopotamia- an area between Tigris and Euphrates River at the head of the Persian Gulf in what is now Southern Iraq. This is where Israel’s story begins and ends Ur- one of the oldest cities in Mesopotamia, Abraham’s birthplace Fertile Crescent- a strip of arable land curving from the head of the Persian Gulf northwestward to Syria and then southward through Canaan into Egypt Sumer- region in southern Mesopotamia, contributed greatly to the Ancient Society through their inventions (wheel, cuneiform, ziggurat), the oldest literate urban civilization. The wheel allowed movement, therefore trade was established between Sumer (later Acadia) & Egypt Egypt-region along the Nile River Palestine- an alternate name for Canaan, named for the Philistines Structure of Hebrew and Christian Bibles Hebrew Bible: Torah- 1 section, “The Law”, first 5 books—Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Prophets- 2 section”, subdivided into The Former Prophets and The Latter Prophets rd Writings- 3 section B.C. “Before Christ” = B.C.E. “Before the Common Era” A.D. “Anno Domini” (in the year of our Lord) = C.E. “Common Era Arable=fertile The Creation Stories Genesis 1 P source “God” Earth was a formless void, wind from God, waters Day 1: Light à light/dark à “day”/”night” Day 2: Dome à water/water à “sky” Day 3: Dry land à land/water à “Earth”/”Sea” Vegetation: plants yielding seed, fruit trees with seed of every kind Day 4: Sun (“greater light”), moons (“lesser light”), “stars” Day 5: Fish & Foul: birds, sea monsters o Command to be fruitful and multiply Day 6: Land critters: wild animals, cattle, creeping things Humankind: made in God’s image, male & female, dominion over everything on earth o Command to be fruitful and multiply Day 7: God rests The Sabbath (7 day of week on which work ceases for Israel) comes from this Motifs: Creation Separation Naming “There was evening and there was morning, the ____ day.” Genesis 2 J souce “the LORD God” = Yahweh o Heavens and Earth, dry dirt (no plants and no herb of the field) o Stream, water on ground o Man: formed from the dust, God breathes the breath of life o Garden in Eden (Vegetation): contained the tree of life & tree of knowledge of good and evil o River flows from ground: 4 braches become Pishon, Gihon, Tigris, Euphrates o God’s command to not eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil o Animals: animals of the field & birds of the air, Adam names them, intended to be a partner for Adam o Woman: created from Adam’s rib Genesis 3 o Serpent convinces the woman to eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, because she will not die and will become like God (knowing good and evil) o Eve eats fruit and gives fruit to man as well o Adam and woman’s “eyes were opened” and became ashamed of their nakedness, so they made coverings for themselves o God (walking in the garden) curses the serpent, increases woman’s childrearing pains, makes husband rule over wife, and curses the ground o Adam named the woman Eve (mother of all living) o God makes clothes for Adam and Eve o God sent Adam and Eve away from the Garden o God placed cherubim to guard the Garden Genesis 4 o Eve gives birth to Cain (with the help of Yahweh), then Abel o Abel worked as a “keeper of the sheep”, Yahweh favored his offering o Cain worked as a “tiller of the ground” o Cain kills Abel in the field o God curses Cain from the ground, but marks him so that no one will kill him for his wrongdoing, then sends him away o Eve gives birth to Seth Structure of the Hebrew Bible Pentateuch- Greek word meaning “five scrolls”, the first five books of The Hebrew Bible (The Torah) cult- systems of sacrifice, worship and public rights of a religious group Enuma Elish- Babylonian creation epic meaning “when above”; world created from watery chaos into separation and division Tetragrammaton- YHWH – the Hebrew consonants representing “Yahweh” Noah, The Flood & the Documentary Hypothesis Documentary Hypothesis: a theory proposed to explain the Torah’s sources and literary development, and a well-know division of the present Torah into separate sources o J- ca. 1000 • Uses “Yahweh” • sacred mountain is “Sinai” • composed in Judah • Oldest source o E- ca. 850 • Uses “Elohim” • sacred mountain is “Horeb” • begins with Abraham’s story o P- ca. 650 • Priestly writers • Written during Exile and after • Interest in priestly matters and genealogy o D- ca. 550-400 • Reflects Josiah’s Reform • Worship centered in Jerusalem • Deuteronomist history Story of Noah Etiology- a story that tries to explain why something is the way it is Gilgamesh- a Mesopotamian narrative that scholars believe Genesis authors drew on when writing biblical text—contains a story of global deluge like Noah o People multiplied and Yahweh grieves the “wickedness of humankind” • Niphilim- A race of giants created via divine-human interaction— “sons of God” reproduced with “daughter of humans”, Anakites descended from them • Yahweh vows to flood the earth to destroy all humans, animals, and the earth, except for Noah whom he found favor with o Yahweh commands Noah to build an ark (rectangular boat) o God commands Noah to bring animals with him • P source: two animals of every kind (one male & one female) • J source: seven pairs of clean animals (male & female), one pair of unclean animals o Noah enters the ark with his wife, his three sons and his sons’ wives o God floods the earth—He makes it rain for forty days and nights and “opened the windows of heaven” o The ark comes to rest on a mountain top and Noah sends out a dove and a raven. The dove comes back with an olive leaf. Noah sends it out again 7 days later and it does not return o God commands Noah to leave the ark with his family and “be fruitful and multiply” o Noah built an altar and sacrificed clean animals for Yahweh o Yahweh establishes his covenant with all the people of the earth • He will never again flood the earth and destroy the people • Yahweh put a rainbow in the sky as a sign of the covenant The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob Abraham o When Abram was 75 years old, Yahweh called him to go from his homeland Haran to Canaan, the land Yahweh says He will give to Abram’s descendants, and promises to “make of him a great nation” o Abram took his wife Sarai and nephew Lot with him to Canaan o Abram built an altar for Yahweh o When Abram was 99 years old, Yahweh makes his covenant with Abram and his descendants • Yahweh renames him Abraham (father of a multitude) • Yahweh promises to make a nation of Abraham, that kings will come from him, and to give him and his