ANT 302 (UEX) Assignments 1-12 Key Terms Defined
ANT 302 (UEX) Assignments 1-12 Key Terms Defined ANT 302
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Module 3 Terms and Concepts Phoneme the minimal sound units that make up a language 2 Morpheme the smallest unit of a language conveying meaning Nonlinguistic symbols any symbols that exist outside the systems of language and speech eg visual symbols 4 Frame a social construction of a social phenomenon often constructed by media sources political movements or other social groups to present a particular point of view about something 9quot 5 Linguistic Relativity a point of view that emphasizes the uniqueness of each language and the need to examine it on its own terms 6 Linguistic Universals 7 Ethnosemantics the anthropological investigation of native systems of classi cation 8 Markedness the process whereby a category the marked category is distinguished from a larger more inclusive category the unmarked category by the presence of a single attribute 9 Langue language refers to language and its grammatical rules in contrast to parole which refers to individual speech 10 Parole speech refers to individual speech in contrast to langue which refers to language s grammatical rules 11 Sociolinguistics the study of that aspect of language that deals with status and class differences 12 Male and Female Speech 13 Dialect variations within a single language between one speech community and another 14 Speech Communities groups of people that interact and speak frequently with one another 15 Protolanguage ancestral form of a language arrived at by reconstruction 16 Diffusion the process by means of which a culture trait that originates in one society spreads to another 17 Linguistic Imperialism the imposition by a dominant group of its language on minority speakers of other languages 18 Enculturation the process by which culture is learned and acquired by particular individuals 19 Cultural Construction of the Self 20 SapirWhorf Hypothesis Module 1 Terms and Concepts 1 Culture the knowledge that is learned shared and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior 2 Cultural Relativism the emphasis on the unique aspects of each culture without judgments or categories based on one s own culture 3 Ethnocentrism the idea that what is present in one s own culture represents the natural and best way to do things emphasizes the pride a group has in cultural accomplishments historical achievements supremacy of its religious beliefs and the godgiven virtues of its sexual and culinary practices also includes the idea that other people s often one s closest neighbors beliefs customs and practices are like those of animals Ethnocentrism is at the root of ethnic con ict and the ethnonationalism so prevalent in the world today 4 Culture Shock effect upon the observer of encountering a cultural practice different than one s own 5 Explicit Culture the culture that people can talk about and of which they are aware 6 Tacit Culture the shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally 7 Society a social grouping characterizing humans and other social animals differentiated by age and sex 8 Social Structure the pattern of social relationships that characterizes a society Patterns of social structure are based on cultural rules may be organized on the basis of family kinship residential propinquity common interest friendship or class 9 Social Organization behavioral choices that individuals make in connection with the social structure 10 Practice individual choices and decisionmaking 11 Agency refers to the fact that individuals are active responders to their culture 12 Social Status the position an individual occupies in a society 13 Comparative Approach comparing societies to uncover similarities and reveal differences 14 Cultural Evolution the anthropological theory that refers to the development of culture into ever more complex forms 15 Historical Particularism theoretical approach emphasizing each culture s uniqueness 16 Functionalism 17 Structuralism theoretical approach emphasizing relationship between cultural elements 18 Symbolic Anthropology theoretical approach emphasizing the interpretation of cultural symbols 19 Ethnohistory work on the history of societies with no record that draws on archeology oral histories or archives 20 Postmodernism refers to a contemporary point of view that is opposed to making universalizing generalizations in anthropological thinking Assignment 4 Terms 1 Symbol anything that humans can sense that is given an arbitrary relationship to its referent Metaphor Icon an analytical concept in which one idea stands for another because of some similarity they seem to share Metonym Index the symbolic substitution of one of the constituent parts for the whole Public Symbols symbols used and understood by the members of a society Private Symbols symbols related to an individual s personal life history the symbols of our dream life and fantasies Totemic Animal also Clan Totem an animal from which members of a clan believe themselves descended and with whom they have a special relationship that may prohibit the eating of that animal Reciprocity the transfer of goods and services between two people or groups based on their role obligations A form of nonmarket exchange Key Symbols the symbols which are at the core that is most important to a person or group of people culture society Symbolic System a system of interconnected symbolic meanings 10 Body Symbolism parts of the body are used as symbols of parts of society Assignment 5 Terms and Concepts 1 Kinship the complex system of social relationships based on marriage af nity and birth consanguinity 