ANT 302 (UEX) Assignment Notes 1-12
ANT 302 (UEX) Assignment Notes 1-12 ANT 302
Popular in Cultural Anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
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Assignment 2 Reading Assignment Notes Chapter 2 The Anthropological Method To gain perspective on other society anthro must step outside hisher own cultural world Heart of eldwork is participant observation living w other people learning language understanding behaviorideas that are important to them Living in their houses wearing their clothes etc Inherent contradiction participantoperates inside culture observerlike stranger looking in from outside Observer must remain detachedreport objectively Since anthro is interactingparticipating impossible to be objective Fieldwork requires ethical considerations 1st translation language of informants to anthro s native tongue 2nCI translation cultural categories of society being studied into language of anthro writing down is beginning of eldwork in study of small scale societies community reps culture as whole comparative approach is often v useful marriage is completely different for the Kwakiutl than for Americans similarities witnessed by guests guests attendcommunally eat food quotFieldwork on Prostitution in the Era of AIDSquot studied prostitutes in NYC and Atlanta introduced self dev rapport conducted open ended interview rst challenge was nding locations where prostitution happens learned of infamous places from professionals ie cops ER docs and STD clinics learned from laymen like cabbies bartenders visiting places learned of new places made ethnographic maps of prostitution the locals noticed her women avoided eye contact pimps stared her down customers tried to solicit her talked to prost learned that is important to have knowledge of subject s lives but not present self as an expert author is from Amsterdam prost talked to her abt drugsprost being legal in Netherlands was able to show off some knowledge abt prost key respondants tend to be central to local scene ie pimps and senior prosts function as gatekeepers protect scene and screen outsiders initially regarded w distrust her access to the scene was in uence by who she associated with to dev relationships both parties must get to know each other knowaccept roles and engage in reciprocity being supportive and helping out were most visibledirect ways to dev gave ride babysat bought groceries listened to stories many felt attered she wanted to learn from them allowed them to tell their stories and engaged in dialogue couldn39t just focus on her own research questions Nature Goal Engaging in and being a part of the lives and routines of the subject one is researching Getting to know the prostitutes by walking their areas engaging in dialogue proving she actually cares about them and doesn39t want anything from them Sterk often having to deal with the same things the prostitutes were dealing with when she went out on the stroll with them eg weather harassment lack of proper facilities being treated poorly regarded w suspicion etc Got to talk with the women outside of their crack dens etc by going grocery shopping with them eating a meal or helping to clean their house To learn about the lives of the subjects by both watching and becoming a part of their lives You get to know more than if you just watched because there are nuances that one might miss or discount the importance of if they aren t actually participating The end goal is usually to present the research in some way be it a book or an article etc Participantobservation allows that research and information to be presented from the point of view of the subject rather than a third party observer that made no contact with the subjects Differs Many forms of research are clinical and impersonal Researcher studies subject from afar with no interaction to avoid any possible contamination Or they re studying something that happened in the past so they don39t have the option to observe in real time and must instead deal with records and other accounts Much research takes the form of structured rigid experiments with little room for alteration so as to get the most accurate results Participant observation for Sterk allowed her to ask very few structured questions and leave most of them open ended allowing the women to decide which topics were important to them and say only what they wanted to say This provides a lot of insight into what they perceive to be important and what their values are Reciprocity Reciprocity is key to building trust and relationships with the subject Sterk developed relationships and friendships with the women by helping them out babysitting buying groceries giving rides etc She gave them the opportunity to share their stories and knowledge with someone who wanted to listen even if the particular knowledge wasn t relevant to the research In return the women allowed her to ask her questions and do her digging to get the info she desired Without the reciprocity the relationships may not have been as strong or feasible With no reciprocity she doesn39t become a part of their lives she is merely an observer Reciprocity adds the participant part Culture s role The way the researcher is perceived by their subjects is heavily dependent on the researcher s background and the opinion the subjects have of said backgroundWhen talking to a subject or conducting an interview Sterk often suspected that women would alter their answers based on what they thought she wanted to hear Those ideas they have of her are based on what they know of who she is where she comes from and what she does Cultural differences can also cause the researcher to make mistakes when they don t realize that the culture they re observing views something differently than the researcher s own culture Usually the indiscretion isn t realized until there s some kind of fallout like when Gmelch s student johanna associates with people her subjects nd undesirable johanna s mistake lies in assuming that the villagers would accept everyone not taking into account the class system of the village because her cultural background didn t prepare her to consider that possibility Assignment 3 Notes Chapter 3 Language And Culture Language is means through which culture is communicated Language classi es the world around us things actions expedences A The Evolution of Language Contrast to animals human comm is verbal uses arbitrary symbols has words w meaning transmit cultural ideas involved spontaneous usage turntaking doublelayering of soundswords references to obj not present and the presence of structurecreativity Nat seec favored dev of Iang Chomsky argued there is innate cognitive basis for human Iang Some argue homo erectus had capac for some form of Iang Neanderthals seen as capable of speechpossess some form of Iang B The Structure of Language Lang is patterned Units of Iang that carry meaning are two sided phys and meaning Phys char are sounds vibr of vocal cords transmitted thru air Meaning is what word stands for Connections bt combo of sounds and its meaning is mostly arbitrary same meaning is conveyed thru diff words sounds in aHIangs a Phonemic Structure 0 Phonemes basic sounds units used in various combos to make up the units of meaning 0 All Iang are constructed same way sma of phonemes arranged in diff ways create in nite of words 0 Allophones variant forms of a single phoneme based on context in which they are found 0 Phonemes of Iang form structure or sys english vowelsconsonants o Dist bt voiced and voiceless consonants 0 Features org phonemes into structure to diff each phon from other 0 Function to differentiate words in terms of their meanings b Morphemic Structure 0 Morphemes unit of Iang that carries meaning 0 Not equiv to words bc some words can be broken into smaller units that also carry meaning 0 free morphemes can stand independent o bound morphemes are always bound to other morphemes c Syntax and Grammar 0 syntax rules by which larger speech units phrasessentences are formed 0 word order conveys meaning 0 grammar complete descrip of a lang 0 inc phonology descrip of phonemic sys morphology descrip of morphemic sys and syntax as well as lexicon dictionary that lists all morphemes and their meanings C Linguistic Relativity linguists incorrectly thought that newly disc lang like that of Native Americans could be analyzed in terms of Latin gramm categories were ethnocentric deemed langs quotadvancedquot if spoken by quotcivilizedquot ppl huntergatherers spoke quotprimitivequot lang later became obvious no onetoone relationship bt culttech complexity and ling complexity all lang equally complex known as linguistic relativity D Linguistic Universals diff bt lang are apparent sims point to universals in lang 2 approaches 1 Compared lang to see commonalities broad conclusions are that all lang have vowelscons nounsverbs some form of neg construction 2 Based on approach to universal grammar a quotlanguage facultyquot based on underlying cognitive struc of human mind 1 is empirical and inductive 2 is highly theoreticaldeductive E Language and Cognition closeintimate relationship bt lang and experience in all lang grammatical rules are obligatory speakers of lang usually not aware of rules but are still guided by them Sapir argued lang is guide to a social reality Conceptualizations of real world are seen to be based unconsciously on language usage of a society Whorf proposed that conception of world by member of particular society was determined by lang or quotfashion of speakingquot of that society F Ethnosemantics Ethnosemantics anthropological investigation of how each language employs own cultural logic in making classi cations Every lang has set of terms for colors though varies There is order and regularity in way that langs add to of color terms Color categories in lang will organize person s exp in certain way Common way to dist two categories is for one cat to have something the other lacks G Sociolinguistics Dist bt langue and parole ie language and speech Fieldworker observesrecords ex of speech analyzes to get picture of grammar or underlying structure langue Sociolinguistics deals w analysis of parole speech and its social functions Lang forges shared cult understandingsacts as medium of social exchange Agency emph indiv choices and parallels parole speech bc each indiv has own idiosyncratic speech patterns a Male and Female Speech 0 Kids learn Iangculture also learning gender specif behaviorforms of speech 0 ln survey of communicative competence grammar and appropriateness of usage men dom convo in variety of diff enviro though not all by interrupting women controlling topic of convo becoming silent 0 Men talk more swear more use imperatives to get things done 0 Women use more tentative speech more ling forms associated w politeness use more minimal responses to indicate supp for speaker 0 Men disagree withignore each other s utterances women are collaborativemeld and blend their talk 0 Women talk abt peoplefeelings men are competitive assert power discuss current affairstravelsports b AfricanAmerican Speech 0 AfricanAmerican Vernacular English AAVE speech of AA community 0 Originally viewed as collection of mistakesdeviations re ected cultural de cits in speakers 0 Originally believed African Iangculture destroyed by slavery Now believed African heritage still exists in AA Iangcult o AAVE unique bc patterns of grammar and pronunc verbal rituals from oral tradition as in African cult and lexicon dev by giving special meaning to English words 0 AAVE should be viewed as system w invariant core should be analyzed wout ref to other dialects O o Seen by some as symbol of slave mentality by others as resistance to slavery and oppression H Language Change and Historical Linguistics Speech communities made up of members of group win society who interactspeak frequently w one another One sp comm that is v similar to neighbor will dev slight diff in pronunciationvocab As these diffs inc become basis for greater dialect diff Vernacular Latin of roman period referred to as the proto language All romance langs are daughter langs of quotquot Langs thought to be related are studied using comparative approach English words have equiv in german forms have same meaningphonemic structs are sim but not identical referred to as congnates Langs also change as result of diffusion borrowing from speakers of one lang by speakers of another lang may be borrowing of sounds words gramm forms a Contact Languages Pidgins and Creoles 0 Euro explorationcolonization brought indigenous langs in contact w euro langs 0 Dev of new langs called contact langs or pidgins and creoles o Pidgins created by social conditions eg trade that require dev of makeshift lang to allow groups to communicate 0 most important char is that for all speakers pidgins are 2nCI lang 0 have vocabgrammar simpler than source lang o creole when pidgin is no longer 2nCI lang b Language Imperialism vs Language Renewal 0 language imperialism lang of colonizer or pidgin becomes dom lang o movement from ling diversity to monolingualismlang death 0 some areas of US push for making Eng official lang o argue that use of eng alone reinforces notion of a single American culture amp has unifying effect 0 is kind of ling imperialism in face of current multilingual nature of education and in courtrooms and voting booths 0 cannot assume culture dies when language dies but a fundamental way of org surrounding world eventually disappears Language Power and Policy govt and institution of power make decisions abt lang use newly indep places must debate abt national lang and use of colonial lang and status and official uses of minority langs J World Englishes and the Spread of English eng spread over world in 2 waves 1st by engspeaking immigrants to US Canada S Africa Australia New Zealand 2nCI by england s colonial expansion to parts of Africa S amp SE Asia and Carribean on one hand in context of colonialism spread of eng is ex of ling imperialism on other hand eng is lang of world market lang of global commerce ppl in new nations in postcolonial period learned eng for practical econ reasons no having been forced by colonial masters served as medium of comm when ppl couldn39t understand each other many ling say context in which eng is learnedspoken is diff in each place world English perspective there are many forms of eng not single correct 1 Chapter 4 Learning Language and Learning Culture A How Children Learn Language begins before child is born fetus can heardifferentiate mom s voice newborns can dist the diff bt rhythm of mom s lang and others langs bt 612mo lost ability to perceive nonnative speech contrasts as they move to master sound struc of own speech community considerable variation in extent to which parentsadults modify speech for children or even speak directly to children but all kids learnlang building of infant vocab relates to ext factors like sex girls tend to speak sooner bc their brains mature faster mother s ling competenceintelligence maternal socioecon status parental edu social competence and attitudes toward childrearing all relate to way parents interact w child infants can understand words before actually speaking can learn wordobj pairings form association bt word and object B Learning One s Culture kids learn lang from ppl who surround care for and interact w them also learn social roles politnessdeference to elders autonomy assertiveness initiative enculturation gradual acquisition of the char and norms of culture diff cultures emph diff values in childrearing some emph selfreliance some emph subordination to elders is apparent each cult favors certain kind of person kids are brought up to behave in those culturally desirable ways a Learning Gender Roles 0 gender roleskind of person menwomen are expected to be also acquired during the socializationlang acquisition process 0 kids learn what is expected of them as malesfemales from how their parents behave and the way they are treated relative to opposite sex C Culture and Personality indivs acquire personality structidea of personhood and self that is char of their culture each indiv has personality that is more or less stable during lifetime result of interaction of genetic bio predispositions and life experiences from birth a ChildRearing and Personality 0 kids learn rules of culture and values of society 0 become increasingly motivated to act according to those values 0 the way that a parent treats child affects the way the child actsthinks when they reach maturity is diff for every culture b The Relationship of Social Structure to Personality o indivs in a society occupy diff social status 0 indivs who occupy diff statuses r likely to have diff personality traits o 2 ways to view this 1 indivs w certain personality traits will gravitate toward social roles or occupations that suit them 2nOI people moving into particular social roles will undergo personality changes brought on by demands of the role D Culture and Mental Illness what is regarded as symptom of mental illness in one culture may be an aspect of a normal healthy life in another anthro def of mental illness takes normal expected acceptable behavior in a culture as a baseline views deviance from base as abnormal behavior or mental illness essentially a relativistic approach anthros who study crosscultural mental illness use certain gen categories dist bt disorders caused by brain damage behavioral disorders w no apparent brain damage latter divided into psychoses schizo depression paranoia and neuroses variations in manifestations relate to social econ tech relig etc features of society in which they re found mental illness de ned as abnormal behavior but not all deviant behavior reps mental illness not all who violate rules of society are mentally ill some are criminal rebels innovators a Rebels and Innovators o indivs appear renounce important parts of own culture propose v diff way of doing things 0 often considered mentally ill by own society but when successful in attracting followersoverthrowing old order called innovatorsrevolutionaries o typical personality of welladjusted indiv has motivationsvalues of their culture will want to do things considered desirable will not think of changing them 0 rebel thusly differ in personality from typical person E Person Self and the Structure of Emotion indivs learn to perform many social roles that constitute a major component of the social person notion of self is human universal conception of person may vary every society has concept of what emotions you can appropriately express and when characteristics of good and bad person diff in conceptualization of self are expressed in lang to use proper ling forms in some cultures speaker must know relationship to listener age social status etc Japanese concept of self is relational constantly viewed relative to others American self is bounded autonomous individualistic Form of emotional expression varies but certain aspects of emotional states happiness grief are universallargely innate Emotion is expressed thru gestures facial expbody movement various levels of lang intonation nouns phrases Some cultures insist on honest portrayal of emotions while other require ppl to mask true feelings in favor of politeness quotWhorf Revisited You Are What You Speakquot Whorf makes assertion that society s Iang requires certain reality for its speakers that restricts how ppl can think and act Many scholars reject it say if it were true ppl would never be able to learn anything new Growing evidence that ppls lang predisposes them to focus on some things rather than others Deutscher says Whorf s view of Iangs as a prison house for our reasoning and critics who say we all think alike are both wrong answer is somewhere between Whorf says that Native Am Iangs impose a picture of reality totally diff from ours so its speakers cant understand some of our most basic concepts eg ow of time dist between objects like stone and actions like fall Whorf s theory crashed turns out no actual evidence to support claims When we learn our mother tongue we acquire certain habits of thought