offspring the land of Canaan • Sign of the covenant: God commands that every male (and every salve born in their house) shall be circumcised (cut off the flesh of their foreskin) at 8 days old. An uncircumcised male should be cut off from his people o God changes Sarai’s name to Sarah, and promises to give them a son to be named Isaac • Abraham fell on his face and laughed o Abraham circumcised himself, his son Ishmael and all the men of his house o Yahweh appears to Abraham in the form of three men, and they tell him that Sarah will soon have a son • Sarah laughed when she heard them because she was post-menopause and very old Isaac o Isaac married Rebekah, sister of Laban o Rebekah was barren, but Yahweh gave her a son and she became pregnant with twins • Yahweh declares “the two people born of you shall be divided” and “the elder shall serve the younger” o Rebekah gives birth to Esau (red, hairy) then Jacob (grabbing Esau’s heel) • Esau: skillful hunter, man of the field, fond of the game, favored by Isaac • Jacob: quiet man, living in tents, favored by Rebekah o Esau sells his birthright to Jacob in exchange for stew when he was famished after working in the field o Isaac calls Esau to come so he can bless him before he dies, but first he asks Esau to hunt game and prepare food for him o Rebekah overheard this and disguised Jacob as his brother (in Esau’s garments and animal skins) so that he would receive the deathbed blessing o When Esau came back to receive the blessing, Isaac “trembled violently” because he had already given the blessing to Jacob o Isaac gives Esau another blessing to serve his brother o Esau hated Jacob because of all that he had taken from him (his birthright and his deathbed blessing), and he vows to kill Jacob o Rebekah warns Jacob and sends him to Haran to stay with her brother Laban o Rebekah fears that Jacob will marry a Hittite woman Jacob o Jacob arrives in Haran and saw Rachel (Laban’s daughter) while she was tending to the sheep—he “kissed her and wept aloud” o Jacob worked as a kinsman for Laban—7 years for Rachel o Laban tricked Jacob into marrying his first-born Leah o Jacob married Rachel also and worked another 7 years for her, because he loved Rachel o God gave Leah a son (Reuben) because he saw that she was unloved, and he made Rachel barren o Leah had 3 more sons—Simeon, Levi, and Judah o Rachel’s was envious that Leah was bearing children, so she gave her maid Bilhah to Jacob o Bilhah had 2 sons—Dan (“he judged”) and Naphtali o Leah also gave her maid Zilpah to Jacob o Zilpah had 2 sons—Gad (“fortune”) and Asher (“happy”) o Leah sold Rueben’s mandrakes to Rachel in return for conceiving another child with Jacob o Leah had 2 more sons and a daughter—Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah o God “remembered” Rachel and she bore a son—Joseph (“he adds”) o Jacob asked Laban for permission to return to his homeland o Jacob’s wages for his request are to remove every speckled, spotted and black sheep from Laban’s flock and keep them for himself o Laban tricked Jacob by removing all the speckled sheep from his flock, but Jacob outsmarted him and produced more speckled sheep by laying striped rods before the strongest sheep while they were breeding o Jacob ended up with an incredibly strong flock o Jacob left with his 2 wives, 2 maids and 11 children to journey back to Canaan o God appears to Jacob in the form of a man (theophany- the appearance of God in the form of another being) and they wrestled through the night o The man struck Jacob on his hip socket, and this explains why Israelites do not eat meat from the thigh (etiology- a story explaining why something is how it is) o The man changed Jacob’s name to Israel (“strives with God”) o Israel is an eponym (a word that refers to an individual and also a group of people) o Jacob saw Esau and feared him, but Esau embraced him o Jacob and his family arrived in Canaan o God appeared to Jacob in Bethel and again named him Israel, and promised that nations and kings would come from him o Rachel has another son and dies during childbirth—Benjamin (“son of the right hand”) o Jacob now had 12 sons, and 1 daughter o Isaac dies at 180 years old The Patriarchs: Jacob and His Sons o Out of Israel’s love for Joseph he made him a robe, and his brothers hated him o Joseph’s dream’s made his brothers hate him more • Joseph’s first dream: His brother sheaves bowed down to his sheave • Joseph’s second dream: The sun, the moon and eleven stars bowed down to him o Israel sent Joseph to tend the flocks with his brothers and they planned to kill him, but Reuben convinces them to only throw him into a pit (secretly planning to save him later) o The brothers sold Joseph to traders and they took him to Egypt o They put blood on Joseph’s robe and told their father he was eaten by an animal o Joseph became overseer of his master Potiphar’s house o Potiphar’s wife tries to sleep with Joseph and he refuses, so she accuses him of raping her, and Joseph is thrown in jail o Joseph interprets dreams of Pharaoh’s officers while in jail • Chief cupbearer: vine with 3 branches turned into grapes à in 3 days Pharaoh will restore him to office • Chief baker: 3 cake baskets with birds eating from them àin 3 days Pharaoh will hang him and birds will eat his flesh o Two years later, Joseph interpreted Pharaoh’s dream because the cupbearer remembered him • Pharaoh’s 1 dream: 7 fat cows came out of the Nile, then 7 ugly cows came and ate the fat cowsnd • Pharaoh’s 2 dream: 7 fat ears of grain sprout, then 7 thin ears of grain swallow up the fat ears • Joseph’s interpretation: 7 years of plenty, then 7 years of famine are coming o Pharaoh makes Joseph second in command over Egypt (his job was to gather and store food), changes his name to Zaphenath-paneah, and gives him Asenath as his Egyptian wife o Asenath has two sons—Manasseh (“to forget”) and Ephriam (“to be fruitful”) o The famine hits everyone, not just Egypt o Jacob sends his sons (except Benjamin whom he loved) to Egypt to get food o Joseph’s brother’s don’t recognize him and he accuses them of being spies o Joseph puts them in jail for 3 days and then he toils with them by putting their money back in their sacks o Joseph’s brothers tell him they have another brother (Benjamin) and Joseph keeps Simeon hostage until they return with Benjamin o Jacob refuses to let Benjamin go, but eventually they run out of food and must return to Egypt, so Reuben tells Jacob to kill his sons if they do not return with both Benjamin and Simeon o The brothers (and Benjamin) return to Egypt and dine with Joseph, Joseph