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RTF 305 Reading Notes

by: Cassidy Schap

RTF 305 Reading Notes RTF 305

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Film > RTF 305 > RTF 305 Reading Notes
Cassidy Schap
GPA 3.78
Introduction to Media Studies
Joseph Straubhaar

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These are the notes from the readings in RTF 305 fall '14, the book is Media and Society
Introduction to Media Studies
Joseph Straubhaar
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This 95 page Bundle was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to RTF 305 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Joseph Straubhaar in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Media Studies in Film at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 1 Notes Media in a Changing World 0 new media tech offer new lifestyles creating new jobs and eliminating others shifting media empires demanding new regulations presenting new social issues 0 big corps compete w journalists FB users garage bands amateur video producers for content on internet analog communication uses continuously varying signals corresponding to the light or sounds originated by the source Merging Technologies 0 moving away from analog communication to digital quotold mediaquot innovate to stay relevant digital tech turns sounds pics text into strings of binary digits bits 0 sources tv radio phone can be combined into one medium like smartphone Changing Industries convergence integration of mass media computers and telecommunications recession of 20072009 hit media companies hard 0 businesses cut back on ads reducing revenue print media hit v hard 0 old media bringing in younger gen to advise best use of new media Changing Lifestyles w new media comes new consumption patterns 0 online video instead of tv internet instead of newspapers etc mediaadvertisers have to create new ways of reaching audiences new media may also displace close human relationships w online ones lower quality of public discourse bc of internet journalists being dumb drag pop culture to new lows Shifting Regulations telecommunications act of 1996 deregulated communications media stripped away regs that protected publishing broadcasting cable and sat tv telephone etc from competing w each other 0 Copyright term extension act of 1998 broadened protection for writers performers musicians and media corps that own rights 0 Net neutrality users not discriminated against based on amount or nature of data they transfer via internet Rising Social Issues 0 TV criticized for impact on sexual promiscuity consumption obesity racism sexism drinkingdrugs and political apathy New media fast replacing tv as no 1 concern Cyberbullying video game violence etc 0 Digital divide new underclass of citizens wout equal access to atesttech Many global actions like protest rebellion etc use twitter FB phones etc 0 Internet can be manip by dictators and terrorists Changing Media Throughout History PreAgriculture Society Ppl lived in small groups huntersgatherers Depended on spoken word and song to transmit ideas 0 Oral tradition v rich epic stories folktales songs etc Agricultural Society 0 Most work on farms or mining shing logging Writing developed in ancient sumeria Only priests and upper classes literate used to keep masses ignorant Industrial Society Invention of movable type made copyingprinting books easier 0 Spread literacy to the lower classes 0 Industry prodhigher wages centered in large cities 0 Mass migration from rural to urban agriculture to manufacturing jobs 0 Newspapers became rst advertising supported medium of mass comm By 1910 US indust society 0 Film radio TV newspaper magazines are characteristic of indust societies Information Society 0 Info soc econ depends primarily on prodconsumption of info 0 Info workers create process transform store info 0 info work dominate workforce marks trans to information society 0 media re ects society that spawns them 0 evolution of media in info soc marked by points when media rst adopted digital tech and points when they became completely digital telephone1st consumer comm Medium to be digitized in 1962 o digitization hit print media in late 60 s now only in nal printing process are wordsimages converted from code to analog image 0 Star Wars started computer movement in lm in 1974 w special effects Most editing now done on comp lming w digital cams CGI lms Theaters use digital sound sys and projectors Video games digi from start dev on comp in 1962 Moved to arcadeshome consoles in 71 then to personal compphones 1st CD reached consumers in 1982 outpaced vinyl moved to mp3s etc cable comps convert to dig to increase of channels and compete w sat services like DirecTV HDTV replaced conventional tv in 09 highdef radio on air in 2004 to compete w sat radio and online streaming VCRs replaced by DVD players in 95 video streaming dates back to 90s Changing Conceptions of the Media The SMCR Model Dev by Shannon and Weaver in 1949 re ned by David Berlo in 60 and Wilbur Schramm in 54 SourceMessageChannelReceiver model Source originator of the communications Message content of comm info to be exchanged Encoder translates message into form that can be communicated Channel mediumtransmission sys used to get message from one place to other Decoder reverses encoding process Receiver destination of the communication Feedback mechanism regs ow of comm bt source and receiver Noise distortion or errors introduced during exchange Can be applied to all forms of human comm tvgood example Network originates message encoded by microphones cameras in TV studio Channel is entire chain of transmitters satellite links cable tv equip required to convey message to your home TV set decoder viewer receiver Gatekeepers decide what will appear in media From 405 to late 805 elite corps of media commentatorsprofessional producers decide what audience receives shape pub opinion and tastes Mass media addressed to widest possible audience w motive to homogenize tastesopinions to further goals of the big wigs Critics of SMCR model call it too linear seeing media as one way ow from creator to audiences when they see communications as more circular interactive even ritual Audiences both choose from and interact w media content Social media challenges SMCR model Types of Communication Classify comm by of ppl communicating lntrapersonal exchange we have with ourselves eg think of next move in game or sing to self in shower type to do list on smartphone Interpersonal two or more ppl eg convo over lunch writing a postcard to a friend phone convo Group three or more ppl but not all comm in a group setting is included Smallgroup fewer than a dozen ppl extends interpersonal comm into sitch where group dynamics are important eg students gathering to study for exam ppl in chat rooms multi user video conference Largegroup from a dozen to several thousand ppl restricts active involvement to only a few of the parties eg lectures concerts live theatre updating twitterfB Many types of comm don39t t neatly into categories of ppl not always good indicator of type of comm involved other classi cations re ect setting of comm or nature of process Organizational Comm takes place in formally structured organizations spans all comm types affected by person s positionfunction in org What Are the Media Now quotnew mediaquot generally associated w interactive tech like internet and video games asynchronous media are not consumed simultaneously by all members of audience de ning aspect of new media digital interactive social asynchronous multimedia narrowcasted narrow casting is practice of targeting content to smaller audiences ability of social media to de ne culture may be eroding power of conventional media liberates creative energies of millions of people makes it possible for viewpoints not accepted in mainstream media to be heard Chapter 2 Media and Society A Media Economics Classical economists believe media the culturesociety and media consumption of indivs re ects economic forces a Mass Production Mass Distribution transition from folk media to mass media came as standardized media products were dist to expanding markets media follow indust Econ model in which pro ts are made by making many copies of prod at lowest possible cost to producer all media strive to prod stuff more ef ciently to reduce costs economies of scale result when unit costs go down as production quantity inc give big media co an advatage dealing w suppliers corporate parent co may order even more for a greater discount suppliers negotiate volume discount so independent companies pay more bc they order less when prod costs drop barrier to entry declines smaller producers can make it b The Bene ts of Competition w comp cost savings from econ of scale can be passed 2 consumers producers compete with each other to have lowest prices make biggest pro t marginal costs incremental costs of each additional copy or unit more units produced less each unit costs competition bene ts consumer media cos have to be mindful to keep costs low enough that consumers don39t switch to something else c Media Monopolies if no competition producers can leave prices however they want w no real reason to offer savings monopoly one company dominates industry amp can set its prices oligopoly a few companies dominate with no comp corps don39t have to invest in product research and can hold back innovations if preserving status quo suits them can take pro ts from a business they monopolize use to dominate other competitive businesses can slash prices below cost to ruin smaller businesses once small competitors are bankrupt big corp can raise prices can afford high entry costs that create barriers to entry big get bigger small forced out of business even more dominance mono in communication media esp bad bc can reduce diversity of content d The Pro t Motive for privately owned media comps profts are most important must turn pro t after paying operating coststaxes plus continuing costs have to pay back investors for entry funds Mark Zuck made billions after years of struggle to dev promote nance social media empire Uses proceeds to buy hardware dev software acquire other companies Rate of pro t must match or exceed what investors could make elsewhere All media have to recoup costs but all do it in different ways Advertising is a typical way that media make pro t When rev from adsconsumers exceed prod costs pro t Reinvest some pro t to make better stuff that even more ppl want repeat e How Media Make Money from consumer must exceed tota spent on content distrib daily operations taxes investment direct sales consumers pay lump sum to buy products they own iPad rentals direct payment for prod but consumer only borrows prod video game Retail outet buys prod from manufac rents out multi times for pro t subscriptions payments for continuing service rather than single prod newspaper mag cable sat usage fees admission fees to movies payper view on TV Advertising main econ base for newspapersmags all commercial TV and radio stations Rates are set in relation to of ppl likely to see ad Syndication rental of content to media outlets rather than consumer License fees compensate creators for use of original ideas songwriters get royalties from