that shape our exp in signif ways Whorf s most serious mistakeassume that mother tongue constrains our mindprevents us from being able to think certain thoughts General struc of argu if Iang has no word for concept speaker cant understand that concept If lang has no future tense speakers simply cant understand concept of future time Langs differ essentially in what they must convey not what they may convey If diff Iangs in uence our minds in diff ways its not bc of what our Iang allows us to think but what it forces us to think about In French if you tell someone you re having dinner with your neighbor you are forced to reveal the sex of the neighbor because words in French are gendered In English you don39t have to reveal the sex but you do have to say something about the timing of the event revealed in the verb tense you use In Chinese same verb tense can be used for past present future Does not mean that Chinese cant understand concept of time just means they aren t required to think about timing when describing an action When lang obliges you to specify certain info forces you to be attentive to certain details in worldaspect of experience other ppl might not Such habits of speech are learned from earliest age natural they can settle into habits of mind that go beyond lang and affect exp perceptions associations feelings memories orientation 0 Spanish French german Russian gender inanimate objects Grammatical genders can shape feelingsassociations of speakers toward obj Lead ppl to see world thru enses tinted w assocemotional responses that speakers of nongendered angs are oblivious to 0 Most evidence for in of ang on thought is in ang of space how we descry orientation of world around us Egocentric coordinates depend on our own bodies left right front back 0 Fixed geographic directions do not rotate with us when we turn Geo directions useful when in open country but ego direc dom our speech in smallscale places Egocentric is so dom in our ang bc it feels easier natural 0 We always know where behindin front is don39t need mapcompass just feel it 0 Some cultures only rely on geo directions no concept of egocentric at all 0 Diff angs make us speak about space but may not mean we have to think abt it differently lf ang does not have word for behind speakers can still understand concept 0 Must look out for what habits of mind mind dev bc of necessity of specifying geographic directions all the time 0 People who speak geographic angs have almost superhuman sense of direc Compels speaker from youngest age to pay attention to cues from enviro position of sun wind etc dev accurate memory of own changing orientations at any given moment Becomes unconscious when asked how they know they cant explain any better than we could explain how we recognize behind Colors our ang makes us see as distinct can re ne our purer visual sensitivity to certain color differences in reality brains are trained to exaggerate distance bt shades of color if they have diff names in our ang We make many decisions based on deductive ogic but also many based on gut feelings intuition emotions impulse and practical skills quotManipulating Meaning The Military Name Gamequot 0 The way we refer to things can change the public s perception of that thing based on the connotations of the words we use Almost called the post 911 war on terror In nite Justice but name was found offensive bc too similar to Eternal Retribution aka made US look like it was taking on the role of God Renamed it Enduring Freedom but that carries its own issues based on interpretation of enduring Since 1989 US military ops have been nicknamed w intent to shape domestic and international perceptions Germans in WWII began name game ransacking myth and religion for ideas Churchill decided names shouldn39t be boastfuloverconfident or despondent Whoever gives the name has control over it the name suggests what you hope it will be quotConversation Style Talking on the jobquot Conversation style is in uence by part of country indiv grew up in ethnic background and that of parents age class gender Convo style is invisible ppl are unaware of in uence of these aspects We think we re just saying what we mean but bc we don39t realize other ppl s convo styles are diff we become frustrated in convos Rather than blaming diff styles we blame the other s intentions she doesn39t like me abilities he s stupid character she s rude our own failure what s wrong with me or the failure of the relationship we just cant communicate There is something fundamental abt our characterization by gender Few elements of our identities come as close to our sense of self as gender Having grown up in a certain culture we learn to do things like the ppl we encounter so vast majority of decisions abt how to speak become auto When we hear behavior is sexlinked we assume that behavior is found in every indiv of that group and is inherent to their sex That indivs do not always t the pattern associated w their gender does not mean the pattern isn t typical Bc more men or women speak in certain way that way becomes assoc with that gender Possibly other way around that more women or men learn to speak certain way BECAUSE those ways are assoc with own gender Men and Women Talking on the job Female has to deliver bad news to male begins w praise to soften the blow then delivered bad news thought she was being diplomatic Male does not change the way female wanted gets mad that she misled him before by softening the blow Female delivered news in way that seemed considerate the way she would have preferred it Convo rituals common among men involve using opposition like banter joking teasing playful putdowns Convo rituals common among women often maintain appearance of equality taking other person s feelings into account making effort to downplay authority to get job done wout exing muscles in obvious way When all parties are familiar w conventions they work but when not recognized and taken literally there are negative results Workplaces that have previously had men in positions of power have already estab malestyle interaction as the norm When Not Asking Directions is Dangerous to Your Health Some settings where outcomes of style are matter of lifedeath doctors pilots Why men don39t like to ask for directions men are more likely to be aware that asking for dir or any kind of help puts them in position of weakness Ppl must be exible sticking to habit in the face of all challenges is not so smart if it ends up getting you killed To Ask or Not to Ask Medical intern recognizes condition of patient knows what med but not the dose can either ask or guess but if he asks he risks his rep and maybe career but if he guesses he could harm the patient Some people view asking questions as a sign of ignorance rather than of competence Evidence that men are less likely to ask q s in public if it will reveal lack of knowledge Pattern runs counter to 2 gender stereotypes that men are more focused on information and that women are more sensitive ln classroom setting women who ask more q s are more focused on info How does the Sapir Whorf hypothesis construe the relationship between language and culture Explain the Sapir Whorf hypothesis with reference to the Kwakiutl gender distinctions in language OR the language of geographic space Chapter 5 Symbolic Meanings Behavior of ppl in culture is framed according to set of symbolscultural ideas Analysis of symbols deals w meanings of words actions objects in culture Symbolstheir meanings guidemotivate ppl s actions Metaphor is idea that stands for other set of ideas Meaning is the recog of connection bt metaphor and the thing it reps Kwakiutl marriage shares many char with warfare For them marriage is metaphorically a form of warfare For us games used a meta for life Involve strugglecompetition 2 ways to study symbols 1examine particular symb and diff meanings attached in carious cultures 2study the thing symbolized and diff symb used for it A The Symbolism of Food utilitarianmaterialist perspec food is eaten to sustain life this aspect is equ to phys manifestationssounds that make a word eating is meta for sex in place incl our society quotto hunger forquot sexual desire Mehinaku of Amazon sex quotto eat to the fullest extentquot Eating sometimes signify marriage Lesu ppl in New Ireland paci c island and Trobriand Islanders marriage symb by couple s eating together for rst time Young ppl have sex wout marriage but eating together is public announcement of marriage New Guinean society Wogeo man eats w women symb she is sister and he cant marry her Marri Baluch of Western Pakistan fam arranges marriage bt close relatives husbands never eat w wives In some soc memb of clan kin group cant eat animal that is totemic ances Believe they are descended from that ances would be like eating ances or self Eating totemic animal equ to sex win group which is incest Most soc refuse to eat w enemies may b polite draw line at breaking bread Eating together commensality symb goodwillpeaceful relations Pathans of Swat Pakistan emph hospitality symb by giving food Even if host learns guests are enemiesppl he would not normally share food w hospitality requires him to feed them as guests When guests leave host walks them to border of his territory and obligations ends free to treat like enemieskill Caste sys in India association bt food prohib and rank Caste sysranked groups w diff econ specialty Assoc bt case and idea of pollution Fearing pollution Brahmansother highranks wont share food w eat from same plate as or accept food from lowrank indiv In US regions are symb by diff foods gritsbiscuits in south shell sh in NE Multiethnic nature sym by ethnic foodsingred in stores everywhere Social Groups Social Categories and Their Symbols Th Sy Social group like clan may be sym by totemic animal pic of that animal sym clan Kwakiutl painted spec totem an of their group on houses carved totem poles Spiritsterritory rep clan strangers cross in danger from spirits that protect Animals often rep humans ppl use animal world to discuss human world World seen as jungle or referred to as quotanimal farmquot Two worlds v diff but are linked Animals have species humans have social groups Soc conceptualized as two halves repped by higherlower sunmoon rightleft Yafar of New Guinea think of it as malefemale e Symbolic Meanings of Space Some spaces divided based on rank or rules abt sexmarriage Gender diffs also sym in use of space in Papua New Guinea husbandswives live separately In middle east nonfamily men may not enter women s quarters ln Mex houses org around patiocourtyard indivs don39t have sep bedrooms For us indivs have own private space re ects premium placed on privacy Ppl feel others should not intrude on one s own space mbols Politics and Authority Entire nation may be repped by array of symbols Combat bt eaglebear repped con ict bt USsoviet union National ags anthems food also sym nation Flagsother polit sym have more complex emotional qualitiesideas assoc w them than other types of sym N Ireland dist self from Irish free state by keeping British ag In many African soc ruler or paramount chief reps entire society Healthfert of membcrops dependent on chief s health If authority is repped by series of sym opposition is sym by inversion 605 US authority men had short hair long hair became sym of opposition a Body Symbolism Teutonic tribes sym closedist relatives sym by closedistant parts of body Skeletal struc used as meta for internal struc of society Americans use blood to rep kinship E The Symbolism of Sports In US soc sports are kid s games played by adults Make sym statements abt society which explains enormous popularity In team sports indiv achievement seen as cult char of Americans is subordinated to team effort When sport from one place spreads to other place may take on new sym meanings F Universal Symbols Can be argued that certain syms are found universally carry sim meanings in all cultures Colors often assoc w emotional stateother meaningful messages Red is passionate danger green is comp to red so is used to rep oppos e Red dress sym prostitute red light dist den of iniquity red hair ery temper Black mourning worn at funerals whitepurityvirginity weddings In china mourners wear white bc is color of deathmourning Hair is symbol everywhere quotEatin Christmas in the Kalahariquot Lee Kung Bushmen s knowledge of xmas thirdhand Bush s idea of xmas story is quotpraise birth of white man s god chiefquot Interest kept by TswanaHerero custom of slaught ox for Bush neighbors Anthro came to Kalahari to study huntinggather subsistence econ of Kung Essential not to provide them w food share own food or interfere w food gathering activities Handouts of tobaccomeds not enough to erase wealth gap bt anthro who had 2mo supply of canned goods and Bush who rarely had day s supply 0 Left anthro open to accusations of stinginess hardheartedness Christmas ox was to be way of sating thanks for cooperation Anthro wanted to slaughter largest meatiest ox possible Bought massive ox got disdain bc ox was old and thin Was told by many it would be a grim xmas bc not enough meat to go around Bushmen love fat always hunt for fattest animal therefore it gives them pain to be served scrawny ox Possibility of violence bt bushmen bc some would accuse others of getting more meat 0 At xmas instinct told him to retreat into bush and spend xmas alone curiosity kept him there Ox turned out to be v fat previous illwill had been a joke apparently Dancedate ox for 2 daysnights no one went hungry no ghts Discovers it is custom to belittle each other prevents arrogance Food is sym of prosperitysurvival young men who kill much meat comes to think of self as chief or big man others are servantsinferiors They refuse one who boasts bc someday that pride might make him kill som1 Their message there are no totally generous acts all have element of calculation Drawing on both assigned texts compare and contrast the use of food as a symbol in two cultures Module 1 Reading Assignment Notes quotCulture and Ethnographyquot 2 possible explanations for diff bt groups at rst one group behavior was inherited implied that members were born that way idea persists to the present in most awful case it manifests as racism two characteristics are learned place of birth doesn39t matter place of development does idea of learning and need to label diff lifestyles led to de nition of culture quotCulture is that complex whole which includes knowledge belief art law morals custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of societyquot Sir Edward Burnett Tylor culture is a kind of knowledge not behavior at birth we lack a culture but we cultivate one starting at that moment explicit culture is knowledge that people can talk about you learn words for things that have different meanings to your life if people hve words for cultural categories anthros can use interviewsobservations tacit culture is the stuff people lack words for as we learn to talk we recognizeuse limited of sound categories they have a name phonemes but we don39t call them that Edward Hall pioneered study of tacit culture He noted that midclass North Americans have 4 speaking distances intimate personal social and pubic but we don39t name them People from other cultures had diff distances that clashed w North Am s Tacit culture unspoken so is discovered by behav Observation Ethnography involves anthros attempting to learn how groups see their worlds How does antho identify a new culture to studydecide who quali es as culturebearing units Initially this was easy g bc anthros sought out distinct ethnic units and anything they learned from the ppl would be part of their culture This gets harder bc world is increasingly divided into subgroups Studying subgroups good bc they form arena for most of life Microcultures are systems of cultknowedge char of subgroups Members of quot share most of culture w greater society but have some unique knowledge that sets them apart Most scientists approach research as detached observers Ethnographers seeks insider viewpoint Scientists seek subject to observe ethno seek informant to teach them Informant is key turns anthro from tourist to ethno Major ethno task is to help informants remember their culture bc so much of it lies below a conscious level Na39ive realism is belief that ppl all see world in same way can cause ethno to overlook inside cultural meanings Culture shock is anxiety from cultural misunderstanding Ethnocentrism re ect tendency to judge beliefsbehaviors of others based on our own culture Impossible to get rid of important to control quotShakespeare in the Bushquot She has the idea that Hamlet has a universal meaning that is evident everywhere The people she is with are not familiar with books she explains it as a quotthing of long agoquot Elders from the African tribe see Hamlet completely differently than we do They enjoyed the story but the storyteller no longer thought of Hamlet as the same story quotYou tell the story well and we are listening But it is clear that the elders of your country have never told you what the story really meansquot Tribal people also assert that people are the same everywhere and that only customs are different the notion that the author has now stopped believing quotyou must tell us some more stories of your country We who are elders will instruct you in their true meaning so that when you return to your own land your elders will see that you have not been sitting in the bush but among those who know things and who have taught you wisdomquot quotAnthropological Perspectivesquot mission of anthro is to learn abt cultures to permit intercultural communication so we better understand each other anthros must abandon prejudicesuspend own cultural rules ongoing debate supporters of universal morality v moral relativism cultural universals things common across cultures de nition of quotculturequot is contested some focus on it as set of ideasmeanings that ppl use derived from past amp reshaped in present historically transmitted patterns of meaning symbols are used to communicate perpetuate develop knowledgeattitudes abt life anthro must graspcomprehendtranslate for others 2 understand others see it as how humans have adapted 2 enviro traits are result of evolutionary selec and are adaptive emphasizes how humans are like other animals other disciplines study diff activities as if specif sector were autonomous ie economists study GNP or stock exchange PoliScis study law enactment anthro is holistic culture unites cultural anthro w subdisciplines like archaeology phys anthro linguistics ppl today live in overlapping cultures smaller groups retain their speci c traits while living inside larger system cultures not monolithic entities they have subcultures based on region class ethnicity religion etc each side will have diff view of culture they share so you can only get partial truth Culture learned by infants through enculturation lndiv are enculturated as active agents internalize cult practices but changetransform them as result of experiences lndivs learn another culture when migrate 2 new country but the degree may vary Possession of culture distinguishes humans from animals except primates Behavior is learnedtransmitted from gen to gen is also based on language and ability to create symbols is in nitely expandable Bipedalism gave rise to body langgestures aka dominant form of human interact and primary means of communication for our ancestors We evolved to cook our food but animals did not Human behavior gov by cultural rules not need for immediate grati cation Eating and sex gov by culture not instinct Biological nature of humans forces all cultures to provide 4 basic needs so all cultures have some things in common cultural universals Langs differ but all have nouns possessive forms verbs etc Consumption of food has rules about what is eaten when with whom how All have rites of passage law govt religion marriage familyampkinship Cultural rules are learnedinternalized by infants during enculturation They result in the variations between cultures Some rules are conscious some cannot be verbalized