weeps at the sight of Benjamin o Joseph puts his silver cup in Benjamin’s sack to get them in trouble and then he reveals himself to his brothers o Pharaoh invites all 70 of Jacob’s family to come settle in Goshen o Israel died in Goshen and Joseph went to Canaan to bury his father o Joseph assures his brothers that he wont get revenge on them because God intended it all for good o Joseph died Moses and the Exodus Moses’s Call o The Israelites grew strong and numerous; the new Pharaoh was afraid of their power so he enslaved them o Pharaoh ordered the midwives to kill every boy baby and throw them into the Nile o Moses was born to a Levite couple and they put him in a basket and floated him down the Nile to Pharaoh’s daughter o Miriam (Moses’s sister) watched and offered to get a Hebrew woman to nurse him (Moses’s mother), and Pharaoh’s daughter raised Moses o When Moses was grown, he killed an Egyptian that was beating an Israelite slave; Pharaoh found out and Moses fled to Midian o Reuel, also called Jethro (the priest of Midian), gave his daughter Zipporah as a wife to Moses o Zipporah had a son: Gershom o Yahweh called to Moses on Mount Horeb from “a blazing bush that was not consumed” o Yahweh tells Moses of his task to go to Egypt and bring Israel out of slavery, and return to the Mount Horeb to worship Him; Moses tries to get out of it (why me, slow at speaking, what if Pharaoh says no, etc. ) o Yahweh reveals his name to Moses (I AM) according to P & E sources o Yahweh teaches Moses to turn his staff into a snake o Moses and Aaron (his brother) go to Egypt The Ten Plagues 1. Nile turns to blood 2. Frogs 3. Gnats 4. Flies 5. Cattle pestilence 6. Boils & sores 7. Lightening & hail 8. Locusts 9. Darkness 10. Death of first-born **after each plague Yahweh hardens Pharaoh’s heart ** Yahweh protects Israel from the plagues The Passover o Yahweh tells the Israelites to ask the Egyptians for silver and gold o Yahweh commands that each Israelite household to get a pure lamb and slaughter it on the 14 day, put the lamb blood on their doorpost, eat the lamb, and stay in their house that nights o The angel of death passed over the houses with blood and saved them from the final plague—death of the first-born of each household o There was a loud cry when Yahweh gave the final plague, and Pharaoh commanded them to leave o Yahweh tells the Israelites (including all circumcised slaves) to observe The Passover every year The Festival of Unleavened Bread o Yahweh ordered Israel to eat unleavened bread for 7 days after The Passover in remembrance, and on the 7 day there should be a festival o The Israelites did not have time to leaven their bread when Pharaoh commanded them to leave, and this is why they eat unleavened bread The Consecration of the First-Born o Yahweh tells Moses that when the Israelites are delivered to Canaan, to sacrifice every first-born and to redeem the first-born sons with a sheep Crossing at the Sea of Reeds o Pharaoh and his 600 chariots came after the Israelites o Moses parted the Sea of Reeds at Yahweh’s command and by Yahweh’s power o After the Israelites had crossed Moses let the sea down and flooded the Egyptians In The Wilderness o The Israelites complained to Moses because they were hungry, so God gave them manna (a flakey bread), but God would not send it for them on the Sabbath; they ate manna for 40 years o The Israelites complained to Moses again because they were thirsty, so God told Moses to strike a rock at Horeb and he provided water o The Israelites fought the Amalek, and Moses held his hands up so that Israel won o Jethro and Zipporah and Gershom and Eliezer came to Moses in the wilderness o With Jethro’s advice, Moses appointed strong men of Israel to help him bear the burden of judging the people Encampment at Sinai o Yahweh told the people (through Moses) to consecrate themselves for in 3days he will speak directly to the people o On the 3 day, the people stood at the foot of the Mount Sinai while Yahweh was fire on the mountain Henotheism- allegiance to one God while conceding that others also exist The Ten Commandments (apodictic law) Also called the Decalogue (“ten words”) 1. You shall have no other gods before me 2. You shall no make for yourself an idol 3. You shall not make wrongful use of the name of Yahweh 4. Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy 5. Honor your mother and father 6. You shall not murder 7. You shall not commit adultery 8. You shall not steal 9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor 10. You shall not covet o The people were afraid and they asked for Yahweh to only speak through Moses o God called Moses up to Mount Sinai where the glory of Yahweh sat like a cloud and Moses was there for 40 days and nights o The people were impatient for Moses so they had Aaron make them a golden calf to worship o Yahweh was so angry that he was going to destroy the people and start over with Moses, but Moses talked him down by reasoning that the Egyptians would think negatively of Yahweh; Yahweh changed his mind o Moses came down from the Mount with two stone tablets containing the law, but was so angry that he broke them o Moses told Levites to kill (order from Yahweh) and 3,000 people died to pay for the sin The Book of Covenant (case law) o A collection of statues and ordinances immediately following the ten commandments o Yahweh tells Moses how to build an altar for sacrifices o Laws validating and regulating slavery th • Serve 6 years and go free on the 7 year o Punishment for murder, kidnapping, cursing, property damage, etc. o Lex tanionis- measure for measure punishment-- “eye for eye, tooth for tooth” o Moses made an altar with twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel o Moses and the people ratified the covenant • Moses read the covenant and threw blood on the people o Ark of the covenant: rectangular chest on which Yahweh’s glory rests—contains cherubim statues that shelter the mercy seat on which Yahweh sits to issue his commands to Moses o Tabernacle: a portable tent shrine that Yahweh will inhabit o These are part of Yahweh’s cult Other Laws o Yahweh teaches Moses how to make sacrifices • Offer a male without blemish from the herd or flock; if it’s a bird then a turtledove or pigeon • Bring it to entrance of the tent of meeting • Slaughter it before Yahweh on the altar outside of the tent and dash it’s blood all over the altar • Cut the offering into parts and burn it o Clean/unclean animals • Land animals § Clean: Any animal w/ divided hoofs, cleft-footed and chews the cud § Unclean: camel, rock badger, hare, pig • Water animals § Clean: any animal w/ scales and fins • Birds § Unclean: Eagle, vulture, osprey, buzzard, kite, ravens, ostrich, nighthawk, sea gull, hawk, owl, cormorant, hen, stork, vulture, hoopoe, bat • Insects § Clean: locust, cricket, grasshopper § Unclean: all winged insects • Creatures that swarm § Unclean: mouse, weasel, great lizard, gecko, land crocodile, chameleon o Clean/unclean people • Touch, eat, carry an unclean animal • Childbirth § male child à unclean 7 days, purification for 33 days, sheep burnt offering § female child à unclean 14 days, purification 66 days, sheep burnt offering • Male discharge • Emission of semen/ sex • Menstruation • Woman’s discharge Day of Atonement Also called Yom Kippur o a sacrificial ritual each year to cleanse the Israelites of their sins o Ritual: • 1 goat is slaughtered for sin offering • 1 goat is the scapegoat (an innocent being who suffers the crimes of others) which bears all the people’s sins and is sent to Azazel (a desert deity) • Aaron has direct access to the Tabernacle to perform the rituals Wilderness, Wandering & Deuteronomy Israel breaks camp • Israel left Sinai at the command of Yahweh, journeyed for 3 days and settled in the wilderness of Paran • They journeyed with the ark and the tabernacle The People Complain • The Israelites complained again and Moses got fed up with Yahweh • Yahweh transferred the spirit onto 70 elders to “bear the burden” of the people with Moses, and they prophesied • Yahweh provided quail (way too much) for the people • Miriam and Aaron became jealous that Yahweh spoke to Moses, and out of anger Yahweh turned Miriam leprous for 7 days Spying Out Canaan & The People’s Unfaithfulness • Moses sent twelve men (one from each tribe) to spy out the land of Canaan from Negeb (region south of Canaan) for forty days • The twelve men reported that the people in Canaan were very strong like the Nephilim and couldn’t be defeated, but that the land was indeed flowing with milk and honey • The people immediately started complaining so Joshua and Caleb tore their clothes and told the people not to rebel against Yahweh • Yahweh says he will not deliver the Israelites to the promised land for 40 more years, until that generation has died out, except for Caleb and Joshua and the children who do not know right from wrong • Yahweh sent a plague to kill the men who spied out Canaan, except for Caleb and Joshua (who will eventually secure Israel’s possession of Canaan) • The people tried to go on their own to fight the Amalekites and the Canaanites, but they were defeated because Yahweh was not with them Moses at Transjordan • Moses recounts all of the past 40 years of events to the Israelites o The people passed through Seir (Esau), Moab (Lot) o 38 years later the evil generation had perished (Yahweh’s hand was against them) o Yahweh told Moses they were going to enter Canaan o Israel defeated King Silhon of the Amorites and King Og of Bashan and took their land o Moses praised Yahweh comparing him to other “gods”, and told Moses he would not cross the Jordan, but to strengthen Joshua because he will lead the people to cross the Jordan • Statues and ordinances o The Ten Commandments o Reminds them not to forget Yahweh’s covenant with them • Shema- “Shema, Israel”= “Hear, O, Israel”, important in Judaism, supreme declaration of faith o Mezuzah- put on a doorpost and inscribed with the Shema o Phylactery- Jewish men wear them when praying, have boxes that contain the Shema Conquest Traditions Former Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings Latter Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, The Book of the Twelve (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) Deuteronomist Historians: editors of the books of the Former Prophets who apply Deuteronomy’s principle that Yahweh will protect Israel from their enemies and allow them to prosper only when they are faithful to Him Law Codes of Holy War (Deuteronomy 20) • For towns NOT in the promised land o If they submit to you, enslave them o If they fight you, kill all the men and keep the spoil (women, children & animals) • For towns in the promised land o Kill everyone—men, women, children, animals o Herem- do not take the spoil The Conquest in Joshua (Joshua 1-11, 24) • Moses has died and Joshua is called to lead the Israelites across the Jordan River (enter into the Promised Land) • The Israelites are camped out in Shittim before they cross the Jordan • Joshua sends to men to spy out Jericho, and they stay with Rahab, a prostitute, who protects them from the king of Jericho • The men agree to spare Rahab and her family when they attack Jericho, so she hangs a crimson cord in her window to distinguish her house • Priests carry the ark of the covenant in front of the people, leaving a large space • The priests (with the ark) step into the Jordan and the water ceased to flow so the people could cross • Joshua ordered twelve men to set up a memorial of twelve stones in their camp that night (Gilgal) • In Gilgal, Joshua circumcised all of the Israelites and they observed the Passover • The manna stopped that year and they ate the crops in the land of Canaan • Joshua saw “the commander of the army of Yahweh” (theophany) and removes his shoes for the ground is holy – parallels with Moses • The Battle of Jericho is fought at the command of Yahweh o For 6 days, the Israelite army marches around the city 1 time (priests carrying the ark) o On the 7 day, the Israelites march around the city 7 times while the priests blow their trumpets (priests carrying the ark) o Joshua commands the people to shout, and the walls of Jericho crumble to the ground o They killed every single person and animal in the city, except for Rahab and her family o They took the spoil and gave it to Yahweh, according to the sacred ban (herem— the command to take no booty) • The Defeat of Ai o God’s wrath caused the Israelites to be defeated by their next conquest, Ai (“ruins”), because Achan (from Judah) broke the herem and took devoted things o Joshua went tribe by tribe to find the culprit and all of Israel stoned Achan and his family to death o Israel went back and defeated Ai by drawing them away from the city, and then ambushed them and killed everyone o Joshua hung the King of Ai o Israel took their livestock and spoil as their booty (which Yahweh commanded them to do this time) • Peace with Gibeonites o The Gibeonites convince Joshua they are from far away (tear their clothes), and trick Joshua into making a peace treaty o When Joshua finds out that they lied, he makes the “hewers of wood” • Israel