internet radio stations Subsidies provided for media considered desirable but not pro table PBS Voluntary donations made by corps private foundations indivs to media that provide public service NPR f From Mass Markets to Market Segments Before desired broadest possible audience now target speci c audience w specialized content Competitions from specialized TV channelsinternet video causes network TV to reach signi cantly smaller audience Information tech has lowered media production costs possible to pro t from smaller audiences Advertisers value small audience if it contain high proportion of target market Researchdatabases of consumer info make it practical to aggregate a large audience of potential customers across multiple narrower media g New Media Economics Segmentation reaches new extreme w personalization Works to advertisers bene t can target ads specif to ppl who are in market for their products Websites run by trad media comps have edge over those run by internet comps Older media have deeper pockets to subsidize unpro table sites can recycle content supported by conventional media cash ow B Critical Studies Crit scholars focus on need for media literacy crit understanding of media structure and its power as well as meaning of its content not just accept media at face val try to understand causes of media changebe skeptical about motives of media industry a Political Economy draws insp from Karl Marx society based on relations bt those who own means of prod and those who work for them owners interests are re ected by media and culture bc dom groups n society want to create underlying consensus of ideology favoring their continued success hegemony use of media to create consensus around certain ideas so they come to be accepted as common sense though consumer needslaw of suppampdem affect media they op in econ system devoted to preserving the ruling classes comm media support status quo bc people who can afford tech are able to participate while those with unequal access cant access to tech is new social strati cation bt havehave not as ads reach new parts of world more ppl are aware of Western brands and may undermine ties 2 traditional culturespur growth of consumer culture commercial messages may impact our innermost desiresperception of ourselves making us feel dependent on products for happiness cultural industries approach recognizes tendency of media giants to control cultural products thru copyrightmarketing also considers implications of preeminence of creative labor in info econ commodi cation of once pub info like census data into buyable product furthers dom of owners of info industry b Feminist Studies focus on oppression of women in maledom society media serves purpose of patriarchy that runs society women earn fraction of what men do too few women appear in media limited to stereotypes bombarded by ads pushing unrealistic beauty standards that drive sale of female products take issue w way media are targeted by gender media for women romance novels soap operas are denigrated as less serious than male counterparts c Ethnic Media Studies much of the same applies to minority race groups portrayed as stereotypes of their race v limited representation racial depictions are form of ideology to keep whiteness associated with dominance and power blackbrown labeled as inferior advertisers undervalue minority audiences d Media Criticism look at media as type of literature apply trad lit crit cultural conventions dictate content of media rather than econ or power focuses on genres categories of work w distinct styleformat probe for verbalvisual symbolisms in media analysis of media content often likened to Freud s interp of dreams since both media creators and viewers rely on images created thru psych process audience in uences selection of content creators have to follow certain conventions to prod media that t expectations of audience C Diffusion of Innovations diffusion process by which an innovation new way of doing things is communicated through media and interpersonal channels over time among members of the community prices are important trad forms of media continually replaced by new tech which are then replaced by newer tech a Why Do Innovations Succeed Rate of diff depends on perceived relative advantages compared to existing way compatibility w existing ways complexity of operation whether it can be tried out before committing time and whether we can see others using it successfully befre we try it b How Do Innovations Spread Diff of comm tech goes through stages We learn about new thing from mediaother people Weigh the merits try it out and then purchase Continue to reassess experience of using new thing and confirmrejectmodify use of it Interactive comm tech diffuses in characteristic way First certain minimum critical mass of adopters is necessary to make it useful c What are the Media s Functions Sociological theories emphasize mutual dependence of media and society Rep middle ground bt cultural determinism and technological determinism Functionalism says society cant function w out media media exists to serve needs of society for example Surveillance media spec in giving info to help w surveillance of environment alerting about important things newspapers CNN FB twitter etc help keep up w goingson in personal life Interpretation info is no use until processedcorrelated w prior knowledge media contrib w talk shows interpreting news headlines blogs commenting on current eventssocial trends Values TransmissionSocialization media assumes role of storyteller teacher People learn cultural valuesimportant shit from movies books Entertainment fairly obvious D Media and Public Opinion a Gatekeeping Gatekeepers manage media and decide what stuff gets presented and how Can crush new ideassuppress news of events ppl might want to know Media outlets compete so if one decides to cut st you can nd it somewhere else New online news sources quotcitizen journalismquot bloggers tweeter challenge convention help determine what is newsworthy b Agenda Setting Candidates can set the agenda but so can media Bestows political power on the media but not allpowerful Sets agenda simply by publishing some stories and not others determines what people will or wont be talking about c Framing Agenda tells you what to think about framing tells you HOW The way a story is presented will determine how the audience perceives the event E Technological Determinism Technology drives social change a The Medium is the Message 0 new comm tech determines culture it is form of media not content that matters theorized that in society s zeal to conquer tech we progress in tech but regress as a culture extend human capabilities in one way cutoff others b Technology as Dominant Social Force pursuit of tech improvement led to social dom of elite tier of scientists engineers managers 0 tech innovations have changed society process of innovation has been accelerated by application of that tech creating self perpetuating growth Chapter 6 Radio A History How Radio Began a Save the Titanic Wireless Telegraphy 1896 marconi created the wireless telegraph 0 when titanic hit the iceberg sent for helping using telegraph radio act of 1912 placed radio licensing under supervision of Dept of Commerce b Regulation of Radio 0 in WWI us navy accelerated radio tech by intervening in patent disputes standardized the tech Marconi wanted to buy patents navy still help temporary control proposed making radio a govt operation c Broadcasting Begins 1st regularly sched radio show in 1920 0 regular radio broadcasts helped sell radios dept of commerice issues 1005 of licenses in 1923 to combat frequ interference david Sarnoff suggested playing music on the radio 0 another vision was entertainment supp by adverts by 27 radio had distinct shape privately owned stations linked into networks that determined program choices 0 radio offered advertisers direct access to the home shaped by commercial interests set pattern for future techother countnes d BBC License Fees and the Road Not Taken 0 British sent ppl to US to study radio saw rush twrd musical entertainment paid for by ads 0 Saw as a waste of culturaledu potential Formed the BBC for news culture edu broadcasts e Radio Networks 0 ATI39 was rst network Govtelec companies objected to domination of both radio and phone 0 Sold to RCAagreed to transmit for all radio networks on equal basis f Paying for Programming the Rise of Radio Networks 0 Networking linked stations together to share costs made each station cheaper Early programming focus on music but incl news comedy drama etc 0 Music primarily broadcast live g Radio Network Power 0 1941 FCC chain broadcasting ruling prohib networks from forcing programming on affiliates put networks out of talent booking business 0 radio was primary info source in WWII propaganda stimulated research into media effects h Competition from Television 0 after 48 TV exploded across US 0 radio was quicklyadversely affected nonmusical programs moved to TV i Networks Fa Disc Jockeys Rule audiencesads went to TV radio needed to attract new audiences shifted from nat to local focus relied on recorded musicnewstalk organized around payist of music focused on partic genreaudience j The FM Revolution 0 growth of FM revived radio in 605 0 had short range reduced interference beginning in 705 radio split into many subgenres made radio more targeted k Loca DJs Decline A New Generation of Network Radio 0 new forms of networks emerged in 905 outlets produced programs for syndication rentallicensing of media products regionalization became dom trend 0 1996 Telecommunications Act permitted radio groups to grow much larger New Genres Alternative Rap and HipHop Radio raphip hop became urban radio formats blacksIatinos dev d rap but blacks more heavily promoted have spread internationally m Radio in the Digital Age sat radio offers way more stations than regular radios internet radio is growing quickly have 10005 of stations 0 allows stations to reach out of town audiences 0 gives air time to music that wouldn39t make it on radio 0 web radio and podcasts are threats can subtract music fans from ad base in their local markets 0 youtube and le sharing are also threats B Technology Trends Inside your Radio a From Marconi s Radio to Your Radio 0 radio was rst wireless comm medium but broadcast TV and cell phones followed harnessed basic principles of electromagnetism b HighDe nition Radio transmits audio that has been converted to computer data 0 increases audio quality inc other info abt the music c Satellite Radio Technology trans music via satellite to receivers bypassing earthbound stations completely d Internet Radio Technology 0 1995 hobbyists ad agencies regular stations created fulltime internet stations 0 internet streaming allow listening in real time e Weighing Your Digital Radio Options 0 HD radio stations becoming more avail sat radio has subscrip fees 0 Internet hotspots make online radio even more avail C Industry Radio Stations and Groups a Radio in the Age of the New Media Giants Econregulatory changed encouraged unprecedented concntration of ownership 0 1996 Telecom act allowed crossownership so cable lm corps got radio stations b Inside Radio Stations 0 vary in sizecomplexity but all have to have admin tech