All cultures have provisions for allowing violation of rulesrewards for obeying Rules change when indivs consistently interpret a rule in new way Society deals w organiz of relationships within groups All animals that live in groups can be said 2 have societies Social structure differs from social organization Structure emphasizes continuitystability org is way indivs perceive structurecontext of any sitch amp make decisions Org emphs uxchange refers to variation in indiv behavior also de ned as practice Soc relationships can be analyzed in terms of diff in power prestige access 2 resources Early anthros sat at home and used accounts of missionariesexplorerstravelers which were often ethnocentbiased Said cult evolu stages all societies go thru w simple soc becoming complex Viewed quotsavagequot cultures as contemp examples of early stages Chapter 6 Ties That Connect Marriag Family and Kinship We have fam then network of relatives beyond fam when person gets married form new fam fams in US are 2 gen other cultures have 34 gen fam in quottribal societiesquot 3gen fams common bros stand together nanciallypolitically sometimes when man dies brother takes placemarries widow if man is killed by mem of other clan bro is obligated to avenge killing strict rules abt sex vary from state to state societies studied earlier daily life organized around kinship relationships lim possibilities in who you can marry marriage rules family org postmarital residence patterns forms of descentdescent groups societal rules and ppl s actual practices often differ all cultural rules are violated rules are frequently transformed thru time A Marriage rules vary bt societies so do marriage rituals a Marriage Prohibitions society has rules abt who you cancant marry directly rel to incest taboo which is found in all societies aka is universal almost universally forbidden categories incl motherson fatherdaughter siblings in many soc there are ppl you can have sex w but cant marry marriage prohibitions are wider in scope than sex prohib few striking examples that violate universality of incest taboo pharaohs in ancient Egypt royal lineages of HawaiiIncas in Peru siblings married b Exogamy and Endogamy endogamy is marriage inside group exogamy is marriage outside of group exogamy conceptualized as extension of incest taboo amish mormons catholics jews have rules of endogamy often violated exogamy creates links bt groups endogamy preserve separatenessexclusivity c Sister Exchange since exogamy demands spouses come from outside group relationships created thru marriage w other groups man cant marry sis gives sis to someone in another group if man accepts other man s sis must give his own sis as equiv return if man doesn39t have bio sis gives woman for whom he uses same kinship term as sis d Marriage Payments many soc marriage involves transferexchange of property sometimes payment made by groomampfam to fam of bride bridewealth or bride brings prop w her at the marriage dowry e Bride Service sometimes groom exch labor for bride in lieu of bridewealth f Number of Spouses some like us have monogamy one spouse polygyny husb w multiple wives still practiced in many soc esp Islamic sororal polygyny man marries several sisters usually explained by saying sisters have good relaionship will help overcome jealousyfriction of cowives other soc Kanuri of Nigeria strictly forbid it bc good relations bt sisters should not be undermined by unavoidable friction bt cowives polyandry woman w several hus occurs but is rare usually marries brothers polygamy plural spouses in general either hus or wives frequency of divorceremarriage in US sometimes called quotserial monogamyquot g Levirate and Sororate levirate man dies widow marries 1 of his bros keeping relationship bt kin groups orthodox jews practice this If bro of dead husband is unmarried sororate dead wife replaced by unmarried sister both are prac by Shertukpen in India h Dissolution of Marriage stability of marriage varies bt soc almost all soc provide means for divorcedissolution of marriage invariably harder if couple has kids w bridewealth would have to be returned if wife leaves difficult if its been spent some say marriage is more stable w higher bridewealth as would be hard to return others say stability related to degree of incorp of wife into husb s fam or kin group Manchus of Manchuria wife does re ceremony in hub s house ritually incorps her permanently into his kin group Kwakiutl pay bridewealth to bride s fam then later bride s fam pays large amt to repurchase her reinforcing her membership in kin group of her birth Wife never incorp into hub s kind group hus must make new bridewealth if he wants her to stay his wife Symbolize how 2 ppl may be married but retain identity in own kin groups Postmarital Residence Nature of postmarital res rules determines type of family In US new couple forms neolocal res independent household W neolocal you have nuclear fam w parentskids Virilocal res married couple live in groom s parents house common Wife is incorp to some extent into household of hub s kin Uxorilocal res couple live in bride s parents house less common Husb is incorp into wife s family In past some pueblo soc in AZNM were uxorilocal degree of husb s incorp was so slight that wife could divorce him by leaving his stuff on the doorstep Modern pueblo areas are neolocal re ecting in uence of American society Avunculocal res wife joins new husb who is living w his mom s bro instead of own dad requires two moves rst when young man leaves dad s house to live w uncle second when wife joins husb there lncorp of man into mom s bro s house is assoc w matrilineal descent Some soc have rule saying couple can live either w bride or groom s fam but not form independent household called bilocal res Duolocal res husb and wife live w respective kin apart from each other People related by some form of kinshipfam people who live togetherhousehold Mems of household not necessarily all related by kinship Nuclear fam is indep household operates autonomously in econ affairs raisingedu of children etc Extended family when multiple related nuclear fams live in same household Virilocal househod older married couple their married sonswives unmarried children of both older couple and married sons center is core of related men Uxorilocal is v diff core of related women stay together husbs marry in Avunculocal have core of men but they are linked through women Most extensive extend fam has parents and married kids of one sex their spouses and their own children Extended fam consisting of parentsonly 1 married sonhis fam called stem family Joint family includes brothers and their wives and kids who stay together as single fam after parents die C Descent Beyond fam are groups based on shared kinshipdescent members don39t need to live in same place Family typeres rules are building blocks for such descent groups Ex soc w virilocal res usually have patrilineal descent groups Descent determines not only group membership also rights to propertyinheritance a Patrilineal Descent and Matrilineal Descent Patrilineal kids belongs to father s clan daughter belongs to dad s clan but her kids don39t Kids share common clanship w only 1 of 4 gparents other 3 still relativeskinsmen Through gens ties of kin relation form web of kinship Rule of descent carves web into much smaller segment mems of one s own clan Clans exist thru time beyond indiv lives as new gens are born in Most societies w clans are exogamous ppl must marry outside of own clan Matrilineal kids belong to mom s clan Trobriandersmatrilineal father considered affine rel by marriage instead of consanguine rel by blood b Cognatic Descent Patmatrilineal desc are unilineal Cognatic rule of desc groups based on desc from common ancestor lndivs have choice of belonging to either mom or dad s group or may have rights in both c Double Descent Ppl belong to 2 desc groups one pat and one mat The two groups don39t con ict bc each group has distinct function D Descent Groups and Their Structure and Function Various desc groups ae based on diff ruleshave diff struc but have same functions Matrilineal clans composed of women related thru their mothers and the bros of these women bros remain mems of clan they were born into marry into other clans but are never incorp into clans of their wives W cognatic descent menwomen are mems of several cognatic desc groups husbswives are never incorp into desc groups of their spouses Nature of desc rulespostmarital res affects degree of incorp of one spouse into kin group of other Polit func of desc groups are carried out under direction of leaders In pat societies eg Mongols inherited leadership strucfather to son brother to brother ln mat soc eg Trobrianders strucmother s brother to sister s son or bro to bro quot Son can never inherit leadership direct from dad though line of desc goes through women women are rarely heads of clans in pat son replaces father often seen as competitorantagonist of own father mom s brother who is not in his clan is source of support in mat a sister s son succeeds mother s brother antagonismcon ict bt father and son are removed in cognatic desc groups man can succeed by virtue of descent through mom or dad a Clans still present in societies today some clan activities concern rituals matrilineal clan of Trobrianders serve as host at ceremonial distrib sagali accompanying the funeral when clan mem dies ritual objsspells are owned by clans have politic functionsmay compete for powerpolit positions may even ght each clan has male leader to org these polit activities chief of a Trobriand clan directs the accumulation of large amts of food to be given away at sagali most important function of clanownership of land clan mems may work together at tasks like building communal housecanoe common ancestor of clan sometimes thought of as ancestralclan spirit may be thought of as having nonhuman form animal all mems of clan thought to have special relationship to that animal may be forbidden to eat it anthros often call clans corporate descent groups bc of similarities to modern corps like corp has an existence indep of indiv members owns property though anyone can buy stock in corpbecome owner clan membship is restricted to certain kin demonstrated desc long genealogies writtenoral are kept each memb can trace own kinship back to founding ancestor of clan when clans incl large of ppl living dispersed over wide area clan may be div into smaller units subclans bUneages clans w demonstrated desc have smaller units called lineages sometimes all people in soc believe themselves to be desc from single ancestor kin groups are related in an extensive genealogy like a branching tree extending out to many twigs several twigs lineages are part of a branch several branches groupings of lineages are part of larger limb larger grouping of Hneages called segmentary lineage system groups at all levels of segmentationlineages found in societies w patrilineal descent like Cyrenaican Bedouin branching has close relationship to occupation of geographical areas in polit action closelyrel lineages unite to oppose threat from distantlyrel lineage c Moieties entire society is div into two halves may be based on patri or matrilineal descent usually composed of several clans d Kin Groups Based on Cognatic Descent cognatic desc groups have same func as unilineal desc groups but diff structures ex Kwakiutl numaymcog desc group owns houses shing sites berrypicking grounds hunting territory chief of a numaym acted as polit leader in potlatching and warfare numaym acted as unit on ceremonial occasions eg marriagerepurchase of bride e Kin Groups Based on Double Descent Yako of SE Nigeria had double desc Patrilineal clans call yepun owned land in common possessed single shrineassembly house men and their families reside togetherfarmed together At same time each Yako indiv also belonged to matrilineal clan lejima that carried out ritualreligious activities like funeralsperiodic rites for fertilityharmony Land is inherited patrilineally movable wealth valuables household goods inherited matrilineally E Kindreds Desc groups above all based on rule of desc from single common ances said to be ancestororiented Kindreds are reckoned entirely differently Kinship web extends out from center each person is at center of own web Web includes relatives on both motherfather s side indivs descended from person and person s ancestors and everyone desc from those ancestors kindred is egooriented Kindred as unit does not own landproperty only has coherence as group around ego individual at center Soc like ours wout unilineal desc groups but w kindreds called bilateral societies Occasions like weddings kindreds of bride and groom attend lf rst cousin of groom gets married diff set of relatives will be there but there will be overlap w groom s kindred F The Na A Society without Marriage or Fathers Na live in Yunnan Province China Have society described as one in which marriage is absent Families have neither husbands nor fathers Not so diff from other matrilineal soc like Lesu and Trobrianders just more extreme Na believe that sex is necessary for procreation but consider the substance from which kid is made to come only from mother lf child looks like dad they ll guess who the dad is V sim to Trobrianders who did not believe males required for female pregnancy Na child belongs to mom s lineage kinsmen counted only through mom Lineage has 2 heads mom concerned w internal affairs of lineage and mom s brother who is the auth gure concerned w external affairs Several lineages constitute matrilineal clan membs are collectively responsible for payment of blood money when someone from lineage kills indiv from other group Father has no social role since not considered a relative no kinship term for him or any members of his matrilineage Mother s bro plays role father typically has Na procreate through visits by lovers at night men unrelated to woman visit furtively leave at dawn pleasure not procreation is the purpose Biological father considers impregnation to be act of charity on his part Sim to Lesu whose women all take male lovers that visit like Na lovers Na rules about incest v strict strongest taboo is brothersister who work eat and raise children born to sisters together Cannot speak aboutmake allusions to sex Only one sex at a time can watch Tv in village bc if sexual irting should occur on TV both sexes should not be watching it together Brosis cant sit in same row at movies Since ID of father not always known sex bt fatherdaughter may happen For Trobrianders fatherdaughter sex absolutely forbidden Today Na minority group under strong politlegal pressure to be more like Han Chinese majority who are patrilineal and practice marriage Na clinging ercely to own culture Claim that things like jealousy bt lovers adultery iegitimacy don39t exist for them Relations Between Groups Through Marriage Arapesh men say they marry sisters outside the group to obtain bros inlaw Marriages create links bt brosinlaw also bt respective kin groups Groups that exch women also exch goodsservices like bridewealth bride service other services at rites of passage after kids are born of the marriage Links est by marriage af nal links During war kin frequently turn to af nes for assistance therefore marriage is basis for what is called an alliance Af nes may oppose each other may even ght but concept of alliance is still used by anthros to refer to these links bt kin groups est by marriage In US marriage is based on decision by bridegroom to get married parentsother ppl are rarely involved Families from india living in USbigger role in marriage choice of their USborn kids Other soc have rules stating one should marry from certain category of relative Have effect of continuing alliance bt groups over time When groups exch sisters over generations women of one s own group are always marrying into the group from which wives come This marriage pattern sister exch also called sys of reciprocal exch prospective hus and wife will already be related parents are siblings they are rst cousins 2 kinds of cousins parallel cousins are children of mother s sister or father s brother cross cousins are children of mother s brother or father s sister in sys of recip exch parallel cousins members of one s own group often called siblings therefore cant marry cross cousins never in one s own group mems of group with which one has been intermarrying known as bilateral cross cousins bc they are both mom s bro s and dad s sis s kids Yanomamo of south Venezuela have such sys of direct recip exchman must marry woman he regards as female cross cousin suaboya term also means wife Term for female cross cousins called by same term as sisters lf man has no bio sister to return to man who gave him his wife he return sister who is actually parallel cousin Some soc where two kinds of cross cousins mom s bro s kidsdad s sis s kids are referred to by diff terms 2 types are not equally marriageable Some soc have rule than man ought to marry daughter of mom s bro but may not marry daughter of dad s sister In others man cant marry mom s bro s daughter but should marry dad s sis s daughter every gen women move in opp direc from prev gen These 2 marriage rules produce diff struc of alliance among groups both are diff from kind of alliance prod by bilateral crosscousin marriage Some soc esp in mid east have rule that is opp of exogamy man should marry his parallel cousin Marriage alliances may be contracted where procreativesex functions relevant Lovedu bantuspeaking ppl of southern Africa had queen to whom women were given in marriage to create political alliances sex did not occur Kinship Terminology Every soc has set of words used to refer to relatives kinship terminology Study is vital in gaining insight into how societies operate Lim of types of kin terms general assoc of types w certain kinds of soc structures Terms of reference terms used to refer to other people Terms of address used when talking to the person There are a few basis types of terms of ref In US father s bromom s bro are called uncle also refers to mom s sister s husband and dad s sis s husband 2 are blood rel on diff sides of fam 2 are rel by marriage our kin terms ignore these diffs groups them under one term Yanomamo use same term for dad s brother and mom s sis s husband use diff term for mom s bro and dad s sis s husband For parental gen bother YanomamoAmericans have 4 terms Americans use fathermotherauntuncle yanomamo use hauanayayayashoaiya In our own gen we have single term cousin for all kids of unclesaunts unusual bc is used for both males and female Yanomamo also consistent in their usage kids of all relatives called by same term as momdad are referred to by term for brothersister parae cousins grouped as siblings Kids of shoaiya who are one s own cross cousins are referred to by terms diff from siblings Neither is more complicated or more natural just differ bc each is related to different type of social struc Terms group some relatives togetherset others apart in way that re ects relationship of these relatives according to rules of residencemarriagedesc AmericanYanomamo kin terms conform to 2 basic types of kin terms American kin terms classi ed as Eskimo since its identical to that of EskimoInuit not in words for the terms but in the pattern of organization Major char dist bt generations dist lineal relatives from collateral Linea relatives those in direct line of desc gdaddadsongson gmommomdaughtergdaughter Rest of relatives called collateral distinguished in terms of degree of coateraity eg second cousin more remote than rst cousins rst cousins more than siblings Emph indiv nuclear fam found in soc w particular char neolocal res kindreds bilateral descent absence of desc groups Yanomamo kin terms classi ed as Iriquois Dist bt mother and father s sides but diff bt linealcollateral relatives is ignored Daddad s bro are classed together so are mom and mom s sis Generational diff always recognized same as Eskimo Soc struct assoc w this type is one in which one s own kin group is distinct from kin group one s mom came from