defeats five Ammorite kings and the rest of the southern kings o After hearing about Gibeon’s peace with Israel, the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon come together to make war against Gibeon o Israel drove away the five nations with Yahweh’s help and He threw down stones from heaven o The five kings fled to a cave and were slaughtered there by Joshua • Joshua led Israel to defeat the northern kings • The land had rest • Joshua gives each of the twelve tribes a section of the land • Covenant Renewal o Joshua called all tribes to Shechem, Joshua reminds Israel of God has done for them o He commands them to only serve Yahweh, and resist the temptation to serve the God’s of the neighboring regions o Joshua took a stone and made it a sanctuary for Yahweh • Joshua died at 110 years old The Conquest in Judges (Judges 1) • The twelve tribes take turns at defeating/attempting to defeat the Canaanites in different regions, but many of them failed • The Judges narrative contradicts the Joshua narrative—Joshua indicates that some of these cities had already been destroyed • Archeological evidence shows that only some cities were destroyed, so Judges more accurately reflects this • Negative conquest tradition—long list of cities that Israel couldn’t conquer in Judges The Judges judge- a charismatic, spirit-filled warrior that would deliver Israel from their enemies until they died cycle- Israelites do evil & follow other gods, God allows them to be ruled for some years by another nation, God sends a judge to deliver them, when that judge dies the Israelites do more evil than before Othniel (Judges 3:7-11) • Israelites did evil—worshiped Baal (Canaanite god) and Asherah (female consort of Baal) • King Cushan-rishathaim of Aram ruled them for 8 years • Othniel judged Israel and delivered them • Rest for 40 years Ehud (Judges 3:12 – 30) • Israelites did evil • Yahweh strengthened King Eglon of Moab (fat guy) who ruled them 18 years • Ehud (left-handed, Benjaminite) judged Israel • Ehud went to Elgon while he was in his chamber and stabbed him (which killed him) • The Israelite army defeated the rest of Moab • Rest for 80 years Deborah (Judges 4-5) • Israelites did evil after Ehud died • King Jabin of Canaan (Hazor) ruled them for 20 years • Deborah judged Israel and she sent Barak to kill Jabin’s commander Sisera • Barak killed all of Sisera’s army, but Sisera fled to the tent of Jael (a Kenite) • Jael drove a tent peg into Sisera’s skull while he was sleeping and killed him • Yahweh weakened King Jabin and the Israelites destroyed him • Deborah and Barak sand “The Song of Deborah”, which attributes the victory over Canaan to a woman Jephthah (Judges 11:1-12:7) • Jephthah was born to a prostitute, so his family sent him away from Gilead (his hometown) • The Ammonites were at war with Israel, so Gilead asked Jephthah to deliver them • Jephthah agreed on the terms that he would be their commander • Jephthah vowed to Yahweh to kill the person that greets him after the war if He delivered them from the Ammonites • The Israelites defeated the Ammonites • Jephthah saw his daughter and told her about his vow, she understood but asked that he give her two months to “mourn her virginity”, and then Jephthah killed his daughter • An Israeliste custom came from this—every year for 4 days the women mourn the loss of Jephthah’s daughter • Gilead defeated Ephraim because they were questioning Jephthah Samson (Judges 13-16) • Israelites did evil, and the Philistines ruled them for 40 years • Manoah (a Danite) and his wife were barren, but Yahweh granted them a son • Yahweh commanded that the child’s hair never be cut and proclaims that the boy (Samson) will deliver Israel from the Philistines • An angel of Yahweh appeared to Manoah and his wife • Samson grows up and is lustful and his weakness is women • On his way to meet a Philistine whom he will marry, Samson killed a lion bear-handed • When Samson returns again to marry the Philistine, he sees bees eating honey from the lion’s carcass • Samson tells a riddle to the Philistines that they must solve in 7 days and they urge his wife to find out what it means • On the 7 day Samson tells his wife the meaning, she tells the men, and the men tell Samson they have solved it • Samson kills 30 men and takes their spoil and festival garments for the men • Samson’s wife was given to his companion • Samson burns the Philistines grain with 300 foxes on fire, so they killed Samson’s wife and father-in-law • Samson fled to Judah, the men of Judah bound him and gave him to the Philistines who came looking for him, Yahweh set Samson free from the ropes, Samson killed the men with the jawbone of a donkey • Samson had sex with a prostitute, he escaped form the Gazites who were waiting outside for him at midnight, and pulled up the city gates and took them to the top of a hill • Samson fell in love with Delilah, and the men of Philistine asked her to find out what the secret of his strength is in return for money • Delilah asks Samson many times but he tells her stories that are untrue • Finally, Samson tells Delilah the truth—that his hair cannot be cut—and she cuts it while he is sleeping • Samson lost his strength and the Philistines gouged out his eyes (he became blind) • Samson’s hair began to grow back, along with his strength • The Philistines called Samson out of prison to perform for them, and Samson pulled down the two pillars causing the house to collapse, killing Samson and all the lords of the Philistines in the house Saul & the Rise of the Monarchy Philistines Capture the Ark (1 Samuel 4-6) • The Philistines were “sea peoples” that came from the Agean Sea to the Coastal Plain of Canaan. They built cities and established civilization, becoming a threat to the Israelites because they were technologically advanced (had iron swords) • The Israelites went to fight the Philistines (with the ark leading the way), the Philistines defeated them and captured the ark, which demonstrates their great power • When Eli (Samuel’s mentor) found out that the ark was captured, he died • The Philistines brought the ark to Ashdod into the house of Dagon (Philistine god) o First morning: They found Dagon fallen on his face o Second morning: They found Dagon on his face w/ head and arms cut off • The people in Ashdod, Gath and Ekron broke out in tumors from Yahweh • The Philistines sent the ark (along with a guilt offering) back to Israel on a cow • The people of Beth-shemesh (Israelites) found the cow, were overjoyed that the ark has returned, and killed the cow as a burnt offering Samuel • Hannah—Samuel’s mother • Samuel was the last judge of Israel • Yahweh thundered at the Philistines and confused them • During the days of Samuel’s judgment of Israel, Yahweh was against the Philistines and restored all of Israel’s territory to them • Samuel judged Israel in Bethel, Gilgal and Mizpah—and his hometown was Ramah Saul Becomes King • Anti-Monarchal Source (1 Samuel 8:1-22; 10:17-27) o After Samuel appointed his two sons to judge Israel, the people were not pleased with them (because they didn’t follow Samuel’s ways) and they asked for a king o Samuel prays to Yahweh and He tells Samuel that the people are rejecting Him again, so Samuel warns the people of the evils of kingship o The people still insisted on a king, so Yahweh tells Samuel to set a king over them o Samuel takes “lots” of all the tribes to find a king, and Saul hides (this is not the picture of a king) o Samuel made of book for kingship before the people • Pro-Monarchal Source (1 Samuel 9:1 -10:16) o Yahweh and Samuel favor kingship o Kish sends his son Saul (handsome, Benjaminite) to look for his donkeys o Saul goes to Samuel to get a judgment for his father’s donkeys (cultic prophesy) o Yahweh had told Samuel that he would be sending Saul, and that he would be the king of Israel o Samuel tells Saul that his donkeys have been found and Saul eats with Samuel o Samuel anoints Saul with oil to rule Israel o On Saul’s way home he met a band of prophets and prophesized with them as a sign from God (ecstatic prophecy) o Saul delivered Israel from the Ammonites o Samuel anointed Saul as king in Gilgal in front of all of Israel Saul Disobeys God (1 Samuel 15) • Samuel instructs Saul (through God) to attack the Amalekites, and declares the herem law for this battle • Saul defeated the Amalekites, but he spared King Agag and took spoil (which he intended to sacrifice to God) • God “regrets” making Saul king because he did not obey, and declares that He rejects Saul from kingship over Israel David and Saul Samuel Anoints David (1 Samuel 16:1-13) • God provides another king for Israel • Samuel went to Jesse in Bethlehem to find the king from one of his 8 sons • Samuel anointed (crowned) Jesse’s son David (ruddy, beautiful eyes, handsome, shepherd) to be king, and the spirit of God entered him David Enters Saul’s Court • Version 1 (1 Samuel 16:14-23) o Meanwhile, Saul is being tormented by an evil spirit, so his servants called David to play the lyre for Saul to soothe him o David enters Saul’s court (became Saul’s armor bearer) and Saul loved him • Version 2 (1 Samuel 17:1-18:9) o The Philistines and Israel were lined up for battle, and every day (for 40 days) Goliath (a Philistine giant) came forward to issue his challenge to Israel but no one would step up o Jesse sent David to the battlefront to bring food to his brothers o David steps up to Goliath o David convinces Saul to let him fight Goliath by talking about his experiences while guarding his sheep o Saul gave David his armor to wear but it didn’t fit him o David killed Goliath with a sling & stone, and then cuts off his head and the Philistines fled o Saul heard women singing a song about David’s success and from then on Saul hates David Saul Plots to Kill David (1 Samuel 18:10-1924) • Saul tried to kill David one day while he was playing the lyre • Saul made David the commander of his army, and David always had success because God was with him • Saul gives his daughter Mereb to Saul, but then allows her to marry another man • Saul’s other daughter Michal loved David and Saul uses this as another opportunity to get rid of David • Saul asks for one hundred Philistine foreskins in return for marrying his daughter, assuming David would be killed in this pursuit, but David returns with the foreskins • Jonathan (Saul’s son) loved David and warned him that Saul was going to kill him, and pleads with Saul for David • Saul again tried to kill David while he was playing the lyre, so David fled and Michal snuck him out the window • David went to Samuel to escape, and when Saul and his messengers came to Samuel in pursuit of David, they fell into a prophetic frenzy David Seeks Refuge With the Philistines (1 Samuel 27) • King Achish (Philistine commander) gives Ziklag (Philistine city) to David • While David was with Achish, he would make raids against enemies of Israel, but would tell Achish that he was raiding Israel itself, so Achish trusted him Death of Jonathan and Saul (1 Samuel 31) • Philistines gathered their forces at Aphek and Israel at Jezreel • The Philistines did not want David to go with them in battle so Achish sent him back to Ziklag • The Philistines killed Jonathan on Mount Gilboa, and Saul fell onto his sword (after his armor-bearer refused to kill him) before the Philistines could kill him David and Throne Succession Narrative David Anointed King of Judah (2 Samuel 2) • An Amalekite came to David and told him that Saul and Jonathan had died, claiming to have killed Saul on his command. David mourned for them • God told David to go to Hebron in Judah, and the people of Judah anointed him king • Abner (commander of Saul’s army) took Ishbaal (Saul’s son) to be king over all of Israel (except Judah) • Abner and Ishbaal met Joab (commander of David’s army) and David in Gibeon to duel, and David won • Joab pursued Abner but he got away Abner Plots Ishbaal’s Overthrow (2 Samuel 3-4) • Abner became stronger and decided to overthrow Ishbaal and give the kingdom to David (because he was jealous of Ishbaal) • Abner went to David that he would give all of Israel to him, and David asked for Michal • Joab was upset that David let Abner get away, so Joab killed Abner himself • David mourned and made everyone mourn for Abner • Three brothers (assassins) killed Ishbaal in his sleep, and David killed them for their wrongdoing City of David (2 Samuel 5-6) • Israel came to David at Hebron and anointed him king of Israel, and he reigned 40 years • David defeated the Jebusites at Jerusalem and it became the City of David (Zion) • David built his kingdom in Jerusalem • The Philistines came after David when they heard he was king, and he defeated them time after time • David brought the ark of the covenant to the City of David and placed it in a tent, Michal sees him and “despises him” (and never had a child) Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7) • David wants to build a temple for the ark • God comes to Nathan (David’s court prophet) concerning the building of a temple and giving him the words of the Davidic Covenant—God will make a kingdom of David forever Throne Succession (2 Samuel 