programming sales staff 0 used to be done locally now done by centralized staff has radically reducedjobs in indep radio station manager oversees planning audience dev ratings sales 0 program director supervises air sound DJs announcers 0 music dir plans playlists producers required for talk shows drivetime shows 0 most havea news director syndicators produce programming for resale to other outlets c Noncommercial Radio tend to focus on edu classical music jazz indep rock ethnic music news pub affairs 0 many owned by univedu groups foundations nonpro ts churches etc o mostly FM stations at lower end f dial 0 public broadcasters are abt 13 of all noncomm stations depend on mix of govt institutional and listener support tend to have more newspub affairs programs tend to play unpro table music or have v narrow audiences before 1990 pub radio relied on program supp from Corp for Pub Broadcasting nancial supp from fedstate govt since 90 funding has been steadily cut back pub stations have to depend more on their sponsoring institutions local sponsors contribs from listeners D Genres Around the Dial a Radio Formats rigid formats dom most stations hourly cycle of music ads station promo short news items traffic weather 0 tells DJ when to do what 0 focus on music but provided enough other stuff to meet audience needs 0 not followed as religiously as once was b The Role of Radio Ratings 0 many networks rely on audience research to determine how best to get advertisers ratings studies est how many listeners at any time demographics etc crucial for est commercial attractiveness of new formats or audience groups 0 good ratings may lead oher broadcasters to try same format 0 poor rating may lead to longstanding stationspersonalities undergoing changes c Music Genres and Radio Formats 0 increased competition increases importance of research 0 help avoid overlap in desired audiences ensure they reach target audience 0 may target smaller audiences that are more attractive to advertisers music genres evolve w audiences so radio formats change d Talk Radio 0 many audiences v interested in sports news talk 0 genre subdivided into number of niches like 24hr sports and weather 0 AM sounds quality isn t as high so many stations emph newstalksports e National Public Radio 0 NPR is growing source of newsnews talk radio Majority of support from govt but some from foundationscorporations f Radio Programming Services 0 Favor centralized syndicated or networked programming 0 Many stations buy complete packaged music services designed by experts looking at prospective audience and format options evaluating what has worked before E The Impact of the Airwaves a Who Controls the Airwaves FCC is supposed to use quotpublc interestquot standard to reviewrenew Hcenses Has proven too vague to deny license to misbehaving broadcasters 2006 Cong passed bill to inc nes tenfold to create pressure to follow rules 0 FCC created rules about ownership concentration when several kinds of media or many outlets of same kind of media are owned by single owner and crossownership obscenity indecency role of networks and affiliates b Concentrating Ownership Reducing Diversity Fewer station owners than ever are locals of areas their stations serve Fewer are minorities or female Fewer stations are programmed locally bc group owners supply from central source Counterargument may provide more diversity when one group owns 68 stations in a market it will target each one at diff group Bigger prob is that newsinfo content lack genuine local input or diversity Efforts to inc amt of concentr of ownership allowed by FCC met strong opposition FCC decided not to ght it but still struggs to make new cross ownership rules c You Can t Say That on the Radio Freedom of speech continues to be focus for radio broadcasting Recording industry has been traditionally lightly scrutinized considered analogous to publishing doesn39t involve use of scarce public resource like airwaves has large degree of competition and exposure is theoretically entirely voluntary Radio more scrutinized FCC restricts obsceneindecent speech Music is less scrutinized than talk or comedy Imposed stiffer nespenalties in 2004 due to congressional pressure Speculation abt whether indecency should expand from sex and excretory functions to racial slurssexism d Breaking or Saving Internet Radio Reuse of copyrighted music syndicated talk shows other intellectual prop has been major issue for radio industry Copyright law requ payment for performance of work copyrighted by artist incl playing record on radio Musiclicensing groups are intermediaries bt songwriterscopyright holders and radio stations but not recording artist since they don39t get royalties from radio Stations get licenses in return for fee usually 12 of stations gross income Diff for internet radio have to pay both songwriters and performers at higher rate 2007 called for rate per play to more than double by requiring a fee per song for each listener requ sep 500 fee regardless of station size recording indust sees this as new revenue stream to replace declining CD sales compromise in 09 distinguished bt paid streaming services and largesmall free services all pay initial fee then have choice to pay per song played or at of revenue Chapter 7 Film and Home Video A History Golden Moments of Film Early years lled w experimentation w contentforms major tech innovation disputes over who could usecontrolbene t from inven ons T Edison inv 1st motion pic cam in 1888 Lumiere bros came up w idea of projection on screen Edison and Biograph had superior camprojection tech pooled patents Est single motion pic standard Tried to collect fee from every new lm Indep producers used bootleg equip moved far away from dom comps in NYC Chose Hollywood CA for weatherspace for studios Indust became centered in Hollywood in 1915 old comps lost their control 1st full length feat lm was Birth of a Nation used wellprod outdoor battle scenes closeups cuts bt sequences of ac on most pop lm in US for 20 yr was revolutionary in form but v racist and boycotted by NAACP banned in several states concerned it would incite violence early censorship a How to Use Images Silent Films Set the Patterns 1st golden age of lm was silent lm 19031927 est classic genre formulas for telling stories oriented toward action dramatic visuals lavish sets The Great Train Robbery feat actionsuspense Birth ofa Nation shower battles chases historical scenes b Setting Up a System Stars and Studios Major lms studios eg fox Disney integrate all aspects of proddist From new base in CA several dev d strong indust prod capability Produced movies on almost assembly line Dev d own teams of actorswritersdirectorstechniciansequipment Star system studios use of stars popularity to promote their movies Found that certain actorsactresses got viewers no matter what lm was about Even early silent lms were vis powerful enough to create adorationcontroversy In 205 some shocked w sex themes partial nudity depiction of fast urban life Stardom made priv lives of stars more visible some found their actions scandalous Indust decided to selfcensor b4 it was done by outsiders 1922 studios create Motion Pic Prods and Distribs of America know as Hays of ce created Motion Picture Code voluntary content guidelines selfreg of sex onscreen c How to Use Sound Look Who s Talking almost from start attempts to make movies talk studiosmov houses reluc to invest in sound tech was newexpensive Warner Bros committed to dev sound tech created Theazz Singerin 1927 Had recorded music synched w movie even some dialogue Re ected American racism of time had actor in blackface quotTalkiesquot ended golden age of silent movies acting became less stylized could be carried by dialogue studios had to get skilled at using musicsound effects required in ux of new talent who talkedsangsometimes danced new genres arose that emph the adv of sound new golden age of movies musicals w lavish visualsdancingsinging comedy became more verbal jokessophist bantering added to slapstick sound dramatic vis action combined to address concerns of day crime stories re ected RL incr in org crime that grew w Prohibition lm noir quotdarkquot moody American lms of 405 oft focus on detectives etc tended to be more skeptical even cynical had antiheroes suspense and mystery stories were another genre along w historical epics westerns became ways to expl the American mythcharacter gradually changed from optimisticpositive view of cowboyscavalry soldiers to lms w perspec of Native Ams as quotgood guysquot w new slant on American conquest d The Peak of Movie Impact Cultural impact of movies in US and world in 305405 was strong Most ppl went to movie once a week one ticket got you in and you could stay all day Watched newsreel visual news of world b4 TV news serial dramas cartoons sandwiched b4between feature lms Depression kept some ppl away but also provided form of escapism US movies went internatl foreigners intrigued by modern US life Studios joined together as Motion Pictures Assoc of America MPAA in 305 Had taken control of much of internatl lm distrib business e The Studio System The Pros and Cons of Vertical Integration As pro ts went upmovies became success wave of mergers happened Great Dep killed off many small producersindep movie theatres Strengthened econcontrol of few big studios Concen prod decisions in hands of v few studio execs known as studio system By 1930 stable pattern of studio org emerged 5 major studios Paramount LoewsMGM Warner Bros Fox RKO all owned distrib chains of theatres extensive prod facilities relied on teams of stars and directors who made movies together for them dev d both big feat lms and B movies cheapersmaller made consis pro ts control of proddistribexhib let them ensure their movies were distribplayed widely but was vertical integration and drew attn of fed regulators each studio had own distinct style paramount most pro tablepowerful LoewsMGM sought prestige w new Technicolor musicals made w B movies 20th Cent Fox combined 2 studios made w documentariesnewsreels Warner Bros promoted comedies genre lms RKO prod some notable lms made most from movie housesB movies Several minor Hwood studios of 305405 are now major players Universal Colombia United Artists Struggled bc did not control own distribexhib networks Studio sys peaked after WWII 4648 War ended Great Dep s econ limits return of soldiers created bigger audiences 1946 was peak of audience exposure nancial success for theatrical lms f Coping with New Technology Competition Film Faces Television 1948 1960 as WWII vets moved fams to suburbsaway from city theatres attendance declined after 1948 TV cut into Hwood s theatrical box of ce revenue govt had become concerned w concen of ownership ordered studios to leave at least one aspect of business prod distrib exhib 4 biggest studios MGM Warner Paramount Fox struggled to readjust after selling off theatre chains responded w suburban driveins movie houses in shopping centers 70s lm indust realized they couldn39t beat TV had to join it Disney made content specif for TV like Disneyand WBParamount made much in 50605 w seriesmovies for TV TV networks started ordering content from studiosindep producers bc was cheaper to buy from companies already geared up to create it Later