Group mom came from is same group dad s sister marries into Iroquois terms goes w sister exch which yanomamo have assoc w virilocal residence which yanomamo have or uxorilocal which Iroquois have Has extended families instead of nuclear also generally assoc w uniinea descent By far most common type of kin term found in world but soc that have it may not have all of above social features but only some Iroquois had mat desc no sis exch Four other major types have been IDed by anthros Crow type found among Trobrianders almost always assoc w matrilineal desc groups avunculocal res and extended fam unlike eskiro same term may be used for members of diff generations Omaha type is mirror image of Crow assoc w pat desc groups ignores gen diffs in some terms Hawaiian type simplest w fewest terms only generationsex distincts are made usually assoc w cognatic desc groups despite simplicity has been found in assoc w some societies like Hawaii w complex political economies Sudanese type every category of rel is dist by diff term frequently assoc w pat desc and economically indep nuclear fams like in some nomadpastoral soc in mid east Some anthro like david schneider have been critical of use of anthro concept to analyze kinship as present in this chap See use of this set of analytic concepts as imposition of Western social science on indigenous ideas Instead prefer to use only native categories that ppl in each society use In our view analysis must begin w indigenous categories then must be translated into anthro concepts to make crosscultural comparison possible which have revealed the same patterns in social structure features in societies worldwide Kinship variables like of spouses degree of incorp of spouse type of descent rule struct of descent group etc do not operate independently fit togther into patterns found crossculturally l Fictive Kinship Ppl also rely on soc relations made by ritual observances godparenthood or compadrazgo Godparenthood creates set of relationships that though nonkin in origin use set of terms based on kinship English labels use kin terms like fathermotherdaughterson plus pre x god to dist them from real kinship Not just extension of kinship but diff kind of relationship using kinship as metaphor Found in many parts of Mediterranean EuropeLatin America also among ItalianHispanic pop of US Ritual occasions upon which godparenthood is est baptism con rmation marriage godparent serves as kind of sponsor Real parents never carry out role of godparents sometimes dist relatives may serve a godparents sometimes not Compadrazgo relationship freq est bt indivs of diff social classes for social polit econ reasons in peasant communities patron who is wealthypowerful mem of communityprob landlord may be godparent to kids of clients who are econpolit dependent on him in godparentgodchild relationship godparent is expected to protectassist and godchild honors them just as patron get supp from client when neededclient gets favors from patron among Quichuaspeaking Otavaleno in Ecuadorian Andes compadrazgo has not been squeezed out by expansion of capitalism indigenous ppl have become prosperous tradersweavers select compadres at marriage or con rmation of child to extend handicraft business by connection w factory owners transport operators shopkeepers they do business with in Serbia godparenthood kumstvo could only be est bt nonkin was cont from one gen to next members of group A stood as godparents to group B children of godparents in group A served as godparents to next gen of group B not reciprocal since godchildren in B acted as godparents to children in group C created structure of alliances bt groups by means of godparenthood l Kinship in the Contemporary World clans based on unilineal desc existed long after emergence of complex socstates peasant soc were incorp into nationstates even Communist states but some larger scale kin units continued to exist 1987 ethnic Albanian clans in Kosovo cont to feud answering one murder w another when feud is ongoing all clan memresponsible for actions of single mem American interestswordwide concentrated in Persian GulflraqlranCent Asia News refers to most of this area as quottribalquot based on clanship iran is def not tribal Area bt AfghanistanPakistan called lawless this is v wrong soc there is based on diff kind of law rooted in kinship based on segmentary linhonorhospitality ln TurkmenistanKazakhstan sim struc of tribesclans Former dictator of Turkmenistan tried to create more powerful central govt by reducing role of clan elements goal was to lessen importance of kinship sys net result was shift from Communist sysRussian control to worst type of dictatorship Along afghanPakistan border kinship sys based on guest housesproviding hospitality to strangers supercedes power of central govt Present tension in China bt tradition and modernity After communist Chinese conquest of mainland series of laws were declared officially to obliterate trad social struc w extended famsclans Post1949 Communist govt sought to eliminate quotfeudal culturequot prohib all lineage activities as well as geomancy and divinations Villagers still allowed to burn joss stickscandles in front of altars at home but during springfall periods of ancestor worship they could only go surreptitiously to ancestor s tombs to sweeppay respects Ancestral halls either burned or turned into meeting housesresidences genealogical records destroyed Marriage laws passed to deal w inequality bt sexesencourage freedom of choice in mate selection Ppl couldn39t marry person w same surname arranged marriages discouraged 1978 china embarked on policy of reform villages in pearl river delta shifted from agriculture to industrialization w construction of factories manufacturing plastic productsknitted clothes govt allowed trad lineages to be revived incl the holding of lineage meetings and more public ancestor worshipofferings ancestry halls rebuilt genealogical records reconstructed young ppl wanted to choose own spouse some parents still wanted arranged marriage via matchmaker a The Transnational Family transnatl fam of 21st centconsequence of more complex migration patterns than in earlier periods poor ppl leave fams in asiaAfricalatin America in search of work leave husbswives at home to support selves and fams w remittances quottransnatl capitalist classquot businessmen professionals technicians other skilled indivs primarily from Asia seekfind jobs in USAusCanada easespeed of travel and adv in telecommunication make it possible for indivs to maintain links w fam wherever they are plane transport phone internet allow fam back homeabroad to keep close contact transnatl fam is new fam type structurally is made of kin ctive kinfriends carrying out newly created roles ex nature of funeral has changed one transnatl fam scattered on 5 continents went online to hold a wake one fam mem gave eulogy online b Kinship in America Today Americans think child receives half its blood from mom and half from dad more dist relatives have smaller shares of that blood ppl think such relationships cant be terminated bc blood symbolic carrier of rel is always present Relatives thru marriage are est by ppl making choices rather than as result of natural process called relativesinlaw Rels made by ppl can be terminated by ppl thru divorce inlaw no longer considered a relative Blood relationships cant be severeddivorced c The Impact of Biological Technologies on Kinship New reproductive tech NRTs causing Americans to rethink meaning of kinship Meaning of parenthood questioned when testtube fetilization of egg egg from wouldbe mothersperm from wouldbe father are brought together and developed embryo placed in surrogate mother when sperm donor is anonymous Kids conceived by arti cial insem are seeking ID of donor dads often med students If menwomen who donate semeneggs are paid this reps commodi cation of reproduction Formerly seen as natural kinship tie bt fathermotherkid now more complicated Inc in of disease attrib to genetic inheritance make it important for indivs to know their bio parents as well as extended network of bio relatives d Different Types of American Families Until mid19005 usual fam type for americans was neolocal nuclear fam Immigrant fams include 3 gens were exceptions As age of marriage became later singleindiv households became more common Variation unrelated young ppl menwomen living together for nancial reasons Another form consists of oneboth grandparents and grandkids occurs when parents of kids are unable to care for them gparens assume custodyresponsibility e Blended Families High divorce rateremarriage created blended fam quotstepfamilyquot Stepfathermore likely to live withraise young kids than bio dad Stepmoms rarely live w stepchildren unless dad has custody bc mom died or left Stepfam may incl nonresident kids Includes variety of sib relationships full sibhalf sibstepsib half sibsblood relations step sibs are not f Gay and Lesbian Families Increasingly pub lifestyles of LGBT ppl challenges American views of marriagefam State legSup Ct decisions have declared that consensual adult sex choices are privategovt should not interfere Same sex marriage now allowed in Mass Conn Cali being contested in courtsleg Other states recognize Civil Union Law provides legal frame parallel to marriage Canada totally permits same sex marriage LGBT couples see selves as equiv to hetero couples may go through ritual referred to as a marriagecommitment ceremony When one member of couple dies mention of partner in obit is another pub recognition of relationship In 705 Lesbians previously in hetero marriage often tried to bring bio children into the new fam creating stepfam resembling hetero fam Today les couples create fams in several ways incl adoption Though some states prohib LGBT adoption indep adoption is often a route followed if possible Other altsassistedreproduction like donor insemination Many decide not to adopt bc being preg is easierbiogenetic relatedness would auto trump other forms of relationsattachment When deciding which partner gets preg agework sitchdesire are factors one solution is for each parent successively to become preg Many get sperm donation from bro or male relative of one woman to impreg partner Desire to have equal rel w child may be accomplished w hyphenated surname or having kid call both parents quotmomquot Gay men want fams too may use surrogate mom or adoptfoster Blood relatives are more likely to quotcome aroundquot to accepting same sex relationship w birth of a child with whom they have a bio relationship Kinship Class and Ethnicity Carol Stack describes kinship sys among poor black ppl in Midwestern city that is v diff from one presented by Schneider Stack Lowerclass kinship was seen as adaptation to world of racismpoverty Schneider s work conducted among midclass Americans he assumed that it was the idea for entire society incl lowerclass Stack various types of relatives form wide support network within which there is reciprocation quotswappingquot of money child care food clothes shelter emotion supp Bio relatives who choose not to be involved in supp network renounce their status as kin Core of net is cluster of linked households usually 2 or 3 gen of women Auntsgrandmas may carry out role of mother p 151 Males are present but are usually boyfs and mom s bros rarely dadshusbands young couple marries new nuclear fam draws indivs away from kinout of supp net if young husb loses his job couple always fall back on resources of respective kin networks and marriage is destroyed in this sitch ties bt brosis are stronger than huswife in Stack s system mom s bros are more often role model for kids than dads more recent research in small black low income suburb near once booming indust region in Midwest presents same pic of interdependence of kin for nancial support and array of essential services even after getting job indivs rely on famnetwork of relatives to help meet need for child care for work clothes for transportation to job lower midclass fams in housing proj in major Midwest city there were resident fathers black neighborhood in Chicago where 70 of residents in singlefam houses are homeowners char as lower midclass but some fams has belowpoverty incomes as ethnicity became more signif factor in American life census bureau paid more attention to family organization of diff ethnic groups incl Navajo lnupiaq Eskimos in Alaska Koreanamericans Latinos Navajos living on rez in Four Corners of SW maintain matrilineal desc sys have uid residential unit revolving around gmother whose daughters and their fams live inadjacent to her house sharing mealschoreschild careresources incl income Among lnupiat 78 of households were gparents and their gchildren w middle gen mostly women at schoolwork in another community many single adult men living w parentgparent while continuing to participate in subsistence hunting shing Hispanics from MexEl Salvador living in Virginia mention nuclear fam as ideal and the norm in their countries after migrating to US due to econ conditions they live in complex households consisting of extended families w mix of spouses kids adult siblings and their spouseskids parents and parentsinlaw term for unity is hogar implies emotional closenesskinshipshared domestic function quotMother39s Love Death Without Wee in quot Sche erHu hes Kinship sys based on marriage and birth what happens to ties in face of severe hardship provertymigration author moved to shantytown called the Alto do Cruzeiro cruci x hill church bells ring when baby dies 0 one of the women is blas about it nailza had plenty of babies die 0 could barely remember the infant who had come and gone quickly usually died unnamedbaptized in their coffins joana had expected to live nailza had dangerously allowed herself to love the little girl 0 when she cries and argues w her dead child s photo husb advises author to ignore it understands it as the kind of madness that quotlike the birth and death of children came and wentquot 0 life expec is only 40 yr mostly bc of the v high rate of infantchild mortality 0 many babies are left home alone w the door locked bc there is no one to take care of them many die aloneunattended o the deaths weren t puzzling but the indifference of the alto women to the death of their children was along w willingness to attribte to their offspring an aversion to life that made their death seem completely natural quotall but anticipatedquot 0 hard to get a mom to help rescue a child she saw as ill fated for life or better off dead 0 high expec of death ability to face child death w stoicismequanimity prod ptterns of nurturing that differentiated bt the infants thought of as thriverssurvivors and those thought of as born quotalready wanting to diequot survivors nurtured stigmatizeddoomed infants left to die of neglect 0 part of being a mother in alto de cruzeiro is learning when to let go of a child that quotwants to diequot or has no quotknackquot or taste for life 0 another part is learning when it is safe to let oneself love a child quotFamily and Kinship in Village Indiaquot McCurdy author argues that kinship forms the core social groups and associations in rural india in a system well adapted to family centered landholding and small scale farming Americans have kin we have parents and know our relatives some of whom may play important roles in our lives grew up in famsoften create new ones w kids 0 Also live in social network of other ppl we meet at workencounter in various outside social settings 0 Not likely to worry much about obligations to relatives not supposed to live off of them or lean too heavily on them 0 V diff in Ratakote villagers anchor themselves in their fams A Arranging a Marriage 0 Americans have v hard time understanding arranged marriage 0 Thought of livinghaving sex w total stranger seems out of the question In india most young people support it Marriage constructs alliences bt families lineages clans Confers social strengthsecurity Personal reputations depend on qualitynumber of allied kin Decision too important to leave up to impressionableinexperienced young ppl mid class boys often visit fams of potential brides manage to brie y interview them process is done w young ppl at early age bc they re likely to have sex might fall in loveelope these marriages are heavily dependent on the lineage of the prospective members whether they re from the right clan B Future of Indian Kinship population of village has doubled not enough land for everyone to farm many of the men must go to other villages to nd work leaving wives to run house cash labor has potential to break down the kinship system that bhils value frees menwomen from econ dependence on the family since they make their own money working for someone else despite struc changes kinship remains v strong perhaps one reason for kinships vitality is use to which kinship is put by many Indians have no given up teaching kids to respect elders subordinate interests tothose of the fam loyalty is paramount use this to help economically fam members hire each other in business take one another in during hard times MW When Brothers Take a Wifequot Goldstein dorje pema sonam are Tibetans living in Limi in Nepal are brothers about to take same wife eldest bro usually dom in terms of authority sexually not weird to them norm for wife to treat them all the same offspring are not linked biologically to certain bro bro shows no favoritism toward his child even if he knows hes the real father Tibetan society allows for all kinds of marriage types polyandry is not required Tibetan s own reason for doing it is materialistic prevents division of family farm and animals facilitated higher standard of living for all of them Prefer it to monogamy w all bros still living in same housenot splitting up fam landanimals 0 Such joint fams are unstable bc each wife is primarily committed to her kids favors them over kids of other wives Acknowledge dif culties of frat polyandry elder bro is in charge so younger bros have to be subordinate and if they don39t like that there can be aggression Also sexual favoritism bride normally sleeps w older bro and must see to it that other bros still have sexual access 0 Two reasons offered for perpetuation of frat poly in Tibet practice female infanticide and therefore have to marry poly bc lack of females and that Tibet is so high upbarren and bleak that Tibetans would starve wout this mechanism 0 Both of these explanations are wrong no female infanticide in Tibet females have a lot of rights 0 From perspec of younger bro in landholding fam main incentive is attainmentmaintenance of the good life Poly brings more securehigher standard of living w access to fam s landanimals and inherited collection of clothes jewelry rugs saddles horses 0 Will experience less work pressure and much greater security bc all responsibility is not on one father 0 A bro wanting to sep from poly marriagetake own wife face disadv may not even get a house cant expect to get much above minimum in movable possessions furniturepotspans o In trad Tibetan soc even more critical factor that perpetuated frat polyandry a form of hereditary servitude somewhat like serfdom in Europe Peasants tied to large estates held by aristocrats monastaries Lhasa govt quotUterine Families andthe Women39s Commmityquot Wc o In china women will never appear in a genealogy as important o If she dies unmarried name will not go on dad s altar She was a temp member of his household not a mem of fam 0 Man is born into fam remains thru life and after death 0 Woman abruptly leave household as infant or adult bride enter into another whose mems treat her w suspicionhostility Man de nes fam a large group incl dead and not yet born 0 men might say woman s fam is identical to that of senior male in household 0 Women think differently don39t have unchanging place assigned at birth 0 As child woman s fam de ned for her by mother amp to some extent gma No matter how much dad loves daughter she is temp mem of householduseless to him This affects daughter s attitude toward fam is of no interest to her Group that has most meaning for