11-19; 1 Kings 1-2) • While Joab and all the men were at war, David was in Jerusalem and had an affair with a married woman Bathsheba, and she got pregnant • David called Uriah (Bathsheba’s husband) from war back to Jerusalem so that he would sleep with his wife and the child would appear to be Uriah’s, but Uriah refused to take pleasure in his house when his men were still at war • David sent a letter to Joab and told him to make sure Uriah dies at war • Nathan tells David the story of a rich man and a poor man, indicating that David is the rich man that the story condemns, and then tells David that he will be troubled and his son (born by Bathsheba) will die • David and Bathsheba had another child, Solomon • Amnon (David’s firstborn son) lusted after his half-sister Tamar (David’s daughter, a virgin) and he raped her • Tamar went to stay with her brother Absalom (David’s son), and Absalom hated Amnon • David found out but did not punish Amnon • Two years later, Absalom killed Amnon and then fled while David deeply mourned his son’s death • Joab and a woman from Tekoa devise a plan against David to bring Absalom back • David called Absalom back to Jerusalem • Absalom set Joab’s field on fire to get his attention, and then asked to be in the presence of David, who kissed him when he saw him • Absalom asks his father for permission to go to Hebron (capital of Judah) to “worship”, and he starts a rebellion against David, and Ahithophel (David’s counselor) goes with Absalom • When David heard of the rebellion, he took his whole household and fled from Jerusalem • David sent the ark to Absalom and left the fate up to God • David went to Mount of Olives and met Hushai (friend of David’s)—David tells Hushai to stay in Jerusalem and convince Absalom that he will be a traitor like Ahithophel, but he will actually be a spy for David • Ahithophel convinces Absalom to sleep with David’s concubines • Absolam seeks counsel from Ahithophel and Hushai o Ahithophel tells Absalom that he will immediately pursue David and kill him, and bring back the rest of the people to Jerusalem o Hushai tells Absalom that David is an expert at war and that Ahithophel’s plan is not good, but instead all of Israel should go to war against David in person in order to buy David time o Absalom took Hushai’s advice, so Ahithophel hung himself • Hushai sent word to David instructing him to cross the Jordan to Mahanaim • David stayed in Mahanaim while his troops went to fight Israel, but instructed them not to kill Absalom his beloved son • David’s troops counterattack Absalom’s forces in Ephriam, so Absalom flees and gets stuck in a tree • David’s forces come upon Absalom but don’t kill him because of David’s instruction to protect his son • Joab comes and kills Absalom, upset that the troops hasn’t already done it • A Cushite messenger tells David the result of the war and that Absalom is dead, and David deeply mourns his son and makes all of the troops mourn too • Joab scolded David for making his troops mourn when they just had a great defeat • When David gets old, Abishag became King David’s concubine to keep him warm • Adonijah was in line for the throne and Joab supported him, but Nathan did not • Nathan devised a plan with Bathsheba to get Solomon to be king (God chooses Solomo) o Bathsheba reminds David that he once told her Solomon will succeed him (don’t know if that actually happened) o Nathan also comes in and informs David that Adonijah has made himself king o David agrees to make Solomon king • Solomon rides David’s mule through town and Nathan anoints him king • Adonijah was afraid of Solomon, but Solomon agreed to not kill him unless he does evil • David is about to die and he warned Solomon about Joab and told him to walk in the way of the Lord • David dies • Adonijah goes to Bathsheba and asks for Abishag to be his wife, and King Solomon puts Adonijah to death because of his request • Joab was upset by the death of Adonijah, so he fled to the altar of God, and King Solomon had him killed • Messiah— “Yahweh’s appointed” Summary of the Throne Succession Amnon—Killed by Absalom for raping Tamar Absalom— killed by Joab (against David’s orders) for rebellion Adonijah—lost support as king when David anointed Solomon, Solomon has him killed Solomon—proclaimed king by David, reigned from 961-922 BCE Solomon’s Reign and Its Aftermath Solomon’s Reign • When Solomon came to rule, there was peace and prosperity • Solomon’s wisdom (1 Kings 3) o God appears to Solomon in a dream and Solomon asks God for a wise and discerning mind—God is so pleased with Solomon’s request that He gives him a wise and discerning mind, riches, and a long life o Solomon discerns between 2 prostitutes (1 Kings 3:16-28) § Both women had babies at the same time § One of the women rolls over her baby in her sleep, and switches it with the other woman’s baby § The other woman knew that the dead baby was not hers, so they go to Solomon for judgment § Solomon offers a solution to test them—he says he will split the baby in half for the women to share § One woman agrees to this, and the other says to let the boy live § Solomon knows that a mother would want her baby to live, so he discerns that the women that wanted the baby to live is the baby’s real mother o All of Israel knew of Solomon’s wisdom • Solomon builds a permanent home (temple) for the ark (1 Kings 8) o Solomon uses forced labor of his people o The temple was a massive project and it took 7 years to build o All of Israel came together in Jerusalem and Solomon dedicated the temple § The ark was brought into the temple, and the glory of Yahweh filled the temple § Solomon sacrificed thousands of animals as well-being offerings (a HUGE feast) and prayed to God o The people no longer worshiped at high places as they did before, but only sacrificed to Yahweh in the temple Solomon’s Love of Foreign Women (1 Kings 11) • Solomon loved the daughter of Pharaoh • Solomon had 700 wives and 300 concubines and he allowed them to build altars for their native gods in Jerusalem—they turned his heart away from God • God appeared to Solomon twice but Solomon did not listen, so God promises to split Israel and give only one tribe to Solomon’s son • God raised adversaries against Solomon to punish him The Kingdom Divides in 922 BC (1 Kings 11-14) • Jeroboam rebelled against Solomon o Solomon had made Jeroboam in charge of all forced labor o The prophet Ahiljah tears his garment into 12 pieces and tells Jeroboam that God is about to tear the kingdom apart and give him 10 of the tribes, and that God will be with him if Jeroboam obeys o