forced to buy from studios due to fed limits on how much programming network itself could create or own Post1961 movies more common on TV Airing movies became way for indep stations to compete w network TV programs Audiences got used to TV demanded more from lm in tech innovation Technicolor was inv w silent era spread slowly w lms By early 605 nearly all lms were in color Wide screen lm also aimed at competing w TV Studios embraced but out tting theatres w new screenexpensivetimeconsuming Film had more controversial material sex and social issues eg racism By 605 indep prod gained more role in prod movies for studios to distrib Studios spent much of own time prod series for TV Studio sys died due to change in tech and new indust competition g Studios in Decline Most studios suffered in SOs605 only RKO went out of business Most changed hands struggled w few hits ColumbiaUnited Artists fared better thn big studios didn39t lose theater businesses WarnerColombia made TV series Universal acquired by MCA also went into TV prod United Artists capitalized on distrib movies for talented indep prod Disney moved into studio ranks w animated features As indep prod got more power several changes happened Audiences became younger more cosmopolitan interest in sensationsocial observ Valuesinterests of teenscollege students began to dom lms New directors pushed into Hollywood Transformed trad Hwood genres oft by incr sexviolencesocial controversy Direcs like Woody Allen made offbeat personal lms that oft became successes Borrowed successful ideas from Europe Experimented w cinematogstyles of storytelling pushed limits of content Films became more politicaltopical Rebellion against morality was part of social change in 605 Hays Of ce closed in 45 though code stayed in force until 66 Local censors muzzled by Sup Ct rulings prods kept pushing lims of acceptability Instead of allowing gov censorship industry again chose to selfreg Content ratings by MPAA jaws 75 amp Star Wars 78 seen as turning pts in return to spectacular bigbudget blockbuster lmmaking Began new golden age Action sequ striking landscapes special eff became advs for movies As sophist Dolby Surround Sound emerged intense sound became adv too Film created new tech advances that TV didn39t equal until 2000 For 1st run distrib to theatres most lms incr targeted at 1524 yr olds Blckbstrs like LotRForrest Gump ensured pro ts for yrs by reaching wide audience Were more expensive spec eff and star sys also raised costs h Hollywood Meets HBO Late705early805 lm indus took incr adv of cable TVrented videotapes for distrib HBO launched in 75 initially relied exclusively on feat lms for content New susperstations WGNWORWTBS and indep TV stations concen on old lms This helped lm indust regain revenue lost to network TV in 505605 VCRsDVDs diffused v fast became primary means of watching movies Vid rental business started w small indep shops Later consolidated w suprmarketsmassive vid rentalsales chains like Blockbuster Spread of vid rentals contrib to both blckbstr phenom and audience segmentation Many ppl rush to get latest hit lm others go straight for anime old westerns old Star Trek eps etc Many B movies now go straight to DVDNetflix where loyal fans wait for them By 705 made4TV movies incr common could be turned into TV series if popular i Movies Go Digital Home vid became driving force w revenue from rentaldirect sales of vids making double that of box of ces That income dropped signif w new forms of digi distrib and 2008 recession Cost of prod major lms skyrockets as prod race to outdo each other w CGI To spread costs over larger aud indust internatlized both ownershipampaudiences Moviemaking at maj studios gravitated toward genres sci action etc Also revival 905mid005 in indep lmmaking outside maj studios Some indep direcs had survived for years others followed in their footsteps Editing techHQ digi cams drove down cost of prod smallindie lms Offered idea of renaissance of lm sep from pressure of Hwood blckbstr mindset Helped that some cheaply made lms made large pro ts Vid rental chains promo d indep lms w special packaging in many stores Idea of quotindep lmquot is relative biggest recent indie juno prod by Fox Searchlight Abt 400 indies made per yr oft starting as school proj nanced by relatives Circulate at festivals around world hoping to strike gold Troubledev lmmakers got after success at Sundance died w 2008 recession Studios also picking fewer indies for distrib lndie lm will inevitably decline if nanc suppdistrib possibilities keep declining Challenges competit from vid games lnternet digital TV for young audiences Studios ght w starsdirecwriters over proceeds from digital rights to content To ght piracy of lstrun lms began offering DLs of some lms on same day as DVD 2010 ruling let studios activate copy protect codes embedded in VOD movies distrib via cable paving way for distrib revolu could bring 1st run lms to living rooms Net ix bringing more lms into homes even as some are being pulled from it studios think they re not making enough frm Net ixRedbox pushes Net ix toward distrib of TVoriginal content studios rely moreampmore on quotfranchise lmsquot to draw audiences incr rely on revenue from more expensive 3DIMAX tickets ticket sales decl in 2010 but rev incr due to high value of these screenings lowcost distrib Hwood majors rushed to make morereformat old ones Helps w some lms but is not permanent solution to compet w other media B Technology Trends Making Movie Magic Edison s kinetoscope was 1st playback mech for masses but one person at a time Lumiere bros originated movie projector in 1895 Other than some adv in lm devprocessing basic tech stayed same for next 25yr Actors words written on screen not spoken live music played in theaters a Movie Sound 1st successful talkie was Theazz Singerin 1927 synced a record w the lm soon found way to record sound on optical track right on the lm photoreceptor picked up light on sound track reproduced them as weak eec currents fed into ampli er and then theatre s speakers latest Digital Theatre Sound sys used CDs to hold sound synced w image bt codes printed on lm surround sound sys have moved into homes simulate sound of theater expenence b Special Effects early aud easy to fool w simple stopaction effects later actors lmed against backdrop of lm projected from behind rear projection mod spec eff oft traced back to 1933 King Kong was 18in furry doll moved 1 frame at a time 1st lm to use front projection actors photo d in front of image to appear part of it stop action compositing merging several layers of images that were shot separately mattes bg photospaintings combined w performers in foreground and scale models are still staples of many spec effects sequtoday c The Digital Revolution computer is taking over spec eff star wars used cpudriven cams to construct space battles 1995 Toy Story became 1st full length cpuanimated hit lm cpugen monsterssets are replacing scale modesl green screens allow actors to be digi inserted into scenes LotR used mocap to record actions of live actor make it look v different Avatar had many major characters that existed only as cpuanimation real cpu revol in Hwood is during postproduction when lms get nal touches editing used to involve unspooling miles of raw footage manually cuttingsplicing now footage is transferred to cpu can be accessed at randomspliced w click of mouse nonlinear editing celluloid lm becoming obsolete w digi cams that record HQ images in dig formats now that cpu are involved in all aspects desktop lmmaking becoming reality small groups of ppl can shoot lms edit on personal cpu w pro software wout hwood actorsdirectorscamerassetskey grips dig lmmaking lowers costs opens indust to students and diverse artistic visions internet serves as distrib for digi lmmakers removes last analog stop in lm prod d Movie Viewing old projector being replaced by digital light processors DLPs use mirrors to re ect pixels onto screen slow to catch on bc is more expensive and has lower resolution but are improving of digital 3D IMAX screens increasing theater may never die but movies incr viewed at home w digi tech internet movie download war rivals music indust con ict torrents allow fast DL of large les indust response pay services like Net ix DL services like AmazoniTunes Net ixVOD driving rental chains out of business Another indust preferred option is to sell digi copies of lms stored in quotcloudquot C The Film Industry Making Movies a The Players 8 maj lm prod Columbia Fox MGM Paramount Universal Warner Bros Buena Vista Disney TriStar Sony most are part of vert integrated conglomerates that dom vid lm proddistrib enormous cost of lms create high stakesenormous pressure to make big hits b Independent Filmmakers most lms 81 now prod outside the studios though many are produced few are being distrib many go directly to video many never released at all nancing through studiosothers has decl so indie prod is decl as well some ind lm companies Tom Hanks s Playtone Drew Barrymore s Flower Films not to be confused w extensive network of indep lmmakers usually prod lms for much less than studiosmajor indep prod companies c The Guilds as 20078 strikes showed craft guilds in hwood still have great deal of power TV can shift to unscripted reality shows but lms require writers Hwood oft responds by going abroad to get around guid ruleslabor costs d Film Finance One way Hwood retains power is by controlling nances Most ms w budget over few mi tends to be at least part funded by studio Sets them up for control over distribother decisions Risk of expensive failure for any lm tends to scare off other types of investors Outside US govt helps nances thru direc invest tax incent coop w prod needs Rising costs tend to keep Hwood central even in other countries e Film Distribution Films trad distrib in series of windows of time linked to speci c channeb Distrib for maj lm theatrical internatl theatrical payperview pay cable DVD rentsales paid DL thru iTunesetc streaming thru Net ixetc network exhib basic cable networks and nally syndication All domestic steps have internatl parallel Windows are compressing to reduce effects of piracy Films tend to be released in USabroad at almost same time Online distrib moved up to get legal copies out at same time as pirate copies Films not worth promo cost of theatrical distrib go straight to video Revenue from theatres is going up after yrs of decline Moviegoing audiences have shifted to under405 Are partic affected by word of mouthinternet so movies w bad reviews may tank sooner after opening a la Green Lantern 3D has incr revenue but also incr prodtheater equip costs internatl audiences becoming more important to hwood bottom line studios concerned abt redbox etc bc low price puts downward pressure on rental income streaming services are rapidly becoming most popular method of watching movies rentalsale of DVDs now driven partially by deleted scenesextra features D Telling Stories Film Content a Team Effort lm driven by directorsproducerswriters plus visual designersphoto directorsmusic directorseditorsspec eff techscasting directors less obvious just as important script readers dev execs market researchers focus groups studio nanciers marketing strategists release strategists Avatar