herwill have most lasting ties w is smaller more cohesive centering on mother and mother s kids uterine family Mother sees uterine fam as adding new membsanother gen in future daughter sees it as dissolving leaving her w strong relations but no group When bride passes threshold of dad s house doors are slammed shut behind her If husband mistreats her dad s fam can intervene but unless theyre willing to bring her homesupport her for rest of life most aren t theres little they can do W ritual door slam on wedding day woman is without a family Enters household of husband is an outsider chinese are v suspic of outsiders Husbfather in law don39t see her as mem of the fam but do see her as essential to it for purpose of bearing new gen into their fam She becomes the new gen in motherinlaw s uterine fam Mom in law often ambivalent toward daughter in law like she is to her husband younger woman is mem of fam sometimes other times just mem of household Husb s sis may be hostilecondescending Children taught by proverbexampleexperience that fam is source of security relatives are only ppl who can be depended on Ostracism from fam is harshest sanction for erring youth New bride may not have reverence for descent lines of father s fam but does have warm memories of security of uterine fam If she wants to return to securitysense of belonging must start own uterine fam by having kids which is a goal that conveniently corresponds to goals of fam she married into Until she has own sons to represent her interests in household she relies on husband mother in law s son as spokesman Since we have previously focused on men when examining Chinese fam makes sense bc is patrilineal we ve missed subtletiesnear fatal weaknesses W male focus fam is line of desc bulging to encompass all mems of mans household and spreading out through his descendents W female focus fam is not continuous line strethching bt vague horizons of past and future but as contemporary group that exists out of one woman s need and is eld together as long as she has the strengthneed to do so After her death uterine fam survives only in mind of her sonsymbolized by special attention he gives her earthly remainsancestral tablet Rites are demanded by ideology of patriliny but meaning is formed for most sons in uterine fam Uterine fam has no ideology formal structure or public existence built of sentimentsloyalties that die w its members but it no less real bc of that Desc lines of men are bornnourished in uterine fams of women it is here that male ideology that excludes women makes accommodations w reality Women do as much as they can outside the house wash clothes at river cleanpare veggies at communal pump mend clothes under tree that is known meeting place stop to rest on bench or group of stones w other women Continual movement bt kitchens convos carried on from open doorways When shy new bride enters community is regarded w suspicion until she proves herself then ppl accept her presence As she meets other girls in her position makes allies for future but must alos dev relationships w older women Learns to be discreet in makingreceiving secrets lest she be labeled a troublemaker Once est as mem of women s community has also est some amt of protection Young women have littleno in uence over hubs would never express unsolicited or maybe even solicited opinion to their dad in law older women who have raised sons properly retain considerable in uence over son s actions To be successful mem of society Taiwanese woman doesn39t need to learn to stay w in the rules but just appear to stay win them manip them wout looking like she is Truly success woman is rugged individualist who has learned to depend largely on herself while appearing to lean on fatherhusbandson Chapter 7 Gender and Age In US death is male and justice is female Sexage diffs are universally the basis of social roles Ideas about age in uence ideas abt gender roles A Gender Sex Male Female Sex is the phys diff bt malefemale thru bioanatomical comp of genitalsrelated secondary sex charbreast sizehair distbody fat Gender the culturespec set of behavioralideologicalsocial meanings of constructed bioanatomical diffs Sexuality erotic desires and practices associated with them One of primary north American contructs of ID is binary distinction bt malefemale as biogenderedsex normative categories Now understood to be heteronorm priv malefemale heterosexuality B Reproduction and Culture Menstrual blood assoc w femaleness Female substances empowering to women Segregation of women on periodgiving birth is widely noted Social seg of women may create opportunities for them to spend time with their peersyoung kids exch storiesinfo cultivate alliances among peers wout supervision of husbelders C Gender and Economic Participation Econ roles always based on cultural constructs of gender prev referred to as sexual div of labor Mens econ tasks always have greater prestige even if women s tasks horticulturecollecting food provides bulk of subsistence Ex of gender strat whatever man s role that s role culture values Certain spatial areas may be assoc w genders Women assoc w mothering hearthhomedomestic realm Men assoc w public realm in contrast D Sexualities and Identities Queer studies theorizesexplores construction of mult forms of sex ID in their cult contexts stressed the lived experiences of LGBT IDs Hist doc examples of gender diversity in north America are IDed w native American plain societies Term berdache orig used to Id men who dressed like womenlived in socially recognized relationships w other men That term is generally rejected by Native Ams bc is assoc w European categories of sexuality not relevant to NA ideologies E Political Movements and Women s Roles In our ownother indust soc econspatialbehavioral sep of sexes was present until start of 20th cent In preindust America home was basically workplace for both menwom W indust in 19th cent men drawn to factoriesbusinesses Women rmained in the home Women lDed w ideology of nurturingdomesticity despite fact that someone women worked in stores and factories for wages Politics courts businesses banks pubs etcmae bastions also soc clubs where real business was carried out Begin of 20th cent women questioned assignment of gender roles formed suffragist movement Men perceived them as v masculine women Took feminist mvmt of 7OSaf rm act legislation to raise both femalemale consciousness bring about transf In 19th cent women gave birth in home female sphere By 19305 more births in hospitals than homes birth de ned as medical procedure female repro process put in male hands F Gender Studies and Feminist Anthropology Religiouspolitical policies of colonial and postcolonial states as well as forces of econsocial change impact women diff than men Polit policypractice often target women s behavioredupublic participation in est socialecon norms Feminist anthro may combine inquiry w activism in that it seeks to exploreaddress inequity based on gender Concerned w the lived experience of women in relation to hegemonicdominant sys of knowledge incl those that normalize cultural ideas abt racesciencemedicinereligiouspolit participation G Masculinity and Masculinist Studies Necessary to understand the nature of masculinity as series of cult constructions quotwhose basis is not biological but constructed designed agreed to and upheld by a system of beliefs attributes and expectationsquot Common to hear menwomen say there used to be a lot of macho men Older men still div world of men into machos men of honor who provide for their fams and mandilones femaledominated men Term machismo is assoc w wife beatings in delity alcoholism gambling abandonment of kids de ance of death bullying behavior Masc in US has been examined in variety of institutional concexts Military is still largely male Military men s def of women as quotemotionally unstable and less capable of enduring the physical challenges and harsh conditionsquot Variations in nature of manhood revealed in examination of masculinity in various workplaces Respectable manhood related to craft tradition char by a temperedchanneled masc in which mentalphys skills were used in an even handed fashion 0 Rough manhood related to trad of unskilled labor char by risk taking phys strength disorderly behavior constructionsteelworkers ln gen according to Kimmel our culture s def of manhood incli a repudiation of the feminine the necessary acquisition of powersuccesswealthstatus being strongreliable in a crisis never showing emotions exuding manlinessaggression H Categories Based on Age a Age Grades 0 Age grades are age categories that are formally named and recognized and crosscut the entire society Mems of one age grade constitute an age set 0 There s a bunch of speci c ex here Retirement Lifestyles o Signif change has taken place in construct of cat of senior citizens Social security pensions improvements in med care have made post retirement lifestyles a 21st cent institution 0 Chain migration earlier imms attract later ones from same comm clusters of indivs having long term rel develop 0 Retirement comms not exclusive to US begun to est in japan 0 Traditionally elderly parents lived w fam of one of their kids 0 Have created retirement homes those who want to live there purchase a right to live in the community rather than an apt Must be 60yrs old live indep pay endowment when they move in monthly operating fee Expec abt caregiving of elderly often re ect gndersoc norms within soc l Conclusion The Body and Contemporary AnthropologL Interest in contextualizing genderagesexualityreproductionlife stagesphysiologythe unbornreproductive techorganseven v boundaries of lifedeath as cultural issues is new in some ways familiar in others Part Six Identity Roles and Groups wout knowing we have learned complex set of cultural categories for soc interact that enables us to estimate the soc sitch ID the ppl in it act appropriately recognize larger groups of ppl statusroles are basic to soc intercourse statuscategories of diff ppl who interact rolesrues for action assoc w partic statuses social sitches are combo of timesplacesobjevents ppl who belong to soc groups often recognize their membership social networks are indivs w whom you regularly interact inequalitymost evident when affects whole class of ppl not just a few many anthrosocio argue that American racial groups are equiv to Indian castes nothing can change one s race race ID clearly affects chances for acquiring prestigeecon success A quotYouWork Iobs Identity and the Internetquot by Brenda Mann working world is constantly evolving sep bt workpersonal ID easier in the past presencebehavior on internet is as much a rep of who you are as the way you act in facetoface sitch internet is a key component in hiring process a The Internet and the Hiring Process employeesjob seekers share common goal to make a good match most companies use own websites other job sites internet as important tools to attracteducatescreen applicants applicants use internet to look for opportunitiescareer info apply for jobs network communicate w potential employers career sites provide info abt company its missionvalues recruiting policies virtuallive recruiting events bene ts geographic locations descrip of working enviro list of job openings applicants are able to nd out abt company before applying gure out how to make themselves most attractive some say that internetsoc networking affect our privacyability to control out identity esp key aspects of lives like ndingmaintaining jobsobtaining credit b Living and Working in Today s Internet World rise of Intsoc networking has created new ways for ppl to connectcommunicateshare info bt indivsgroups as well as locallynationallyglobally regardless of career type managing online rep can be critical for obtainingmaintaining employment may mean changing personal info avail online taking steps to publishpromote new info generally being careful abt what you saydo B quotThe OptOut Phenomenon Women Work and Identity in Americaquot by Shandy and Moe 197 normally when answering quotwhat do you doquot question we ID self by our job Americans don39t like to recognize our class sys but we often unconsciously rank ppl on basis of occupational ID Occup ID conveys more than just class implies relative status bt indivs When menwomen work same job signi es they are approx equal Many anthro say that males inherit predisp to dom females everywhere Friedl says no in huntgath soc control of publicly shared resources determines degree to which genders are equal Washo Indians both sexes forage for edible plantscaught animals result was relative gender equ no sex segregation in daily activities both sexes can take loversdissolve marriagesmake decisions for the group Hadza of Tansania relative gender equ bc sex forage separately work to meet own indiv needs for food Tiwi of islands off Australia show more typical huntgath pattern men hunt women gather males control meat shared pub win group results in male dom over women bc men control dist of meatwomen gather for fam only Inuit of Arctic males prov virtually all food by hunting sealswalruseswhalesfish result women are quotusedabusedtradedquot In US women gain inc powerequality as they hold jobs once reserved for men Now wield govtcorp power at levels never before seen in US have unprec access to edujobsincome of women in labor force inc over last few decades fewer males seeking work wage gap persists bt sexes but win spec niches diff picture emerges wout kids sexes are neck in neck paywise a Returning Home many women go to good schools get high paying jobs have kids become athome moms having gain foothold in prev maledom jobs becomes paradox that highly educatedaccomplished women leave careers often as result of becoming moms b Who Drops Out age matters women in 205305 see child birth rearing employment diff than momsgmas generation older gen baby boomers 1st wave to compete for prominent pos in labor force entered work w high expecdemonst ability found that work con w marriageneed to raise kids gen response try manage workfam by adjusting to both varying degree of success early 3OSmid40s gen Xers bene t from pioneering work of earlier gen most likely to report being blindsided by reality of balancing kidscareer 205mid305 Millennials seem to be more pragmatic abt con ict bt workfam most creative in strategies used to manage con ict 0 more likely to have reduced responsib at work for fam reasons maybe seec career more examenable to demands of child rearing planning to have careerskids sequentially or have kids rst and then start career when kids are older 0 men rarely become athome dads c Why Do Women quotOpt Outquot 0 one answer focu solely on gen mems of younger gens both sexesmore likely to exit work force cant deny importance of age but gender must be part of it d What Pushes Women to Go Home i The 100Hour Couple 0 O O couple has kids both have strenuous careers working avg 75hwk each have fulltime and parttime nanny but work obligations spill over into eveningsweekends so much they decide to reeval sitch decide one needs to reduce work hoursquit job recognize that they can live on either male or female s salary alone but often male s salary is higher so fem quits as women s edu rises so do career aspirations grav toward highpayingpowered jobs and marry elite men who have done same highpowered couples result in rapidsignif incr in of high earning couples that work combined 100 hrweek ii Child Care 0 O highqualaffordable childcare is hard to nd often has rigid pickupdropoff hours don39t mesh well w workplace demands for working lategetting lastmin travel assignment iii The Second Shift 0 O 0 refers to work women do to maintainsustain household in addition to their job signif stressor welldoc that women shoulder disprop of housework women make signif gains in workplace sexual div of labor at home endures iv The Glass Ceiling 0 O 0 form of discrim that limits women s advancement in workplace women blocked from moving up bc of tacitunwritten set of norms abt women esp married women w kids frustrated by seeing kidless counterparts adv more swiftly 0 one way to look at it women quit jobs not bc of fam but bc pressurein ex of work sitch leaves no way to maintain both 0 diff countries manage intersect of parentinglabor force in other ways 0 comp to other indust countries US rarely accommodates need for pa rents to haveca re for kids e Factors that quotPullquot Women Home i Being with Their Children 0 moms enjoy being able to stay homespend time w kids being there for them 0 much more freedom exibility 0 having control over their time is huge concern for many women ii Lower Stress 0 many want to have less hectic life tired of quotjuggle and strugglequot of working 0 allows them to get needs met by having time for themselves iii Sense of Responsibility 0 many women consider moral importancetiming of decision to go home 0 idea that it is more important to be there as kids are getting older iv Nostalgia o longing to recreate their own pleasant upbringing or prevent their kids from dealing w rejection they felt when their own moms weren t there for them v Group Support 0 incr easier for women to leave work when others make same choice 0 formation of soc networks of women w children provides sense of support occasions for convo abt domestic matters opp for kids to play together vi Living Within Our Means 0 nance thresh for deciding one parent stays home is lower than ppl think 0 fams make delib choice to live win their means determined by 1 income g Financial Costs quotpaycheck gives you a tangible sense of valuequot as some husband s work time increases as sole earner effort at home decreases some women lament loss of indep their own earnings gave them there is signif nance risk when women become nancially dep on husbands divorcedeath of husb will have more massive impact on life h Returning to Work reentering workforce after signif absence is v dif cult esp in tight econ market one probimited shelf life of professional degree does not matter to many women often want to change careers anyway i Maintaining Status trad way more common in past is to assoc self w husband s status some choose to maintain sense of occupational worth by serving in quasiprofessional settings eg membership on boards of civic assoc positions w nonpro t orgs aides at their kid s school C Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving by Lila AbuLughod 208 liberation of women not good if liberation means freeing women from culture based on import of fam and religion in afghan clear sep of women s world foc on famhouse and public role of men Westerners see burqa as symbol of male exploitcontrol of women Muslim women see it as signifying modestysep of private lives from pub realm Instead of saving women afghan women from own culturevalues westerners should focus on helping to bring justice to women s lives by prev warincreasing edu and freedom from want question is why knowing abt culture of region esp relig belieftreatment of women is more urgent than exploring hist of dev of repressive regimes prevents serious explorations of rootsnature of human suffering in region instead of polithist explanations experts are asked for religiocultural ones instead of exploration of global interconnections we re working to arti cially divide world into sep spheres West v East us v Muslims cultures where women speak out publically v ones where they shuf e around silently in burqas most pressing q is why muslim women in general afghan women in partic are sp crucial to this cultural mode of expl ignores complex entanglements blurring of v separate causes of continuing malnutritionpovertyill health and more recent exclusion under Taliban from employmentschoolingcosmetics huge problem is justi cation of going to war by saying we have to liberate these women aka white men saving brown women from brown men a Politics of the Veil veil burqa is so central to contemporary concern abt Muslim women common knowledge that it39s the ultimate sign of oppression under Taliban liberals sometimes confess surprise that women keep wearing them even after liberation from the Taliban