2 Af nityAlliance A linkage between kin groups established through marriage for the mutual bene t of the two groups 3 Consanguinity the principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry blood 4 Descent 1 Patrilineal rule of descent relating someone to a group of consanguine kin through males only 2 Matrilineal rule of descent relating someone to a group of consanguine kin through females only 3 Bilateral rule of descent relating someone to a group of consanguine kin through both males and females 4 Unilineal kin group such as a clan in which membership is based on either mat or patrilineal descent 5 Descent groups lineage clan 1 Clan social group based on common descent but not necessarily common residence 2 Lineage A kinship group based on a unilineal descent rule that is localized has some corporate powers and whose members can trace their actual relationships to each other 6 Nuclear Family a family consisting of husband wife and their unmarried children 7 Extended Family several related nuclearfamilies living together in a single household 8 Incest taboo prohibition of sexual relations between certain categories of close relations 9 Endogamy rule requiring groups members to marry within their own group 10 Exogamy rule requiring group members to marry outside their own group 11 Monogamy marriage with only one spouse at a time 12 Polygamy marriage with plural spouses either husbands or wives 13 Polygyny marriage in which one man has several wives at one time 14 Polyandry marriage in which one women has several husbands at one time 15 Sister Exchange a marriage pattern in which two men marry each other s sisters 16 Bridewealth payments made by the groom s family to the family of the bride 17 Dowry goods that are given by the bride s family to the groom s family at marriage 18 Bride Service a custom whereby the groom works for the bride s family before marriage 19 Residence 1 Neolocal rule of postmarital residence whereby the new married couple forms an independent household 2 Virilocal rule of postmarital residence whereby the new married couple resides with the relatives of the groom 3 Avunculocal form of postmarital residence in which the bride goes to live with her husband after he has moved to live with his mother s brother his maternal uncle 4 Uxorilocal rule of postmarital residence whereby the new married couple resides with the relatives of the bride 20 Reciprocal exchange type of exchange system in egalitarian societies in which women or material goods of equal value continue to be exchanged over generations 21 Kinship terminology a set of terms used to refer to relatives 22 Terms of reference the kinship terms used to refer to a relative when speaking to someone else 23 Terms of address the kinship terms used when talking to a relative 24 Fictive kinship social relationships in which unrelated individuals use kin terms to establish and recognize their relationships Often the relationship is established by ritual observances 25 Uterine family a woman s mother and her mother s children Assignment 6 Terms and Concepts 1 2 8 9 Status the position an individual occupies in a society Role the behavior associated with a particular social status in a society Social strati cation the ranking of people or groups based on their unequal access to valued economic resources and prestige Class system of strati cation de ned by unequal access to economic resources and prestige that permits individuals to change their rank Caste a form of strati cation de ned by unequal access to economic resources and prestige which is acquired at birth and does not permit individuals to alter their rank Race a system of classi cation of groups of people presumed to share biological characteristics Egalitarian societies societies that with the exception of ranked differences between men and women and adults and children provide all people an equal chance at economic resources and prestige Most huntergatherer societies are egalitarian by this de nition Rank societies societies strati ed on the basis of prestige only Strati ed societies societies that are at least partially organized on the principle of social strati cation 10 Sex the physical differentiation between male and female through biological and anatomical composition of genitals and related secondary sexual characteristics 11 Gender the culturespeci c set of behavioral ideological and social meanings of constructed biological and anatomical differences 12 Sexuality refers to erotic desires and the practices associated with them 13 Heteronormativity cultural perspective that privileges male and female heterosexual identity in conceptualizing social and family norms 14 Gender strati cation the comparative ranking of economic and political activities associated with men and women in any society 15 Feminist anthropology explores cultural practices and inequities based on gender 16 Masculinity the qualities typically associated with men 17 Age grade categories of individuals of the same age that are recognized by being given a name and that crosscut an entire society 18 Age set a group of individuals of the same age that moves as a unit through successive age grades 19 Chain migration when earlier migrants attract later ones to the same community resulting in residential clusters of individuals having longterm social and economic relationships 20 Social identity the portion of an individual s selfconcept derived from perceived membership in a relevant social group Cultural Ecology the study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments the effects they have on their natural surrounding and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture including its longterm evolution Cultural Environment the categories and rules people use to classify and explain their environment Technology the part of a culture by means of which people directly exploit their environment Subsistence Strategies strategies used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities Economic System the provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants Political Economy the interpenetration of politics and economy Production the process whereby a society uses the tools and energy sources at its disposal and its own people s labor to create the goods necessary for supplying itself Subsistence Economies economies that are local and that depend largely on the nonmarket mechanisms reciprocity and redistribution to motivate production and exchange Division of Labor the rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people 10 Hunting and Gathering subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild naturally occurring foods 11 Agriculture subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent elds through the use of such means as the plow irrigation and fertilizer 12 Horticulture subsistence strategy involving semiintensive usually shifting agricultural practices 13 Pastoralism subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals 14 lndustrialism subsistence strategy marked by intensive mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks 15 Distribution the manner in which products circulate through a society 16 Tribute the presentation of objects by people of lower status to those of higher status 17 Redistribution the transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation 18 Market Exchange the transfer of goods and services based on price supply and demand 19 Consumption the processes by which products are used by humans 20 Commodities any product produced for sale to a consumer other than the producer 1 Achieved Status position in a social structure dependent upon personal quali cations and individual ability 2 Ascribed Status an inherited position in the social structure Authority an institutionalized position of power 4 Band Organization a type of social group with a xed membership that comes together annually for a period to carry out joint ritual and economic activities 5 Big Man Structure an achieved position of leadership in which the group is de ned as the Big Man and his followers 6 Chieftanship a type of political organization in which xed positions of leadership are present along with a method for succession to those positions 7 Coercion a kind of political support derived from threats use of force or the promise of shortterm gain 8 Empowerment the ability of groups or individuals to achieve their political rights and goals 9 Ethnonationalism the desire of ethnic groups within a state to have their own nationstates 10 Factionalism local groups building support under a powerful individual or idea vying for in uence locally and within state systems 11 Headman the leader of a group with no power or authority and with no xed rule of succession 12 Indirect Rule the system of rule associated with the British Empire by which a small number of English administrators controlled large colonial territories by integrating local political leaders and bureaucrats into the administrative system 13 In uence the ability to persuade others to follow one s lead when one lacks the authority to command them to do so 14 Informal Leadership a type of political organization in which there is no single political leader but rather leadership is manifested intermittently 15 Legal Pluralism the coexistence of indigenous and postcolonial systems of law 16 Mediator Gobetween a third party brought in to resolve con ict between two parties 17 Nationstate an autonomous state associated with national identity 18 Power the ability to command others to do certain things and get compliance from them 19 Sovereignty the ability of a group to determine their own laws and practices that will be recognized by other groups 20 State a type of political organization organized on a territorial basis encompassing multiple cultural groups 1 Animism a belief in the spiritual or noncorporeal counterparts of human beings 2 Cosmology a set of beliefs that de nes the nature of the universe or cosmos 3 Divination the use of supernatural force to provide answers to queonns 4 Fetish an object that is believed to have supernatural powers or speci cally a man made object that has power over others 5 Liminal period the inbetween stage in a riteofpassage ceremony when the individual has not yet been reincorporated into society 6 Magic the system based on the belief that the natural world can be compelled to act in the desired way through human intervention 7 Mythology stories that reveal the religious knowledge of how things have come into being 8 Religion the cultural means by which human interact with the supernatural or extrahuman domains 9 Revitalization movement religious cults than develop in periods of drastic cultural change and synthesize traditional cultural elements with newly introduced ones 10 Rites of intensi cation communal rituals celebrated at various points in the yearly cycle 11 Rites of Passage communal rituals held to mark changes in status as individuals progress through the life cycle 12 Ritual patterned or repetitive performance that symbolically communicates values and ideas to both participants and observers 13 Sacri ce the giving of something of value to supernatural beings or forces 14 Shaman parttime ritual specialist who depending on the cultural context diagnose and cure illnesses cause illness and divine the future 15 Sorcery the learned practice