relies on strong performances innovative tech strong directors But also casting of less famous actors striking vis design cinematogmusic etc Complexity org nanc demands of making lm is one reason Hwood dominated for so long remains v important today Most often controlling hand is director most memorable lms re ect artistic vision of direc who choosesdirects ppl who actshootetc Scripts are written read circulated revised etc etc etc b Finding Audience Segments Explosion of new genres began in 505 continues today as lmmakers experiment New genres are created in search of audience segments Basic ones comedy drama action horror sci classics family western animated documentary foreign Blckbsters favor genres where spec effbig budget can be used best actionadventure crime horror drama sci Film content becomes more diverse as audiences become more diverse Films still made to maximize box of ce earnings lnitial earnings give lm its buzzmomentum so studios make movies for the ppl who go out to the theatres Makes younger moviegoer younger more tolerant of sexviolence disproportionately in uential in what kinds of movies get made lncr reliance on social media to create buzz Get word out abt new release faster than trad word of mouth ever could Films now viewed in many ways TV cable home vid streaming Avg amt of time spent watching movies has incr dramatically in last decade E Film and Your Society a Violence Sex Profanity and Film Ratings MPAA is one of most powerful forces in entertainment indust lnstituted ratings sys in 1968 to give ppl idea of what they might see in lm Avoided outside regulation by letting ppl make more informed choices Has several categories G for all ages no sexnudity minimal violence PG parental guidance sugg some parts may not be suitable for young children mild profanity non excessive violence only glimpses of nud y PG13 parents strongly cautioned to give guidance to kids under 13 some material inappropriate for young kids R Restricted those under 17 must go w parentguardian may contain v rough violence nudity lovemaking NC17 no one under 17 admitted gen reserved for lms that are openly pornographic though some mainstream lms get this rating Many debate appropriatenessutility of ratings Some argue they violate free speech of lmmakers Others say they just excite interest of younger viewers Many theatre managers know teens are main moviegoers are lax on restrictions Films that might once have been R now squeak by as PGl3 Nc17 lms don39t ten to do well so lmmakers will edit their movies as much as they have to to get R rating Ratings sys allowed lmmakers to keep making movies w explicit sexviolent content bc people are alerted to avoid it if they want to Movies usually rated R for sexual contentprofanity PGl3 usually by far most violent in amtintensity Study shows parents care most abt shielding kids from scary violence raters care more about sexprofanity Ratings not dependable bc not consistent from movie to movie Alt option is ClearPlay which auto edits out sexviolence in DVDs as they re played by skipping over time codes on disc that correspond to offensive material b Viewer Ethics Film Piracy Films have been relatively easy to copy since videotape tech came around in 805 lntro of VCR tech made fear that piracy would keep ppl from paying for tickets MPAA tried to prevent diffusion of videotape tech in fear of mass piracy When that failed they demanded enforcement of laws against illegal copying As law cracked down on piracy more ppl started renting legit copies from online outlets lndust wants to discourage piracy at consumer level Consumer may make copy of lm being broadcast for their own personal use May not sellrent to others or copy from one cpu to another In most cases digi copiesDVDs have safeguards to prevent copying MPAA is concerned about torrents tries to put sites out of business Most recent attempt SOPA seen as too intrusive into online freedom fought down in Congress by online campaign pushed hard by internetcpu indust interests Big issues in piracy is copying by ppl who sellrent the illegal copy Defrauds copyright holders of revenue from potential customers Only legal copies give royalties to compensate for costwork that went into movie Ppl copying tapes on large industrial scale are ones mainly targeted by officials MPAA has had success in getting foreign govts to crack down on piracy abroad US govt applies pressure to enforce existing internatl copyright agreements There are many safeguards in place to prevent people from lming during rstruns into theatres as well Chapter 8 Television A History TV Milestones a Television is Born Didn39t begin to ourish until post WWII 1st big netw TV star Milton Berle demand for tv channels grew so fast FCC put temp freeze on new stations 1948 to come up w plan Dragged on to 1952 bc of complications from new color TV Sixth Report and Order 1952 expanded VHF tv band opened new UHF band set aside channels for edu broadcasting Only VHF stations prospered bc had much stronger signals Effectively lim of natl netw to the big 3 ABCCBSNBC bc most cities only had 3 vhf channels available David Sarnoff NBC William Paley CBSradio pioneers Put talentsponsors dev d by radio netw at disposal of early TV producers Advertisers ocked to it sponsored whole shows named after them mid505 tv was leading ad medium in US b The Golden Age late 405 early 505 tribute to live drama anthologies had diff charstory each week dealt w thoughtprovoking subj matter newspub affairs programs also hallmarks of golden age c Into the Wasteland golden age died as audiences shifted ratings ruled by 1956 tvs in 23 of us homes 95 of stations wee affiliates who carried netw feeds of big 3 wider audience didn39t like anthologies as much as original viewers sponsors wanted more upbeat lead ins to their ads could buy shorter slots focused on buying audiences cost per thousand how much commercial costs relative to of viewers that see it in thousands econ success in tv half ratings half production costs sitcoms were cheaper than dramavariety shows quiz shows w no scriptprofessional actors now called realityeven cheaper kids in early 505 jumped off roofs to imitate superman demonstrated effect TV had lead to 1st hearings abt effects of tv on kids 1961 American tv called quotvast wastelandquot of mediocre programs still had golden moments kennedyNixon debates Vietnam War etc d Television Goes to Washington regulators in Wash had to balance good from TV w damage it could cause needed to break big 3 s oligopoly 1970 FinSyn pushed networks out of syndication business 1970 Prime Time Access Rule closed 78p slot to networks hoped to incr diversity stim production competit as major lm studios TV divisions pro ted from synd another way to break olig was to offer noncommercial alternatives 6th RepampOrd allotted 1005 of channels for edu TV no way for public funding was provided they struggled TV contentstructure was no policy agenda Rise of urban violence 605705 blamed on violent tv e The Rise of Cable Cable tv spread as operators built netw of microwave antennae that picked up broadcasts from major market Tv stations relayed them to smaller communities Threatened local indep UHF stations often carried same kind of content To protect them FCC ruled cable systems must carry all nearby broadcast signals Banned cable from 100 largest major markets in 1966 Reversed the ban in 1972 mandated new sys have at least 20 channeb That w dev of sat distrib allowed HBO to create 1st natl pay TV netw Basic cable lled w local stations distant signals distrib natlly via sat Multiple system operators large cable comps that own mult cable sys fought over cable franchise rights in the top 100 cities Cable seemed to expand wasteland used old program formulas played reruns f The Big Three in Decline Weakened when they changed owners in mid805 new bosses cut staff to incr pro ts Cable extended audience coverageviability of UHFs FCC incr of stations one corp could own to 12 Made possible to create natl netw built round collection of maj market UHFs Rupert Murdoch did it in 87 started Fox netw Used 20th cent fox lm studio as base started trend toward vertical integration Finsyn rules lifted netw allowed to prodsynd own programs Encouraged more new netw but wasteland still apparent New netw largely imitated the big 3 1992 Cable Act forced programmers to offer services on equal basis to competing distrib systems win 4 yr direct broadcst sat operators DirectvDish became alt tv deliv sys made cable channels avail to sat tv subscribers bcast ratings still declining Telecommunications Act 1996 relaxed media ownership rules triggered mergers Married bcast netws to cable tv musicprint publishing internet movie studios g Television in the Information Age B Te Spread of DVRs iPads streaming vid games etc free audiences from bcast tv sched 2007 recession strained bcast tv business model prod costs kept incr basic cable shows attracted larger audiences streaming lets ppl watch on own time not wkly basis like netwads want tv comps offering ways to watch their content online netw tv ad business rebounding for netw like CBS that have toprated shows not happening for those like NBC who dont chnology Trends From a Single Point of Ligm a Digital Television is Here original goal was to improve viewing w clearerwider picture better sound bcasters hoped it would revive pro ts attract more viewers SDTV and HDTV are both digital TV Allows multicasting transmitting up to 4 SD signals simultaneously on 1 channel New viewing options from on demand video Tv provider can be phone comps cable op internet provider etc b Video Recording Helical scanning paved way for home VCR DVR crosses VCR w computer hard drive TiVo name assoc w these most now rented by cablesat comps rather than sold DVR is easy to use can skip commercials Threatens commercial bcasters and basic cablesat channels c Video Production Trends Cameras keep shrinking for easier portability Portable cams expand coverage of live events Elec news gath sys transm footage to studio via antennae Other footge arrives via sat stored on servers 0 Take adv of digi lm prod techniques that have been adapted by TV d Interactive TV Interact programs have pattern over years quiz shows audience particip gimmicks choose your own endings etc etc etc 0 DVR offers limited form of this allows skipping ads instant replays e Internet TV Soc media is way to attracthold highly involved audiences 0 Follow friends links to vidstv shows 0 Internet capable TVs intro d to take adv of streaming sites 0 Anyone w broadband can access internet tv by going to those sites downloading software that plays the vids lntegr of cputv might make TV remotes obselete Cell phonesipadsmotion sensing controllers can take their place f 3D TV 0 Success of 3d blckbstr Avatar renewed interest in 3d TV 0 First appeared in US in 2010 Relies on same tech as 3d lms w 3d glasses 0 Cost of extra pairs can be barrier to entry for ppl who want to watch tv in groups 0 Viewing wout glasses possible w lenses on tv screen prob better for cpu viewing C Industry Who Runs the Show Indust dereg converging tech mergersbuyouts erase clear sep bt comps that proddistribexhib tv programs a Inside the Big Five 0 Time Warner Disney National Amusements ViacomCBS News Corp Comcast Vert integ congloms