should be recalled that Taliban didn39t invent burqa was local form of covering Pashtun women in one region wore when they went out has marked symbolic sep of men and women s spheres as part of gen assoc of women w family and home not w public space where strangers mingled many saw it as liberating invention bc enables women to move out of seg living space while still observing basic moral requ of sepprotect women from men signi es belonging to partic communitypartic in moral way of life where fams are paramount in org of communities and home is assoc w sanctity of women in all cultures people wear appropriate form fo dress for their soc community are guided by socially shared standardsrelig beliefsmoral ideals in Afghan under Taliban is that one regional style of covering assoc w certain respectable but not elite class was imposed on everyone as quotreligiouslyquot appropriate there is new Islamic modest dress called hijab typically worn by students heading for professional careers esp in medicine crucial point there are many forms of covering that have diff meanings in the communities using them and veiling itself must not be confused w or made to stand for lack of agency in Bedouin comm in Egypt in late 705805 pulling cloth over face in fron of older respected men is considered voluntary act by women deeply committed to being moral and have sense of honor tied to family they decide when it is approp to veil mod islam modern dress publicly marks piety can be read as sign of educated urban sophistications need to work against interp of veiling as sign of lack of freedom humans are soc beings raised in certain sochist contexts belonging to particular comms that shape their desiresunderstanding of the world gross violation of women s understandings of own actions to denounce burqa must not reduce diverse sitchattitudes of Muslim women to single item of clothing ultimately signif prob burqa raises is how to deal w cultural others universal human right right to freedom from structural violence of global inequalityfrom ravages of war having enough to eat having homes for fams to livethrive having ways to make decent living so kids can grow having strengthsecurity to work out how to live good life need to be vigilant abt rhetoric of saving ppl bc of what it implies abt own attitudes strategically dangerous to accept cultural opposition bt Islam and West bt fundamentalism and feminism bc the ppl in muslim countries trying to nd alternatives to present injustices who might want to refuse the divide and takefrom diff histcultures who don39t accept that being feminist means being Western will be pressured to choose with us or against us b Beyond the Rhetoric of Salvation deeply problematic to see Afghan women as being in need of saving depends on and reinforces sense of superiority by Westerners form of arrogance that deserves to be challenged respect for differences should not be confused w cultural relativism bc it doesn39t preclude asking how we living w privilegepower might examine our responsibilities for sitches in which others in dist places have found themselves do not stand outside world looking over sea of poor benighted ppl living under shadow of oppressive cultures we are part of the world must ask how we might contrib to making world a more just place place not org around strategic militaryecon demands where certain kinds of forcesvalues that we consider important could have an appeal where there is the peace necessary for discussionsdebatestransformations to occur in communities Chapter 8 The Economic Organization of Societies oEcon org operates by set of cult rules indivs may interp to own adv called maximizing World can be called single econ sys as result of globalization A Production oTechnology encompasses manufacuse of tools according to cult rules oArtifacts have symbolic meanings a Hunting and Gathering oReps combo of traits incl indiv autonomy regardless of genderage extreme egalitarianism and relatively loose attachmnt to group resulting from mobility oEnables adaptation to changing circumstances oFound only in range of marginal enviros oV diff enviros w v diff plantsanimals oGeneralizations sparse populations v low pop density plantsanimals they depended on were scarceabundant according to season often processed resources at eld campsbrought goods back to camp for storage oFollowed migratory cycle to be near harvest returned to certain areas but had no permanent settlement oUtilized natural materials like stonewoodbonesinew oTask diff bt males hunt sh and fem gath plants shell sh made clothesfood child care 0 Never isolated traded w other hunter gatherers b How Contemporary Hunters and Gatherers Have Adapted to the Modern World 0Combined w other econ activities oProvides subsist as well as market items sold for cash oMany still huntgather but sell nds to markets in return for money oSome engage in ecotourism as method of support c Agriculture oAllow much greater control over enviro transformed it in signif ways oShift to ag social groups used smaller area pop was more denseconcentrated oFactors in diff ag sys how ppl utilize labor how they work the land how they use water what crops they grow whether they grow for subsistence or sale i Horticulture oCrops grown in garden vary by of crops grown length of fallow period whether water necessary for plant growth is controlled oShifting cultivation burning forest planting garden in ashes oHorticulturists have intimate knowledge of soilsfood plantscultiv techniques ii Grain Agriculture oDepend on use of complex irrigation oRequired initial massive output of labor d Agriculture in Today s World oMechanized ag resulted in overprodneed to store vast surplus oChem Pesticides led to widespread pollution of soilwater oEffect of globalization incl changes in local polit structgender relations 0Colonial systems emph production for export required engagement with the development plans of whatever regime was in power oDiff for indigenous ppl to retain land rights when multinatl corps want in e Animal Domestication oUsually followed soon after dom of plants oSome dom for meatmilk others for transport or cloth oNomadic pastoral societies completely dependent on dom animals oWealth was measured in of animals killed for meat rarely oMost widespread form involves herding of sheepgoats oNot all w dom animals were nom pasts eg European dairy cows f Can Nomadic Pastoralism be Maintained Today oMost nom past societies have undergone changes thru polit pressure from natl govts life transformed as result of war revolution famine oSome have adapted to regime changesupdated their lifestyles oSome remain nom pasts engage in market economy but retain traditions g The Organization of Work oOrg of work relates to nature of postmarital resform of kinship groups 0Cooperative endeavors reinforce solidarity of group oTasks given to men in one culture may be given to women in another oSome stuff is done alone some is done comunally h The Organization of Work in Contemporary Societies o More women leaving home for full or part time jobs oGlobalization results in transnatl workforce eg call centers in india oWorkers trained to mask accents and location so callers don39t know where they are oOften know they re being exploited object to their dehumanization B Distribution oConcerned w who give what to whom when where and how oExchange can be broken into giving receiving and returning oLinks groups together creates relationships oMay be basis for seeking assistance recruiting allies creating alliances oAggressive component process usually involves competition a Distribution in Egalitarian Societies oSimplestexch sys w two sides of equ status in continuous exch w each other oMay compete to outdo each other but equality keeps it in check oWhen one host group gives to several groups simultaneously more complex sys devs and pattern becomes signif diff b Systems of Exchange in Societies with Flexible Rank oRank diffs are integral part of polit struct play signif role in exchanges i Kwakiutl Wedding potlatch is kind of dist in which rank were central to the exchange oTheoretically every person holds inherited rank position assoc w name owned by hisher numaym cognatic descent group oRank can be raised through potlaching or lowered through absence thereof 0 Many riteof passage events were occasions for potlatch 100yr ago accumulation for potlatch meant gathstoring smoked salmon grease berries other food accum blanketsvaluables jewelrymaskscanoes omaybe be hosted by one numaym or group of them oat potlatch person being celebrated gets new name or title osuccession of potlaches held for great chief s son as he got older oguests serve as witnesses to event and receive goods for this service oguests af nes of the host are seated according to rank get stuff in that order oguest numayms must reciprocate in time w return potlatch osometimes describes as if motivation was to shame one s rivals oone must have potlatch to rank up but must have equally high ranking competitors to challenge ogiversreceivers dependent on each other while also competing oby late 18005 Kwakiutl involved w Canadian cash econ ogoods from EuroCanadian market dist at potlachs 01895 Canadian govt made 1st attempt to outlaw potlatch bc large scale distrib and destruc of prop went against Protestant ethicmodern Capitalist econ opotlaches continued in secret prohib ended in 1951 ii Trobriand Islanders How Different Exchange Systems Coexist in the Same Society okula links trobriand islands w circle of other island that are diff cultling oconsidered these islands dangerous bc warfarecannibalism were endemic in precolonial times ogoods exch in kula are 2 kinds of shell valuables red shell necklaces that move clockwise around circle of islands and white armshells that move counterclock orules of kula those who are to receive always sailed small native craft to giver s island nowadays they use motorboats oto received armshells Trobs would sail east in clockwise dir to isand Kitava ofor red shell necklaces sail south in counterclock dir to island Dobu okula partners always exch red shell necklaces for armshella and vice versa oidentical in struc to generalized exch like matrilateral cross cousin marriage okula created alliances bt indivs living in potentially hostile areas owhile elaborate ceremony of kula exch goes on direct barter of food pottery other manufac utilitarian goods also taking place obarter does not take place w kula partners but w others on the island involves exch of items scarceabsent in one place but not another okula is delayed barter is immediate okula doesn39t involved bargaining barter is tryingto get best deal for self as occurs in market exchange othis sys now modi ed continues to operate among Trobrianders otrobsKwakiutl have exible rank systems produce econ surplus odist of goods at potlatch enhances rank and prestige goods given as kind of tribute which is redist on ceremonial occasions c Systems of Exchange with Fixed Rank oaristo v commoners lords v vassals patrons v clients high caste v low caste etc odiffer in rankprestige control of econ resources 0 permanent div of labor osys of econ div always symbolically emph inferioritysuperiority osuperiors give to inferiors it s generosity but opposite is tribute owhen rank is xed econo specialized occupational groups are tied together in interdependent sys of econ exch odistribs maintain the status of some groups over others d Barter oinvolved direct immediate exch always of diff objects odoes not create ongoing relationships usually involves good that people cant get in own enviro oseen as most simpledirect type of exch otakes place in ruins of former communist econs esp Russia 0 most common reason for using barter is that buyer doesn39t have cash is in short supply oppl also don39t trust value of money payments in goods are faster no trust in banks omany transacts are illegal barter helps in evading taxescustoms allows use of fake docscontracts e The Market System omarket has two meanings rst refers to locationsite where foodcrafts are boughtsold second characterizes entire econ sys based on determination of prices y the market aka in terms of supplydemand most distinct feature is that buyer need have no relationship w seller has basis solely on fact that seller has something buyer wantsneeds and is willing to pay for obasic premise is to make pro t buy cheap and sell for more than you paid otransacts governed by bargaininghaggling ocontrast to Kwakiutl potlatch which is based on continuing social rel odepends on presence of money serves of purposes ocan be used as standard of value bc any commodityservicelabor can be expressed in terms of its monetary worth omoney used is all purpose can be exch for anything unlike shells in kula which have value but can only be used for certain ceremonies f The Market Economy and Globalization 0 C Consumption a The Changing Nature of Consumption O Chapter 8 The Economic Organization of Societies oEcon org operates by set of cult rules indivs may interp to own adv called maximizing World can be called single econ sys as result of globalization A Production oTechnology encompasses manufacuse of tools according to cult rules oArtifacts have symbolic meanings a Hunting and Gathering oReps combo of traits incl indiv autonomy regardless of genderage extreme egalitarianism and relatively loose attachmnt to group resulting from mobility oEnables adaptation to changing circumstances oFound only in range of marginal enviros oV diff enviros w v diff plantsanimals oGeneralizations sparse populations v low pop density plantsanimals they depended on were scarceabundant according to season often processed resources at eld campsbrought goods back to camp for storage oFollowed migratory cycle to be near harvest returned to certain areas but had no permanent settlement oUtilized natural materials like stonewoodbonesinew oTask diff bt males hunt sh and fem gath plants shell sh made clothesfood child care 0 Never isolated traded w other hunter gatherers b How Contemporary Hunters and Gatherers Have Adapted to the Modern World 0Combined w other econ activities oProvides subsist as well as market items sold for cash oMany still huntgather but sell nds to markets in return for money oSome engage in ecotourism as method of support c Agriculture oAllow much greater control over enviro transformed it in signif ways oShift to ag social groups used smaller area pop was more denseconcentrated oFactors in diff ag sys how ppl utilize labor how they work the land how they use water what crops they grow whether they grow for subsistence or sale i Horticulture oCrops grown in garden vary by of crops grown length of fallow period whether water necessary for plant growth is controlled oShifting cultivation burning forest planting garden in ashes oHorticulturists have intimate knowledge of soilsfood plantscultiv techniques ii Grain Agriculture oDepend on use of complex irrigation oRequired initial massive output of labor d Agriculture in Today s World oMechanized ag resulted in overprodneed to store vast surplus oChem Pesticides led to widespread pollution of soilwater oEffect of globalization incl changes in local polit structgender relations 0Colonial systems emph production for export required engagement with the development plans of whatever regime was in power oDiff for indigenous ppl to retain land rights when multinatl corps want in e Animal Domestication oUsually followed soon after dom of plants oSome dom for meatmilk others for transport or cloth oNomadic pastoral societies completely dependent on dom animals oWealth was measured in of animals killed for meat rarely oMost widespread form involves herding of sheepgoats oNot all w dom animals were nom pasts eg European dairy cows f Can Nomadic Pastoralism be Maintained Today oMost nom past societies have undergone changes thru polit pressure from natl govts life transformed as result of war revolution famine oSome have adapted to regime changesupdated their lifestyles oSome remain nom pasts engage in market economy but retain traditions g The Organization of Work oOrg of work relates to nature of postmarital resform of kinship groups 0Cooperative endeavors reinforce solidarity of group oTasks given to men in one culture may be given to women in another oSome stuff is done alone some is done comunally h The Organization of Work in Contemporary Societies o More women leaving home for full or part time jobs oGlobalization results in transnatl workforce eg call centers in india oWorkers trained to mask accents and location so callers don39t know where they are oOften know they re being exploited object to their dehumanization B Distribution oConcerned w who give what to whom when where and how oExchange can be broken into giving receiving and returning oLinks groups together creates relationships oMay be basis for seeking assistance recruiting allies creating alliances oAggressive component process usually involves competition a Distribution in Egalitarian Societies oSimplestexch sys w two sides of equ status in continuous exch w each other oMay compete to outdo each other but equality keeps it in check oWhen one host group gives to several groups simultaneously more complex sys devs and pattern becomes signif diff b Systems of Exchange in Societies with Flexible Rank oRank diffs are integral part of polit struct play signif role in exchanges i Kwakiutl Wedding potlatch is kind of dist in which rank were central to the exchange oTheoretically every person holds inherited rank position assoc w name owned by hisher numaym cognatic descent group oRank can be raised through potlaching or lowered through absence thereof 0 Many riteof passage events were occasions for potlatch 100yr ago accumulation for potlatch meant gathstoring smoked salmon grease berries other food accum blanketsvaluables jewelrymaskscanoes omaybe be hosted by one numaym or group of them oat potlatch person being celebrated gets new name or title osuccession of potlaches held for great chief s son as he got older oguests serve as witnesses to event and receive goods for this service oguests af nes of the host are seated according to rank get stuff in that order oguest numayms must reciprocate in time w return potlatch osometimes describes as if motivation was to shame one s rivals oone must have potlatch to rank up but must have equally high ranking competitors to challenge ogiversreceivers dependent on each other while also competing oby late 18005 Kwakiutl involved w Canadian cash econ ogoods from EuroCanadian market dist at potlachs 01895 Canadian govt made 1st attempt to outlaw potlatch bc large scale distrib and destruc of prop went against Protestant ethicmodern Capitalist econ opotlaches continued in secret prohib ended in 1951 ii Trobriand Islanders How Different Exchange Systems Coexist in the Same Society okula links trobriand islands w circle of other island that are diff cultling oconsidered these islands dangerous bc warfarecannibalism were endemic in precolonial times ogoods exch in kula are 2 kinds of shell valuables red shell necklaces that move clockwise around circle of islands and white armshells that move counterclock orules of kula those who are to receive always sailed small native craft to giver s island nowadays they use motorboats oto received armshells Trobs would sail east in clockwise dir to isand Kitava ofor red shell necklaces sail south in counterclock dir to island Dobu okula partners always exch red shell necklaces for armshella and vice versa oidentical in struc to generalized exch like matrilateral cross cousin marriage okula created alliances bt indivs living in potentially hostile areas owhile elaborate ceremony of kula exch goes on direct barter of food pottery other manufac utilitarian goods also taking place obarter does not take place w kula partners but w others on the island involves exch of items scarceabsent in one place but not another okula is delayed barter is immediate okula doesn39t involved bargaining barter is tryingto get best deal for self as occurs in market exchange othis sys now modi ed continues to operate among Trobrianders otrobsKwakiutl have