of evil magic 16 Spirit possession the control of a person by a supernatural being in which the person becomes that being 17 Supernatural things that are beyond the natural like goddesses gods spirits ghosts and mana 18 Syncretism the integration of cultural traits and newly adopted practices 19 Taboo a prohibition excluding something from use approach or mention because of its sacred and inviolable nature 20 Transcendent values values that override differences in a society and unify the group 21 Ultimate problems universal human problems such as death the explanation of evil and the meaning of life and transcendent values that can be answered by religion 22 Vision Quest the search for a protective supernatural spirit through starvation and deprivation 23 Witchcraft a form of magic practiced by individuals born with the ability 24 Worldview the way people characteristically look out on the universe 1 Myth stories set in the remote past that explain the origin of natural things and cultural practices 2 Legend stories about heroes who overcome obstacles set in familiar historical contexts 3 Folktale stories about fanciful creatures set in indeterminate times that impart morals or lessons 4 Trickster 5 Urban legend stories about contemporary events purporting to be factual that circulate widely and with variation 6 Style a characterization of the component elements of art and the way those elements are put together 7 Ethnic identity 8 Body modi cation 9 Repatriation 10 Commodi cation of art 1 Globalization the worldwide connection between societies based upon the existence of global market connections and the spread of cultural items everywhere 2 World system the historic emergence of the economic interrelationship of most of the world in a single economic system 3 Transnational migration with strong ties remaining to country of origin 4 Refugees 5 Guest workers 6 Muticultural 7 Cultural Diffusion 8 Cultural Hybridization 9 Neocolonialism economic interdependency of onetime colonies on former colonial powers despite political independence 10 Nongovernmental organizations NGOs development organizations that are structurally independent of state institutions 11 Free Trade Zones FTZs also known as Export Processing Zones areas in developing countries set aside for foreignowned export production facilities 12 Postcolonialism 13 Modernization 14 Dependency theory views underdevelopment in former colonies as the consequence of their economic suppression coupled with continued economic dependence on colonialbased networks of trade and political alliances 15 Neoliberalism the contemporary revival of classic economic liberalism that stresses the role of private enterprise in all institutions of the state and deregulation of markets and trade 16 Applied Anthropology the application of anthropological knowledge and methodologies to the solution of practical problems direct action andor development policy 17 Internal migration population movements within a nation state 18 Transmigration populations who migrate from their homelands to other parts of the world 19 Assimilation the adoption of the language and norms of a new culture 20 Diaspora a population spread from its original homeland to other countries which continues to maintain affiliation with its homeland 21 Innovation the process of bringing about cultural changes through the recombination of existing ideas into new creative forms 22 Acculturation the process of culture change resulting from the contact between two cultures 23 Culture contact Module 2 Terms and Concepts 1 2 9 10 Ethnography the task of discovering and describing a particular culture Participant Observation the anthropological method of collecting data by living with other people learning their language and understanding their culture Re exivity paying attention to one s own cognitive framework as one researches another culture lnformants or consultants individuals within a eldwork setting who provide cultural information to an anthropologist Translation Complex Societies heterogeneous culturally diverse societies with regional class occupational religious and ethnic differences Multisited Ethnography an ethnography that draws on information and informants in various locations often across borders and over different time periods Salvage Anthropology in Boas s time the term applied to the gathering og ethnographic information about disappearing and threatened cultural practices Potlatch largescale ceremonial distribution of goods found among the indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast of North America Total Social Phenomena largescale rituals that integrate all aspects of society economic political kinship religion art etc 8 9 Race a system of classi cation of groups of people presumed to share biological characteristics Ethnicity Racism discrimination against an individual or group based on presumed shared characteristics Tribe a unit use by colonial powers to refer to groups with a common language and culture Boundary Maintenance the ways in which a social group maintains its individual identity by separating itself from the dominant society Revitalization movements religious cults that develop in periods of drastic cultural change and synthesize traditional cultural elements with newly introduced ones Cargo cults a particular type of revitalization movement that rst appeared in the early 20th century in Melanesia and represents a synthesis of old and new religious beliefs Cultural identity Ethnogenesis the creation of a new ethnic group 10 Ethnonationalism the desire of ethnic groups within a state to have their own nationstates
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