combine lmvid prod natllocal distrib etc 0 Top managers come from nance eld not entertainment 0 Other major players particip in only 12 aspects of tv industry 0 Force behind urge to merge is synergy getting multiple bene ts from integr prod and various forms of distrib b Video Production i Entertainment 0 Most talent not fulltime employees of netwprod comp Hired on jobbyjob basis part of guilds labor unions Netw contract w prod comps for rights to 1st run of shows Typically pay for 2334 of prod cost W abolition of Finsyn in 93 most netw entrntnmt programs are prod in house or coowned by netw The restpurchased from prod comps assoc w rest of big 5 0000 O 0 Reality shows cost less bc no prof actorsscriptselaborate sets 0 Use nonunion labor pay much much lower salaries 0 1st run synd programs rented to 0amp0 netw netw affils cable indep stations 0 each of big 5 has subsid that prod programs for 1st run synd ii Network News 0 differs from print journalism 0 news often reduced to short sound bites lack depth 0 visual nature favors stories w gripping visuals blood war etc 0 ratings may cause tv to avoid controversial topics that alienate viewers have little value in synd producers have to make all in 1st run 0 big 3 prod evening newsmagzine shows thru in house news division 0 netw cut many correspondents lowered costs post mergersrecession o rely on footage from local affil foreign netw indep stringers phone vids iii Local News 0 most prog prod by local stations either newscasts or magazine shows 0 local newsmajor pro ts nearly half of all station revenues 0 popular w local audienceadvertisers revenue goes direc to local 0 station iv Sports 0 netw buy rights to broadcasts from sports leagues pay dearly for it o netw can still pro t by incr affil fees from cable operators v Public TV most PBS programs prod in Boston SanFran LA NYC DC indep producers and BBC account for the rest Corp for Pub Bcast funnels tax money for funding Follows centralized model like netw execs decide what to devair natlly Producers depend on fund from CPB member contrib corp underwriting in return for mentioning corp on air public contrib foreign cospons vi Cable Production 0 Natl cable netw use same content acquisition strat as natl bcast netw 0 Local productionimited 0 Many prod own origination progr created win community by cab operator 0 Resemble tv stations prod local newssports for adsupp channeb c National Television Distribution 0000 O Tv progr distrib natlly by either netwsynd Bcast and cable netw differ in how they nance natl distrib i Commercial Networks 0 CBSNBCABC joined by Fox the CW MyNetworkTV lon Univision o All devsched progr for natl aud distrib via sat pro t from ads 0 Big3Fox make tons of drained by payments for sports rights prod fees talent salaries taxes routine expenses 0 Netw often have huge net losses offset by pro t from other businesses cable netw locally ownedoperated stations 0 Fees from cable operatorsonline netw hulugrowing source of revenue ii Basic Cable Networks 0 Derive revenue from natl ad sales affiliate fees 0 Af l fees paid by cable ops on persubscriber basis 0 Many also sell local ad spots iii Premium Services 0 HBOlargest premium cable netw o Derive revenue exclusively from af l fees much higher than basic fees 0 PPV progr delivered by sat nanced by af l fees 0 Spread of digi cable brings new ppv options like vid on demand iv Public Broadcasting 0 PBS doesn39t call self netw but has many of same functions 0 Eg devdistrib lineup of progm natlly via sat o No ad sales but PBS does funnel to natl progr dev v Syndication 0 Local stations ll sched w synd progr 0 Incl 1st run synd progr licensed direc to stations offnetw synd reruns o Syndicators oft get rights to progr license to local stations 0 Stations may pay outright cash pay reduced price and show ads arranged by syndicator cashbarter pay nothingampgive synd more ads to sell barter o Synd contracts are exclusive only one station per market has rights to progr d Local Television Distribution Local distrib was excl job of local stations now cable TVsat sys also play role Station is org w fed license to createorg progr for specif community transmit them on assigned channel Categorized by ownership arrangements relations to natl netw i GroupOwned Stations 0 Op by comps w multi bcast properties 0 Bene t from econ of scale in management progr ad sales 0 Monopolies prev by lim on stations one group can own O O Duopoly owning 2 stations in same market permitted in large markets but not small ones Big 5 except Time Warner are group owners 0amp0 stations concen in maj markets where they are maj pro t centers for parent ii Network Af liates O O O O O 0 Common misconcepTV netw own all their local outlets Aside from 0amp0 oca distrib of netw prog done by af liates Indivgroup owned stations w contract w netw to show its progr ocay Af ldesired bc of ratings draw of netw prime time shows Loca stations pro t from sale of local ad spots that run during netw progr Half of station revenue is from local ads half from natregiona ads Latter arranged by rep rms intermed bt local stationsads in other cities Af lesp pro t bc big3 paid af ls to take their shows af l compensation Now netw starting to charge for progr either at fee or of retrans fees iii Independent Stations 0 O 0 Not af l w any netw Buy most progr from synd services se ads in ocaregionanat markets Relatively few remain now that there are 8 netw iv Down at the Local Station 0 O Vary in size from dozen employees to several hundred Regardless of size all commercial stations have common set of key roles org around basic tasks of obtainingtransmitting progr that attract audiences Progr dir arranges contracts w netwsynd lls overa bcast sched Loca newsimportant source of account for most local progr resources Stations hire news dir assgnmt editors news writers onair ppl cam crews Promo managers draw audiences w onair promos use adsPRwebsites to make stations more visible to public Ad sales are lifeblood of ever commerc TV station Sales dir manages staff of account execs who make sales calls to ocaads Contracts w rep rm to sell ad blocks thru natregiona ad agencies Traf c manager makes sure ads air at right times o Stations contract w Nielsen Media Research to provide ratings data 0 Large stations have own rsrch dir who analyze ratings conduct mrkt studies 0 Engineers keep station on air maintain transmitterstudio equipment 0 Finance dept tracks revenueexpenses for station mgr e Noncommercial Stations Community stations rely on indivcorp contrib Edu stations usually affil w local uni also get from statelocal govt PBS stations pay for progr from PBS as well as synd progr No ad sale revenue have managers that stage on air mbrshipauction drives solicit contribs from private indivs and local foundations Also seek corp underwriting of localnatl progr f Television Advertisers Diff type of Tv advertisers w diff needs Natl ads sell generalconsumption stuff like soda Buy ad blocks from natl bcast netw during upfront season spring netw sell ad times for next season s shows Time not sold then goes to spot mrkt then scatter mrkt for last minute ad sales Natl spot adsregional ads sell stuff w more lim geogr appeal like snow tires Buy spots thru ad rep rms from netw affil and indep stations Local ads like car dealerssupermarkets buy slots during locally prod shows or those allocated by the netw to their local af l during netw progr D Genres What s on TV Genres re ect negotiation bt artistaudience over what s engagingentertaining TV genres evolved to pursue audiences that interest advertisers Also evolved in response to changing economies of production a Broadcast Network Genres Before reality shows grew on bcast netw now scripted comedies making comeback Almost anything tht appeals to important 1849 yr old demographic stays on air Drama can be div into med legal police drama Some hinge on interplay of plot and character dev Many sitcoms chars are static only sitch changes from week to week Others chars dev and story revolves around their interactions Others weekly stories woven into continuing plot lines Genres dev in response to changes in audience tasteorig creative ideas b What s on Cable Use counterprogr to chip away at netw prime time audiences w targeted progr Balance progr intended to attract broad aud throughout day translating bcast tv daypart strategy to cable genres vary over course of day to match aud availability Cable known for niche channels dedicated to specif interestsgroups of viewers Works bc adsupp cable netw supplement income with affil fees from local cable sys Ads will pay premium if aud includes high of viewers interests in their products Genre channels extend particular genres to occupy fulltime channels CNN EPSN Others built around aud characteristics target audience channels Lifestyle channels aimed at ppl w common interestway of life Cable channels quick to spin off genre variations around hot themes Cable netw progr can now compete w bcast netw c PBS Programming Not as ratings driven as commercial tv but still need aud to attract corp underwriters voter support for continuing govt subsidies Focus on cumulative ratings re ect viewership over week or month Gives freedom to specialize in diff genres than commerc bcasters Documentaries highbrow cultural progr anthologies don39t survive on netw tv d Programming Strategies Assumption is that tv is deeply ingrained habit ppl sit to watch tv not specif progr Key to ratings success is to be least objectionable choice at any time of day Progr execs build ratings by maintaining ow of viewers from one progr to next May sched progr in blocks of same genre New show s chances incr by following it w highly rated show or inserting it bt 2 strong shows Local stations rely on running same progr at same time every day stripping and rotating programs in particular time slot checkerboarding Competitors try to disrupt audience ows Stunting changing timeslotlength of progr adding highpro le guest stars running intense promos scheduling specials to disrupt establish viewing habits May go headtohead run progr of same genre at same time or counterprogram progr from completely diff genre catering to diff audience New media enviro causing these to lose ef cacy quotbcast plus 3 ratings method lets bcasters to count viewers watching recordings Min 3 days of orig bcast E Out of the Wasteland a The New Television Hegemony restrictions prevent excess horizontal integr that limits diversity of progr still big 3 cover same stories w similar footageslant objectivity of news determined by corp interest commercialization of news content big 5maj prod of entertainment progr in culturepub affairs TV indust trying to avoid mistakes of music indust that let online distrib ruin them Bcasters offer DLs of progr from sites like Hulu and from own inhouse sites Diversity may be improved by assuring more diverse ownership of TV stations Can hope Internet will foster diversity might drive us toward new Big Media giant Policies gov Tv are subj of intense lobbying by powerful indust groups drown out smaller voices Can support advocacy groups or chooses sources of content not dom by big media b Is Television Decent Bcasters say it s unfair they re subject to decency laws bt cable isn t Rationale is that bcasts enter household unbidden