Solomon heard this and wanted to kill Jeroboam, so Jeroboam fled to Egypt to King Shishak and stayed there until Solomon died o Solomon died and Rehoboam succeeded him o Jeroboam returned from Egypt when Solomon died and he and the people asked Rehoboam to lighten their burden o King Rehoboam got advice from the older men and the younger men, and he chose to take the younger men’s advice—to make the people’s burden even heavier than his father did o The northern tribes of Israel called Jeroboam to be their king, and Judah (and Benjamin) were loyal to Rehoboam o Rehoboam was prepared to fight the northern tribes, but God spoke to Shemaiah and told him not to fight Israel and that God made this happen o Jeroboam did not want the people to worship in Jerusalem for fear that they would return to Rehoboam, so he built an altar at Dan and Bethel with golden calves for the people to worship o A man came to Jeroboam while he was at Bethel and spoke God’s word— predicting the birth of Josiah, declaring that the altars will be torn down, and he cut off Jeroboam’s hand (which he returned to him minutes later) o On this man’s way home, a prophet from Bethel deceived him by bringing him in to eat with him, and a lion ended up eating the man • After 922 BCE, Israel refers to the northern tribes, and Judah is separate • Jeroboam drove Israel into their sinful ways and all of the kings that followed walked like Jeroboam did The Deuteronomistic Report on the Fall of Israel The Deuteronomistic Perspective • The stories are the kings are mostly told by Deuteronomistic Historians who are from Judah, and therefore are very biased against the northern tribes and condemn the kings of turning the people from Yahweh • God came to the prophet Jehu speaking against Baasha and condemning him of the evils he did during his kingship • Elah ruled after Baasha • Zimri (Elah’s servant) killed Elah and succeeded him • Zimri killed off the “house of Baasha” and only ruled for one week • Israel decided to make Omri (commander of the army) their king and they overthrew Zimri, who burned himself in the king’s house and died • Omri build the city of Samaria • Ahab succeeded Omri and ruled in Samaria • Ahab married Jezebel and worshipped Baal with her • Ahab built a house for Baal in Samaria • Naboth lived next to King Ahab’s palace and Ahab wanted it for himself • Jezebel had Naboth killed so that her husband could have his vineyard • God came to Elijah and instructed him to tell Ahab that he and Jezebel will be destroyed, but Ahab humbled himself before God so he decided to destroy Ahab’s son instead • God calls Elisha to go to Jehu, anoint him king of Israel and instruct him to destroy the house of Ahab • Jehu went to Jezreel and killed Joram (current king of Israel), his mother Jezebel, and King Ahaziah of Judah (he was there visiting Joram) • Jehu overthrew the Omri Dynasty • Jehu killed all 70 of Ahab’s sons, fulfilling God’s words to Elijah • Jehu came across family of Ahaziah and killed them also • Jehu wiped out Baal from Israel (killed all Baal worshipers, destroyed the pillar and temple of Baal), but he continued to allow the Israelites to worship at Dan and Bethel, Israel began to lose some of their territory • Jeroboam II ruled over Israel and recovered some lost territory, Israel is very prosperous during his reign • Hoshea (last king of Israel) reigned over Israel and the Assyrian King Shalmaneser came against him, Hoshea tried to pay him off, but Assyria invaded Samaria and captured the people and brought them into Assyria • Other cities took possession of Samaria, so God sent lions to kill them because they served their own gods • God destroyed Israel because of all the evil the people had done over the years, so only Judah remained • Fall of Samaria in 721 BCE Classical Prophecy & Amos • The Latter Prophets o Major: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel o Minor: The Book of the Twelve (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) • The Rise of Prophecy in Israel o Ecstatic prophets—Early form of prophecy where the prophet was filled with the spirit and dance or “fall into a frenzy” before God § Saul’s prophecy with the band of prophets o Cultic prophets—Prophets associated with a place where ritual occurred (high places) and people would go there for advice, a “seer” § When Saul goes to Samuel to inquire about his father’s donkeys o Court prophets—member of the king’s court who would bring judgments from God to the king § Nathan • Elijah was a transitional prophet who led to classical prophecy • Classical prophet: prophet whose writings are collected and form a book o Speak prophetic oracles—an announcement of what God has to say 1. Introduction – “Thus Says Yahweh” 2. Speech of Invective – “Because…” (past or present action of people) 3. Word of Judgment – “Therefore…” (future action of Yahweh) 4. Conclusion – “Says Yahweh” o Have prophetic visions o Do prophetic acts—a strange act that tries to send a message Elijah (1 Kings 17-18) • Elijah announces to King Ahab the beginning of a drought sent by God • God protects Elijah in hiding and provides food for him, first by a raven and then send him to a widow who God says will feed him. God provided enough food for them and the whole household • While Elijah was with the woman, her son died and she blamed Elijah. Elijah called out to God for the son and her son came alive again • Now 3 years into the drought, God tells Elijah to go back to Ahab • Elijah sees Obadiah, tells him to inform Ahab that Elijah is here, but Obadiah tells Elijah that he is afraid because Ahab has sent him everywhere looking for Elijah and will kill him if Elijah disappears again, but Elijah comforts him • Ahab and Elijah meet, and Elijah calls 450 Baal prophets and 450 Asherah prophets to Mount Carmel, but only himself as a prophet of God • Elijah stages a contest between Yahweh and Baal o Each “side” takes a bull, cuts it into pieces, and lays it on wood o They each call on name of Baal and Yahweh to send fire to the bull to see which god is real o Elijah mocked the Baal prophets when their god did not answer o Elijah built an altar for Yahweh with 12 stones (for each tribe) and he poured water all over the altar o Elijah called on Yahweh and he answered, sending fire • Elijah killed all of the Baal prophets • After all of this, it began to rain Amos (Amos 1-5, 7) • Amos was a shepherd in Tekoa and became a prophet during King Uzziah of Judah and King Jeroboam II of Israel • Oracles Against the Nations o Amos first speaks against the en
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