exible rank systems produce econ surplus odist of goods at potlatch enhances rank and prestige goods given as kind of tribute which is redist on ceremonial occasions c Systems of Exchange with Fixed Rank oaristo v commoners lords v vassals patrons v clients high caste v low caste etc odiffer in rankprestige control of econ resources 0 permanent div of labor osys of econ div always symbolically emph inferioritysuperiority osuperiors give to inferiors it s generosity but opposite is tribute owhen rank is xed econo specialized occupational groups are tied together in interdependent sys of econ exch odistribs maintain the status of some groups over others d Barter oinvolved direct immediate exch always of diff objects odoes not create ongoing relationships usually involves good that people cant get in own enviro oseen as most simpledirect type of exch otakes place in ruins of former communist econs esp Russia 0 most common reason for using barter is that buyer doesn39t have cash is in short supply oppl also don39t trust value of money payments in goods are faster no trust in banks omany transacts are illegal barter helps in evading taxescustoms allows use of fake docscontracts e The Market System omarket has two meanings rst refers to locationsite where foodcrafts are boughtsold second characterizes entire econ sys based on determination of prices y the market aka in terms of supplydemand most distinct feature is that buyer need have no relationship w seller has basis solely on fact that seller has something buyer wantsneeds and is willing to pay for obasic premise is to make pro t buy cheap and sell for more than you paid otransacts governed by bargaininghaggling ocontrast to Kwakiutl potlatch which is based on continuing social rel odepends on presence of money serves of purposes ocan be used as standard of value bc any commodityservicelabor can be expressed in terms of its monetary worth omoney used is all purpose can be exch for anything unlike shells in kula which have value but can only be used for certain ceremonies f The Market Economy and Globalization 0 C Consumption a The Changing Nature of Consumption O Chapter 9 Power Politics and Con ict Questions abt politicspower may be illum by comparing processes of politic org in two contrasting smallscale soc trobrianders and Yanomamo Every Yanomamo man is own boss no other Yan can give him orders Each village is totally indep unit One village will entertainfeast another to win support as an ally Enemy villages will raid to capture women Each village has headman man who has demonstrated leadership qualities fearlessness in war wisdomjudgment in planning alliancesattacksmoving village to new area when resources are depleted Position not hereditary headman must get agreement of all men in village when a decision abt any course is to be made Does not direct indivs to do things sets example by doing them rst Constantly challenged by others who want the position only keeps job as long as villagers have con dence in his judgment Other indiv w supporters can oppose headman in his decisions lf ppl lose con dence in him as opposition grows may be supplanted by rival or he may inspire his villagers to forcefully drive out opposing leaderfollowers Does his own labor has no special magical knowledge No rank diffs among Yano so no outward signs of rank special deference special food customs to diff him from other villagers those w power from those wout Concepts in Political Anthropology Power is key concept used to de ne political org Yano headman doesn39t have power to compel ppl Authority is when power becomes institutionalized means there is rec d position or of ce whose occupant can give orders that must be obeyed Yano has of ce but no power so no authority but does have in uence ability to persuade ppl to follow your lead Diff bt government and politics Govt is decisions made by those in of ce on behalf of entire group May involve going to war to defend group but also daily matters of laworder Yanomamo consensus of whole group determines governmental ac ons Politics involves competing for power manip of pplresources maneuvering to enhance power rise of competing factions forming of polit parties w diff goals Politics constantly present among Yano bc headman reg faces opp from those who aspire to lead B Forms of Political Organization a Informal Leadership Leadership manifested intermittently simplest form of polit org No xed polit offices temporary leaders don39t have power to make others obey Leadership operated only thru in uence Found only among ppl whose subsistence was based exclusively upon huntgath b Band Organization Some huntgath soc had this more complex form Have more xed membership that came together annually During most of year small groups of related fams moved around In summer whole band unitedremained as unit for summer Men w in uence were leaders membership was uid c Big Man Structure Reps a greater delineation of leadership position Big man takes initiative in exch w other groups Reg men ful ll obligations in exch w af neskin contrib to what is accumulated by big man Big men org group s productionexch system Derives power from his direction of ceremonial dist of goods accum by group and decisions he makes in redistrib of goods win own group Abelam big man wears emblem of of ce around his neck Abelam big man arranges labor involvedin prod of long yams for exch also acts as ritual expert since only he knows spell to make yams so long Must be good at giving speeches show prowess in warfare Is an achieved status so if he s unable to ful ll duties may be chaHenged Competition bt challengers inv polit skillmaneuvering d Chieftainship lndivs and kin groups are ranked w respect to one another Chief doesn39t just have in uence has real authority Powerauth are vested chie y in of ce whoever has position has power Kwakiutl have ranked syschiefs Oldest child regardless of sex inherits chie y position thru primogeniture and the highestranking name in the numaym kin group Female may inherit title but male kinsman usually carries out duties Polit econ is more complex redist sys than Big Man More lvls of polit org so villagers give to village headman who in turn gives to chief Some associated w potlatch exch sys like Kwakiutl e Transformation from Big Man to Chieftainship and Back Again Happen due to internal forces as well as external like moneymarketstrade Concepts of propertyownership can change from sense of communal ownership w ranked clans to one of personal property and indiv ownership f The State Differs from other types of polit org most importantly in terms of scale Some states may be small but has potential to include millions of ppl Org on a territorial basis made of villagesdistricts not on basis of kinshipclans State has social strat rulers aristocrats commoners lowstatus groups May be endogamous never tied by kinship All under control of state are citizenssubjects Today states contain not only small soc like Yano but multiethnic pops Gov by ruler whose legit right to rule is acknowledged by the state Admin functions carried out by bureaucracy that grows in sizecomplex as state expands Custom law becomes formal legal code dispute mediation by leader becomes court sys enforced by police Tribute given to chief becomes tax paid to state support growing bureauc State expands by conquering neighboring ppl taking their land C War and Peace Going to war is one of most important dec made by authority gures Feuding is hostile action bt mems of same group war is bt diff groups Warfare evolves along w increasingly complexity of polit org Operates according to cultural rules Several lvl of hostility among Yanomamo Chestpounding duel arising from accusations of cowardice stinginess w food or gossip is halfway bt sport and ght Can happen bt men of same village or diff Sideslapping contest has same provocations but is more intensive 3rCI lvl is club ght usually argument over women men attack each other w long wooden clubs ends when someone withdraws most intense is raid village v other village could be considered warfare raid to get revenge for past killings women are frequently taken time of war alternates w peace made by ceremonial dialogue that happens as way of making peace when relations bt villages that are normally close are deteriorating or when ppl from more distance potentially hostile villages come to visit like Yano wars ours are also conducted according to rules D The Anthropology of Violence conquestcolonialism are hist central to global patterns of violencegenocide narratives keep memory of prev warscon icts alive E Law and Social Control legal principlesbasis for resolving con ic not always explicitly stated in small soc had variety of ways to settle disputes like the two parties ghting it out or song contests some soc have mediators may be polit leader orjudge w power to in uenceforce disputants to accept their decisionsrecommendations in complex soc distinction made bt civil private and criminal public law civil law is private disputes bt indivs society acts as arbitrator criminal law deals w crimes eg theftassaultmurder considered offenses against society as a whole wronged party cant punish indiv by himself perp is tried in court a Law in the Postcolonial Period legal pluralism rel bt indigenous law and foreign law in post colonial soc modern western forms of social control that were introduced did not completely replace older indigenous forms but coexisted F Nation Building in the Postcolonial Period equation of state economy society and nation was predominant in 20th cent today there is challenge to state and state power as locus of territorial sovereigntycultural legitimacy by ethnic separatism globalization of tradecapital movement and migration of immigrantsrefugees indigenous soc were part of colonial empires now encompassed in boundaries of modernday states Yano have been in indirect contact via trade networks w outside world for long time a Empowerment Used to refer to actions by ppl to get what they want populist action revolt from below to subvert authority gures devolution of power to give to powerless Term serves as effective political slogan but does not always lead to bene t for all people G Politics in the Contemporary NationState States may be culturally homogenous but more likely incl mems of sev diff culturalethnic groups Nation or nationstate dev d in Europe w rise in nationalism which assumed that ppl who had a culturelanguage should constitute separate nation Natstates in Eur that have existed for hundreds of yr may still exhibit tribalism meaning identity w a partic group likened to a tribe and exhibit ethnic diffs in ways sim to postcolonial nations a Factionalism o Recurring theme in study of locallvl politics 0 Faction leaders vying for power may build followings in diff ways depend on struc of community Faction consist of leaderfollowers resembles Big Man leader is in opp to other faction leaders Exch rel bt leader and followers need to suppreward followers to keep them 0 When leader dies faction dissolves contrast w polit parties b Warlords Frequ used in ref to leaders in Afghan Somalia Burma 0 Warlordfollowers struc similar to faction like a militarized Big Man 0 Some are consequence of postcold war disappearance of quotsuperpower hegemonyquot Oft involved w illicit trade of opiumnarcotics arms c PatronClient Relationships Patrons frequ landowners acted as intermediaries bt peasants of village and provincialnatl govt Probs w tax collectorscourt system brought clients to patrons Patrons always of higher class 0 No actual kinship links but compadrazgo ties bt families of patron and clients lasted thru generations H Politics in American Society Factions repping diff polit positionscoalitions operate at every lvl of poHtsys Ethnic politics are as active as in any AsianAfrican nation state a The Ma a 0 Originally brought by Sicilian immigrants at turn of 20th cent Easily adapted to politcs of corruption 0 Begin w small crime prostitutiongambling soon move to drug trafficking Operate where weak corrupt govs are present 0 US ma a based on patronclient rel char of Sicilian rural seen it came from The don is essentially a Big Man Provides income for fam protection from law In return gets respect complete obedienceloyalty share of pro ts Status achieved thru demonstration of ability Maintains in uence by manip connections w policepoliticiansjudges Greatest threat is member turned informant by police I Political Economy Types of polit org are assoc w diff forms of distribproduction Chieftainship is interwoven w redistrib system surplus goods funnel into chief and are distrib during ceremony to other chiefs who then redistrib to own followers Polit econ promotes regional perspective Reveals way in which capitalist forces of production in societies have shaped the way of life of oppressed ppl Can show how societies have been drawn into world system Chapter 10 Religion and the Supernatural Re What we call supernatural order of existence beyond observable universe Fundamental right to relig belief protects believers in witchcraft like anyone else Some relig practitioners run afoul of the law in acting on their beliefs In US scienti c expl that involve forces of nature generally seen as distinct from relig beliefsideas abt supernatural Relig phenomena involve use of symbols that evoke powerful emotional response Relig ideas inspire indivs to actperform in culturally sanctioned ways blurring div bt how mind sees ideology and how body enacts these ideas Relig ideas invariably shape ideas abt bodybodily experience Iigion StudiedReligion De ned Klass argues that de ning relig in terms of supernatural re ects Eurocentric assumption abt sep of natural and supernatural realms of existence Instead de nes it as instituted process of interaction among members of that society and bt them and the univ at large as they conceive it to be constituted which provides them w meaning coherence direction unity easement and whatever degree of control over events they perceive as possible Sys of relig beliefs acknowledged to be cultural universal Melford suggests 3 kind of needs relig fu s First cognitive need the need to understand need for explanationsmeanings Second substantive need to bring abt specif goals by doing religious acts Third psych need to reduce fearanxiety in sitches where they re provoked Humans are part of social and natural worlds dependent on actions of other humans as well as forces of nature Attempt to understandin uence thru belief in supernatural things that are otherwise uncontrolIableunexplainable B Religion Science and Intelligent Desig Science and relig are usually at odds w one another Creationists challenge public schools teaching Darwinian evolution as fact Petitioned to have creationism taught alongside evol but lost As a result cast creationism into Intelligent Design theories accept some scienti cally proposed theories abt earth but require presence of deistic agency for creation of earthits life forms Rejected out of hand for trying to shove religion at people Science magic relig all ways of understandin the natural world Sciencemagic are sim in that the aims of both are specif and based on belief that if you do certain set of actions you ll get desired result Magic diff from other aspects of relig bc ppl attempt to manip the supernatural through direct intervention Magic is manipulative religion is supplicative Conceptions of the Supernatural ldeas abt ghostsspirits are part of larger beliefs abt spiritualnoncorp counterparts of humans animism There is relationship bt social struc of a society and way it s spn world is organized Kinds of spirits gen term for those that populate spirit realm may be group using English terms to desc them seen as imposition of Western lang on foreign ideas Spirits of dead can be cat chronologically in rel to living as ghosts of recent dead ancestor spir of remote generations and ancestral spir of ancient past Natural world seen as having spirit counterpart lnanimate forces thunder lightning rain wind tides may be seen as spirits lf spirit is thought to have human char and spn power called god or deity Population of godsdeities rec d by a society is called pantheon Ritual Approaching the Supernatural Humans approach concept of spn by doing ritual acts No single def of ritual bc of the mult aspects of personalgroup experience meaning symbolism expression and function Hortatory rituals consist of asking the supernatural to perform some act Some gods can only be approached by going into self or drug induced trance Supernatural visitors come most frequ in animal form Trances also interp as performative vehicles that unconsciously give actors license for actionsexpression not avail to them in quotordinaryquot state Possessed women in social sys who have been socialized to be subordinate have temporary access to power by acting out personalitiesroles of spirits Another way to approach spn is by making sacri ces There is relation bt sizevalue of offering and importance of the spirit Rites of Passage Communal rituals that publicly mark the changes in status an indiv or group experiences thru progression of life cycle as it is culturally constituted Beginningend of life always marked by ritual as well as one or more pt bt lifedeath that status changes eg rst period marriage A such rites involve three stages First stage marks sep of indiv from the categorystatus prev occupied Next is per of transition kind of limbo indiv is frequ secluded from rest of society Last stage is reincorporation indiv is ceremonially reintegrated to soc w new status 0ft 3 stage process is repped by deathrebirth Generally re ect gender div in society very diff comingof age rituals for genders b Rites of Passage in American Culture Eg jewish circumcision rite Christian baptism bar mitzvah con rmation diff types of wedding ceremonies retirement parties diff types of funerals Same stages of sep trans reincorp can be seen in these Circumbaptism perform same function to mark entry of child into society At birth kids goes from being a neonate to a liminal state not yet part ofsoc At christening priest dabs child s forehead and names them marking into to Christian society c Rites of Intensi cation Celebrated communally either at various points in yearly cycle eg spring fa wintersummer solstice or when soc is exposed to threat con ictnat disaster May hold ritual to mark planting in hope of good crop or to mark harvest in thanks Thanksgiving is a good example of this Does not just mirror soccult but helps shape its de ning features Can also challenge existing order E Religious Specialists Spn is oft approach indir thru intermediaries w some kind of special gift Specialists oft have primary function eg curing illspredicting future In smallscale soc shaman was usually the only reig specialist Long story short shamanism is found globally and they all do different stuff Often work in response to two universal dilemmas the loss of self and the fact that something spiritcanceretc is invading a person s body Shamanism provides mechanism for stepping outside of one s self Diviners are part time relig spec who use the spn to enable ppl to make good choices Sorcererswitches as relig spec concentrate upon doing evil things causing illness and death rather than curing Claims of witchraft often reveal cleavages in society witch is often someone on opposite side of a power con ict Magicians direct spn forces toward a pos goal to help indiv or whole community W emergence of class div relig became more elaboratedifferentiated Priests are full time relig practitioners who carry out codi edelaborate rituals F Religious Syncretism Old Religions in New Guises All relig believer that their rituals have been prac since time immemorial Reality check all relig institutions respond to changing conditions are in uenced by other belief systems Syncretism refers to integration of cult traits into existing cult practices In US period of relig transformationinnov began in 705 after demise of counterculture movements of quot ower childrenquot in the 60s Dev of new alt relig movements called New Age MovementsNew Religious