via pub airwaves but viewers must pay for cable If viewer nds cable indecent can unsubscr or by lockout devices One of few places where avg viewer can take direct action that has impact Can le complaint w FCC if we see st offensive and they investigate c Children and Television Regulation oft run up against 1st amend so indust selfreg is inevitable Never effective in long run bcasters insist it s parents job to mind their kids Telecomm Act 96 requires Vchip enables viewers to block programming 0 Alternative ensure supply of edu kids programming 0 Track recording for quotcleaning upquot tv is poor but groups still try d Will Public Television Survive Fate hangs in balance every yr when Cong approves annual for CPB Critics question need in light of abundant edukidscultural progr elsewhere Defenders suspect real target is pub affairs progr on PBS w quotliberal biasquot 0 State govt contribs abt same amt as fed govt but is drying up bc budgetde c s Public donations abt 25 of funding also declining e Television Needs You 0 Can make own TV show post on YouTubeetc Many have professional hours of preppostprod behind them 0 Still great way for aspiring starsproducersdirectors to showcase work Chapter 13 Video Games A History Getting Game a Opening Play lf video games games played on tv screen lst was Chase 1967 If video games digital played on visual display created by digital cpu then 1st was Spacewar 1962 b Home Game Games entered home to capitalize on arcade game craze 1st home console was Odyssey video game market crashed in 77 2ncl gen incl Atari consoles stored games let consoles play multiple game encouraged indie dev ers to make cartridges for best selling consoles glut of consoles price war competition from PCs and indie dev ers lame games led to 2nCI crash in 83 forced all console makers of that era to sell out or go bankrupt c Personal Computers Get in the Game Commodore 64 early PC major role in bringing vid games into homes By the end of 805 PC5 had color displays sound graphics Cpu games became main reason to buy home cpu Before internet online services connected users to multiplayer games DampD inspired cpu versions played on internet and on single cpus Early online services charged per hr for v slow game connections Early online games were either text based or had only crude images made from keyboard characters Reports of nancialfamily ruin due to excessive gaming began emerging 93 virtual quotrapequot drew attn to online gaming community quotEverQuestquot opened in 99 de ned MMORPGs d Gear Wars 85 3rd gen consoles kicked off NES was personal cpu in a sense had same cpu chip as early home cpu lntro d new business model to vid game indust sold game system at a loss made pro t on software 4th gen consoles debutde in mid 805 w built in CD players 5th gen machines initially disappointed expensive amp overhyped 6th gen kicked off in 99 w Sega Dreamcast consoles stayed ahead of most PCs w advanced graphicsprocessor components PCs remained viable game machines w improved audio and CD Roms By mid 905 cpus able to keep up w consoles e Games and Society We Were Not Amused Concern abt sex and violence impacting kids 0 1st public outcry in 76 bc of Death Race 2000 0 improved graphics in 3rd gen led to more graphic violence gorier version of Mortal Kombat sold better than less gory one showed commercial appeal of graphic violence 0 for a while game indust policed self praised for it 0 calls for censorship renewed after Columbine 2 teens obsessed w violent game criticized for lack of games for girls sexist stereotypes f The New State of Play 0 game software indust is bigger than either netw TV or lm 0 gear wars continue trying to one up each other w better tech 0 conventional console business model is under stress 0 fans have incr expec abt production values 0 game dev budgets are soaring top designers treated like Hwood producers blockbuster mentality emerging means fewer more expensive games o threatened by new distrib methods like iphone games that don39t require purchase of packaged software Tablet games that use tablet as both screen and controller challenge older platforms 0 Game apps downloads social media games re ect trend toward casual games 0 Can be played to conclusion in short period of time unlike MMORPGs Has led many to adopt freetoplay models pro t by selling enhanced features B Technology Trends The Next Level a Generations 1st gen games had programs hardwired into console 2ncl gen was cartridge machine games wired inside cartridge expensive to produce 0 graphics were crude limited color sound was mostly beepsbuzzes gear wars largely de ned by of cpu bits that console could process simultaneously 0 NES 3rCI gen8 bit Super NES 4th16 bit Playstation 5th3264 Xbox 6th128 7th gen consoles use multi parallel processors that work in tandem of bits determines resolution of graphicsspeed images are projected onto screen 0 7th gen create hi def images need to be esp powerful graphics accelerators speed up rendering of images can generate new images in response to controller input 0 game storage cartridgesbuilt in cpu memoryCDs DVDs BIuRay later gens can store movies and have internet connections 0 PCs as game machines either start w most adv PC or upgrade stndrd w high end parts 0 Add custom controller BIuRay drive headphones HDTV outperform consoles Can cost 10005 consoles cost 1005 0 Security measures are crucial component of the technology 0 Games made by outside dev ers wont play unless designers has signed licensing agreement w console maker that allows them to share in revenues o Engineers making unauthorized games can beat this but it takes time 0 Latest consoles have modi ed CD reader allow security codes on discs to prevent playing on standard home CDDVD players b No More Consoles Outgrowth of cloud trend allows players to game wout consoles Streams game through browser plug in or DL for low monthly fee 0 Smartphones tablets lnternet Tvs are potential console killers c No More Button Pushing Joysticks were popular controllers for 1st and 2nCI gen but were uncomfortable NES controller was much more comfy Now large variety of controllers some built around speci c games 0 Latest trend make your body the controller 0 Wii remote was big innovation senses gestures of player amp converts to action in game Kinect uses cams to track players motions quali es as form of virtual reality 0 Next gen will read lips detect emotional responses by analyzing facial expressions 0 Brain wave and eye tracking controllers are in dev Touchscreens are used in handheld and tablet gaming d No More Screens Vid games originally dev as TV accessories transitioned to HD 0 1st medium to make 3D possible w out glasses augmented reality tech allows game world to invade real world e No More Rules 0 Fun of gaming is in mastering trickstraps of new titles 0 Once mastered repetition gets boring we look fwd to new versions 0 Bring arti cial intelligence into game allows it to change and adapt as you play 0 Most common kind is a game that gets harder as you play o More adv forms add new events to game story evolves as you progress 0 characters learn from your behavior make decisions that are not just preprogrammed paths through the game C Industry The Game Players surpasses music netw Tv and movie industries in terms of total revenue 0 major segments consumer electronic companies make game gear developers design the games publishers make game software retailers sell games to public 0 relationships among them vary according to platform involved console handheld PC online or casual game a Gear Makers 0 Nintendo is world leader in manufacturing game consoles Gear makers incl 3rd party manufac of custom controllersamphighend game desktops Arcade games have lost popularity since mid 905 when consoles passed them in graphics quality Namco Bandai PacMan Konami DDR and Sega have survived b Game Publishers Analogous to movie studios and record companies 0 Hardware manufacturers maintain central role in software manufac by retaining own inhouse game publishers 0 Nintendo is own publisher for Wii Sports is leading game publisher overall 0 Top indie pub is Electronic Arts devs own games distribs 3rd party games 0 Top selling games of all time are those that came bundled w consoles Other titlesPC games soldrented thru retail outlets Online games bought direc from pub or thru retail stores 0 New distrib channels threaten streaming games game apps casual games on FB 0 Ads in games sale of virtual goods in games are signif new source of revenue 0 Game engines Important software everyone uses not marketed to general public 0 Program that makes charsobjs move on players screen and do what they re supposed to 0 Game dev ers license tools that help w speci c gamegraphics features musiclightingtextures Middleware growing segment packages variety of tools needed for game dev c Game Developers Combined skills of graphic artists and cpu programmers to create game software Leading game publishes have in house design studios Game pubs distrib the work of 3rd party dev ers w varying degrees of autonomy from publisher from whollyowned subsidiaries to recurring informal partnerships 10005 of indie game dev ers indivs or small teams dev games and hope they re picked up by major publisher some dev ers specialize in making assets assembled in games dev d by others mods change features from adding new weapons to altering basic struc of game play d Selling the Game originay distrib thru coinop arcade machines and toy stores now game retai resembles home video market specialized outlets compete w big box retailers and game renta operations many players buy used games from physical and onine retailers onine distrib is important outlet for indie game dev ers channels for indie games sponsored by each of major game hardware manufacs other indies dev informal games distrib as freeware or sell on ebay Video Game Genres Rules of the Game in top 10 bestsellers puzzle game sports games RPG racing game platform games shooter game beyond that wider range of genres found but no agreement abt which are quotmainquot genres and how many subgenres should be recorgnized many games are abstract have no plotnarr structure even games that use settingssymbolsthemes found in lm genres usually ack pot can adopt genres of 2D board games race space chase displace theme race proceed in linear fashion start to nish goal is to be rst to reach the end space involve aligning game pieces in particular pattern chase asymmetrical contest goal is to avoid capture displace goal is to annihilate opponent theme engage players in simulations of real world activities eary games were oft built around single type of interaction capturing ghting driving shooting now complex games involve many types of interactions distinguish genres from other game characteristics like hardware platform PlaystationWii or consolehandheldPC mode single or multiplayer 1st or 3rd person lvl of involvement hardcore or casual visual setting science ction or horror E Spoiling the Fun Video Game Literacy a Beyond Barbie enduring challenge dev games that appeal to females early days games attracted largely male audience are still majority of console gamers onlinecasual games appear to be more pop w females games are designed to appeal to straight white men on surface