Movements paralleled by erosion of major relig judaismcatholProtestantism Witchcraft has existed in US in some form since 17th century Manifests in form of Wicca which is hella cool okay Major focus to disown by lifestylewordphilos the religpolit ideas that dom American society Wicca is a pointed rejection of Christianity Cyberspace and Religion quotGive Me That Online Religionquot All major relig recognize vast audiences they reach online far beyond churchesashramssynagoguesmosquestemples Even fucking amish people who don39t use electricity have websites wtf Internet has also become place for apocalyptic sites and those for religious satire In theory provides equal opp for mainstream and alternative voices there are still major diff bt online interactive ritual and the real expenence online rituals are text based instructionsresponses are read and typed ritual enviro must be imagined instead of experienced G Politics Religions and States when statesrelig began in Mid East they were theocracies 0 this connection bt politics and relig is widespread throughout history fundamentalism widelyambiguously applied to range of politrelig ideologies o historically connotes attachment to set of irreducible beliefs that forestall further questions 0 now attached to wide range of relig and polit movements in scholjourno sources invariably used to describe an other rarely a term of selfID also used to descry polit ideologies incl ultranationalisms extreme ethnic chauvinisms as well as often violent movements for lingcultural purity 0 Christian funds in US calling for return to Christian valuesstrict interp of Bible 0 Mobilize followers to bring this about by electing indivs who supp their views 0 Seek to keep interactions of fam membs within own relig community 0 Fundamentalism wherever it is found quotis characterized by certainty of its principles focus on difference rather than shared interests with others a rejection of relativism and a retreat from ecumenism and dialoguequot H Why Religion 0 Most relig behav has instrumental goal indiv has some goal in mind when ritual is performed Helps to reduce anxiety in the face of things we cant really control Chapter 11 MythsI LegendsI and Folktales PastI PresentI and Future A Myths Ppl attempt to explain the unknowable by creating supernatural world Deal w univ themes like birth growing up gender relations death Myths legends folktales represent a continuum Are Western categories but provide good framework to org material Myths often assoc w the sacred in ancientsmall scale soc Distinction bt mythlegendfolktale is uid Some see them as literal history but this is discredited Malinowski analyzed myth in relation to its socialcultural context Mythscharters for howwhat ppl should actbelievefeel Kluckholn stressed interdependence of mythritual Both ful ll same societal needs Myths provide statements abt origins of ritual details of how to perform them Telling mythperform ritual arouse same feelings Serve to alleviate anxiety lndivs express fear thru dreams myth seen as re ecting collective anxieties of a society giving cultural expression to the anxieties Levistrauss says myths give expl for contradictions in culture that cant be resolved Most anthro agree that myths always understood in connction w other cultural facts Wogeo myth is ultimately abt origins of culture tensions bt gender relations Same themes in greek myth Recently variety of new ways to study myths in ancient soc where direct narrative was not possible Can use artistic representations stuff from archeology sites etc BLegends Myths treat ancient past legends deal w less remote past Retold to justify claim of ppl to their landtheir integrity as a people Used to tell the story of how a ppl came to occupy their land Can gradually fade into actual history a Legend Becomes History King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table Arthurampco considered legends for many centuries Recent examination of old sources gives evidence he was real Important example of how historical reality was distortedoverlaid by medieval romances until arthur s very existence was doubted C Folktales Set in timeless framework Most common motif is trickster reps combo of monster Ioutish liar braggart creator destroyer duper as well as one who is always duped Enables breaches of accepted order to occur in realm of imagination Is also a mediating being resolves dilemmas of human existence Way of talking about ourselves in satiric ironic comedic fashion Has been applied to classic lit too Folktales are char of group distinguishing them from other groups Content is determined by cultural past of group Can also be much more recent D Fairy Tales Fairy tales teach kids what it means to grow up Characters are mere mortals Transmitted orally around re after days work Changed over time like all oral literature until they started being recorded Important function among most powerful socializing narratives Contain enduring rules to understand who we are how we should behave E Performance Originally passed on orally each telling was a performance Came out slightly diff w each retelling Variations introduces new episodes included eventually diff version of same story Anthros collect as many versions of single story as possible to ascertain meaning Performance introduces creativity factor Tellers have much lenience as long as they tell what listeners expect Contents change much more rapidly than does actual structure When written down oral narrative becomes written lit May form basis for lit tradition of the society Writing down doesn39t mean they39ll stop changing F Legends and Folktales in American Culture American culture doesn39t have supernatural myths about world creation Our mythsstories abt how American culture was form its origins Legendary gures abound some were historical ppl other prob never real Setting was frontier demonstrated how ppl conquered naturemade livable Totally ignoredoverrode native American cultures that were here rst Many folkfairy tales in US are derivative a American Films as Legends and Myths Legendstales rarely told by storytellers in present Major themes are repeated in media of mass communications Westerns are linked to American identity Legend of Billy the Kids toldretold in plays lmsnovelsballetsetc Was real person became legend after death Seen as avenging angel ghter forjustice outlaw but not casual killer Outsider w honor code young uncapturable generous to poor etc Wizard of 02 gives mythic expression to deepest feelings of American ppl nostalgia mixed w hope for future Star Wars said to rep one of great myths of our time heroic journey goodevil Sci helped ppl explore science s potential to solve world s problems b The Sopranos An American Myth Ma a characters have risen to become mythic gures Sopranos operates at 3 lvls rep of real world underworld of Ma a and fantasy world told to therapists Tony is like us deals w real world probs is husband brother father son Myth of Ma a is that underworldreal world operate on same basic values Americans fascinated by gangsters esp Ma a Ma a reps dialectic bt beloved American values familyhomeloyaltyroots and murder and rapaciousness of underworld c Urban Legends Story in contemp setting reported as true re 911 urban legends and conspiracy theories blend mostly load of BS imo organ theft narratives also prevalent in urban legends stories of pseudoadoptionpurchase of babies to be usecut up mass media oft play role in dissemination of urban legends lends further aura of truth to story Qhapter 2 The Artistic Dimension every culture produces what westerners call art could be utilitarian items or purely decorative art objects used at rituals w dancesong communicates emotion may be awe terror pleasure mirth every society has standards by which it judges art differ w regard to form of artistic expression some emph poetry music dance body mod etc reasons a culture emphs one art and not other remain unclear interp of meaning of work in a culture can be made only in terms of that culture s symbolic sys however ppl can appreciate art wout understand its meaning in culture that produced it in US much art created solely for aesthetic pleasure to be admired so in uential that we dist bt what is useful utilitarian and what is arthas no practical use A Ster B Th C Th function of art is role it plays in soc use in rituals info conveyed aesthetic pleasure structure is the partshow they re put together hierarchical aspect to concept of style style of indiv artist features char of their work sometimes can ID art style of village city or region more frequent to refer to style of single society like Kwakiutl e Artist art in smallscale soc was embedded in social ritual ceremonial contexts had to be made win certain constraints bc had to convey certain messages dreams are sources of indiv creativity since each person s dreams differ seeing art of small soc as product of anon artist working in communal tradition and our art as product of creativity of indiv is erroneous construct of Western soc in cult context and community where the art is made creativity of indiv in small soc is recognizedrewarded e Visual Arts incl painting sculpture body deco house deco masks found all over though not universally exempli cation of art in culture bc they have certain intrinsic features but meaninguse diff from one culture to next used in ritualceremonial life can rep supernatural spirits so many diff examples of masks wow fuck have char that diff them from other forms of art worn by a person and is always a face when ppl put mask on become diff peron what is repped by mask can rep person ancestor animal or imaginary creature masks are embedded in culture play signif role in religious rituals masks and dances usually sym central idea in the culture convey important info relevant to kinship social relationships myths and political activity a New Ireland Malanggans Yesterday and Today mortuary sculptures striking examples of visual art carvings used in relig rituals to commemorate deaths of several indivs of a single clan and simultaneously initiate boys of that clans designs are owned and sold by one clan to another when ordered order of design tells carver the myth embodying th design and what the carving should look like works w constraint that design can immediately be recog as a member of a partic named category of images owner of design must be able to recog as his particular design b Ethnic Identity and Toraja Art this is all really boring ugh c Decorating the Body ppl all ove world do this messages conveyed range from statements abt soceconpolit status and class diff phases of life to references to the sacred or profane must be examined in context that may change over time tattooing is form of body mod is part of larger category of body mod like knocking out teeth cutting off ngers circumcision simplest form is scari cation occurs typically at initiation tattooing is next level of complexity even in American soc parallel bt transformation of body and relig conversion d Collecting quotArtificial Curiositiesquot removal of artifacts from exotic places began w Age of Exploration brought back both living and inorganic specimens nuclei around which museums like British Museum were formed colonial times large amts of obj taken by traders missionaries govt officials e The Art World Today trad styles of what were small soc continue today translated into new media new forms have become part of commercial art market exhib in elegant galleries and sold to buyers from all over world when tourism devs in an area simpli ed version of trad artobjects embodying trad motifs in new media oft manufac as tourist art 19705 cultural anthros looked at modern urban society NYC art world is core of one of those composed of commercial communicative and social networks that spread from there to all over world Art world incl dealers artists criticstheorists collectors curators etc Curators decisions on what to exhibcritics decis abt quality of art determined aesthetic value of artwork Determined which artists were favored and which weren t Changed in 705 contemp art moved to auction galleries price determined by public Collectors began to shop at auctions new money entered the scene By focusing on art community which reps type of unit anthros always study one can see ways in which rolespositions of ppl in art world have changed D The Cultural Setting of Music and Dance Musicdance considered art bc they evoke emotion can be eval in terms of aesthetic qualities Contrast to paintsculpt musicdance are like spoken ang All three unfold through time Sentencesongdance has beginningmiddleend Not true of paintingcarvings Music exists as concept in ppls minds each performance is diff a Music Elements of music are sonds char are pitch and duration Sounds produced consecutively are melody simultaneously are harmony Rhythm is subject to cultural variation Form of communication In many soc menwomen have diff spheres of expressive activity Since woman s ID is frequ imbedded in her sexuality women s role in music oft expresses this b Musicians As soc becomes more complex musicians and dancers oft become specialists Sometimes performers are of diff ethnic group than majorty of soc cDance Formalizes human movement into structured systems in much the same way that poetry formalizes language Formal descrip of struc of dance would incl the steps spatial patterns relationships to music postural positioning Focus of anthro analysis of dance is on cultural settingmeaning Chapter 13 LivingWorking in the Globalized World Colonialism Globalization and Development Colonialism one of the strongest forces for change is all but gone Postcol nation states are buildint natl culture in attempt to suppress indig cultures 0 Over several centuries changes have greatly altered earlier econ institutions 0 Intro of cash crops prodconsump of modern manufac goods foreign exploit of local resources need for labor etc 0 Developing states adopt agr indust edu health tourism resource exploit strategies to raise incomesenhance quality of life A Globalization and AnthropologL Postcol studies usually study unit at micro analytic level 0 Next more incl lvl nationstate focus on constr of natl cultnatl ID Natstates op as indep polit auton units so politecon decision occur at this lvl 0 Even higher lvl world system Sys devs after breakdown of feudalismrise of capitalism and entrepreneurship Duringafter Age of Exploration Euros expanded search for raw materialsmineral resources and markets for their manufac goods 0 Euro countries formed core of world sys Operates according to capitalist market principles 0 Anthros concerned w effect of world sys on indig ppl all over world 0 Consequences of globalization crossborder interaction dev in one part of world being felt in distant places Brought about by dev of worldwide network of nancecapital Has resulted in greater nancial success in some parts of world 0 New tech has facilitated it also streamlined resistance against it 0 World trade org meetings B The Historic Background to Globalization The Many Faces of Colonial Rule 0 C New Ireland An Example of Increasing Incorporation into the Global System 0 D Development and AnthropologL O a Development History and Strategies 0 b Anthropology and Change Academic and Applied Perspectives E People on the Move a Internal Immigration 0 b Transmigration O c Diasporas 0 d Transnationalism O Hank Green on Hong Kong 0 Police reaction to protests were v intense 1847 hong kong spares pop ceded to UK 0 99 yr lease to UK as brit colony 905 apoitned governeor of HK started talk abt democ in hK china wants hong kong extra econ important thing 0 so HK becomes part of China again 0 after 150 yr of being not part of china HK has own dialectjudiciary servicemoneyculture etc HK ppl are ethnically Chinese feel connected to china but not part of them 0 To go from china to china but pass thru HK border have to get passport stamped ChinaHK have sep Olympic teams 0 Having HK as it is now run separately as own system is good for china o Is capitalist powerhouse created as bridge bt China and capitalist world 0 HK is v econ important so for all of that to keep working is has to stay somewhat indep They are one country 2 systems 0 China is run by culture that does not accept any kind of derisionappearance of weakness 0 Govt attitude is mix of intense pride in what they39ve done and also vulnerability fear of it falling apartsomewhat deserved o Politicians worried abt losing stability 0 Chinese pres just did massive crackdown on corruption o Is now enemy of officials that bene ted from corruption Cant appear weak not interested in any way in conceding to protests in HK or even allowing them to continue happening Protest in HK prob does hurt Beijing but not as much as they imagine bc ppl in HK and ppl in china don39t actually get lon that well anymore 0 Hasn39t even started talking abt why protests started bc w all of the background it starts to feel like something inevitable 0 Since hand off of HK to China HK run by not gov or mayor but quotchief executivequot Elected by weird elec college consist of business tycoons that rep diff constituencies mostly corporate constit HK constitution not actually constitution called quotbasic lawquot and was worked outjsut before HK changed hands from UK to china Eventually calls for elec of chief exec by the people rather than group of 1200 ppl who have exact same interests as Beijing Beijing interps that law a little diff saying that yes HK ppl can elec their chief exec but they have to choose from group of cands that Beijing preselects for them That is obviously not a democracy Maybe more importantly since 1989 massacre in Tiananmen sq ppl of HK have had long proud history of demonstrationprotest Perhaps the incr strong response of HK police to their protest was even scarier to them than prospect of not being able to elect their own leader Have never been able to elec own leaders have always been able to freely protest A lot of people were hoping that while HK was a testing ground for china s unique for of capitalism would also be test for actual Chinese democracy Cultural gap bt the structure and control of China and the relative freedom of HK may be too large to bridge While the continued protests in HK are bad ofr the image of Chinese leaders crushing them would be bad for the continued econ prosperity of HK Protesters know they shouldn39t mess too much w Beijing which is why they re directing most rage at chief Executive Chinese media is reporting on protests but instead of focusing on the freedom that HK ppl want they focus on the chaos and the inconvenience that the protests bring which is technically true Demonstrates that what china really needs is to stick together and be stable not fall apart for good of the whole country With protesters in HK protesting in very calm and stable ways seems to be certain amt of agreement that stability is good Not v many voices calling for HK to cecede though china may be afraid that with continued cultural change that may eventually be the case Mostly HKjust wants to be HK like it s always been but ideally qith a little more control over its own destiny But in v controlling china having entire 7m person part of country not controlled by the central govt is not just scary but possibly foreign concept The main demand is full democracy Protesters want the right to nominate and directly elect the head of the Hong Kong government known as the Chief Executive As a secondary demand protestors want the current Chief Executive Leung Chunying to resign which he has atly refused to do Leung is widely disliked because he is seen as prioritizing China s interests over Hong Kong s He was also indirectly elected by an electoral college ofjust 1200 voters of which 689 voted for him He is mockineg referred to as quot689 after this feeble tally Bibliography httpwwwcnncom20141005worldasiachinahongkong brotest5indexhtml httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvWfoUtmrh3RU httptimecom3471366hongkongumbrellarevolutionoccupy centraldemocracyexplainer 6questions
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