female char are sexy underdressed and overly submissive action and worlds game designers create way chars are framedcarry themselves re ects male perspective of world b More Addictive than Drugs Cases of gamers dying after dayslong sessions wout food or water Excessive game play may incr risk of childhood obesity quotPlaystation palmsquot repetitive stress injury from playing for hours on end most attn in US on effects on social dev of kids whether internetgame addiction is actually addiction is controversial studies are often surveys where kidsstudents ID symptoms that might not pass scrutiny of trained psychologist examining them in person don39t always require presence of dire consequences that make condition sedous problem cases found in clinical studies may be result of underlying pathology amt of game play does not indicate addiction but how much it interferes w life c More Harmful than TV Content is heavily laced w violence sex stereotypes In TV violence is often punished while games use violence as an end in itself ESRB provides content rating for parents choosing games for their kids Effectiveness is iffy regulations aren t well enforced d Serious Games Evidence that gaming has positive effects upside to exploring edu bene ts Until now most interestfunding has come from defense depts Around world Simulators are effective way to teach soldiers at lower cost than actual drills 0 Evidence that playing action games can improve visual attn Can produce situated learning immerses player in custom simulation of real world environments in which they will eventually be expected to perform 0 Some call them quotpersuasive gamesquot comparable to verbal arguments in convincing ppl to change their ways 0 le any game can have persuasive impact even if it s not primarily educannal 0 Tiny segment of gaming market 0 Kids soon tire of predictable edu game play Obstacle considerable rst copy costs Media Now Ch 14 Ch 4 Media Uses and Impacts A Bashing the Media One on hand critics cite new evidence of harmful effects in endless stream of violence sex hate coming from media On other hand media criticize the research blame parents say its not their job to x society hide behind 1st amendment promise to regulate selves better When research links vid games to real world violence there are Congress headngs Industry responded w voluntary ratings but rating focus on sex not violence and game stores are lax abt selling to minors Media effects changes in cognitions attitudes emotions behavior resulting from exposure to mass media One of main impacts of TV on kids found by prev gens was that kids spent less time socializingplayingreading B Studying Media Impacts a Contrasting Approaches Several basis approaches to interp media impacts inductive v deductive reasoning critical vs administrative research qualitative v quantitative research Many soc scientists begin w theory based on law of causeeffect derivededuce predicts abt media impact from theories of human behavculture then test predicts thru observation Results either support or refute leads to new theoretical paradigms Mass media exposure gen viewed as quotcausequotindependent variable Seen as trigger for mental procbehaves that are quoteffectsquotdependent variables Another paradigmmore inductive scholars observe ppl s real life interact w media and each other then induceinfer theories abt interactions Ethnographers worry abt existing theories blinding them to seeing peoples behav as they see it themselves Administ research takes exis media institutes for granteddocuments useeffects Critical res criticizes media inst from perspective of the ways they serve dom social groups Most res descry in chapter is admin bc it fails to critique basic found of media inst Crit theorists favor interpinduct methods drawn from hist fem studies cult anthro Marxist polit econ theory literary crit Quantitative methods used to enumerate ndingsanalyze statistical relationships bt indep and depend variables Qualitative methods used to infer relationships by studying symbols in media content or observing behav in natural settings b Content Analysis Content analysis characterizes content of the media Begin w systematic samples of content apply objective de nitions to classify wordsimagesthemes Created detailed pro le of contentID trends over time Cannot be used to draw concl abt effects of media bc audiences often perceives media diff than researchers Timeconsuming some researchers oft take lim sample from maj media outlets De nitions can be problem who decides what quali es Quantit content ana counts acts of violence qual exams how acts should be viewed c Experimental Research Studies media effects under carefully controlled conditions Small group sees media presentation that emphs one partic kind of content Exp subjs must be randomly div bt two groups to min impact of indiv diffs bt suMs Value of such carefully controlled design is that it rules out competing explanations for results Smallunrepresentative samples raise Qs abt generalizability degree to which results apply to other popssettings Measures usedconditions under which exps are conducted don39t rep real world Validity is degree to which ndingsmethods re ect true phenom under study wout distortion Reliability is degree to which methods prod stable consistent results Exps may be unrealist bc they often involve more intense content than are likely to be encountered in real world are oft presented as disjoined segments wout context d Survey Resea rch Media effects are inferred by statist relating indep measures of media exposure to dep variable of interest If there is measure of assoc bt two variables they re correlated Survey studied oft more generalizable bc samples rep larger pops Provides ambig evidence abt causeeffect ln med effects research most valid surveys are longitudinal study same subjs repeatedly over of years Few studied are rep over time most are oneshots that compare media exposure and behav but ignore causal relationship Med effects may not be generalizable across culture bc social valuescontent vary e Ethnographic Research Naturalistic way of looking at impacts of communic media Adapts partic observ and interviewing to look at cultures in holistic way Places media in broad context of users livescultures Emphs observ over time to see how ppl respond to changes in their enviro Focus groups are way of capturing ppl quotin their own wordsquot thru group interact Free owing but guided discuss that prod long transcripts not neat statist tables Used to explore new research topicsgenerate new OS for surveys Also used to prod raw data needed to form induct theories of media processes Sometimes hard to nd participants even w signif monetary incentives Ppl who show up don39t rep gen public but do give idea abt opinbehav of group Ethnos use unstrucsemistruc interviews as alt to surveys Surveys make possible to compare many ppl thru standardized 05 may impose response categories eg mult choice OS on respondents Ethnos let partic respond in own words follow up w indepth Qs Can yield detailed info abt partic place at partic time not good for generalizations Diff types of research are good for telling us diff things important to explore issues w variety of methods C Theories of Media Usage To understan media impact need to understand how media work way into ourHves a Uses and Gratifications Theory that media are actively selected to satisfy needs for knowledgesocial interactdiversion Focuses on grat we seek and grat we get If we use certain media to grat need for soc interact and get that grat we are likely to use that media again If we don39t get grat we wanted might seek out other means Media behav changes bc grats we seek from media are in constant state of ux Life may change and with is changes the criteria we use to select media May seek media to adjust our moods ful ll aesth urges to apprec works of art b Learning Media Behavior Usesgrat theory parallel 2 gen theor of human behav social learning theory and Theory of Planned Behavior Soc learning theor explains media consump in terms of expected outcomes Observ of others exper is import we learn by listening to what other say abt media Explains avoidance of media if we expect neg consequ Media behav also determined by own selfregulation Also by habit suspend active observ of own media behav and automatically do it Another factor is selfefficacy our percep of own competence to consume media Issues of selfeffic can preempt certain kinds of media use like old ppl not liking comps i Media Addiction 0 Interact media esp enticing bc they respond to our every move 0 Sometime do what we want sometimes not keeps us coming back for more 0 Internetvid game addiction proposed as new kind of mental illness 0 Symptoms like preoccupation w facebook pro le merely indicate formation of media habits c ComputerMediated Communication Much research on mediated interpersonal comm orig in org settings where comp networks were used for all forms of electronic communication Field of study is called compmed comm incl media not immediately assoc w computer networks like video conferencing and email Presence is a psych state where virtual obj are experienced as actual objects Social pres refers to exp of social actors thru social cues provided in comm media D Theories of Media Impacts a Media as Hypodermic Needle Bullet or hypodermic model posits powerful direct effects of mass media Persuasion is the use of convincing arguments to change ppl s beliefs attitudes behaviors b The Multistep Flow Assumes media effects are indirect mediated by opinion leaders Most ppl receive much infoare in uenced secondhand thru opinion leaders Opinion leaders are in by more elite media instead of mass media channels They share their opinions w their immediate soc circle who share w others etc Soc in radiates outward in soc modi ed by norms of each new soc circle it enters c Selective Processes Audience exercises selective exposure avoid messages at odds w their beliefs Even when exposed to discordant content they distort it w selective percept Selective retention means ppl s memories are also distorted Soc media may facilitate passive selective exposure d Social Learning Theory 0 19605 social critics wanted expl for mounting violence polit unrest decline in morality esp among young adults 0 TV seemed likely cause bc young ppl belonged to 1st gen to grow up with it 0 Social learning theory lent credence explained that viewers imitate what they see on TV thru process of observational learning e Cultivation Theory 0 Heavy exposure imparts worldview consistent w world presented in the media 0 Heavy TV viewers likely in by what is consist shown in media 0 Real world exp combine w TV worldview over time in process called mainstreaming When RL exp con rms media view effect intensi es thru process of resonance Cultivation assumes that media systems deliver consistent message to audience f Priming 0 Activation of one thought triggers related thoughts 0 General Aggression Model integrates priming w social learning theory to describe how prev learned violent behavior is triggered by thoughtsemotionsphysiological states provoked by media exposure g Agenda Setting 0 Process through which pub guresimportant events help shape media content 0 Rank ordering audience assigns to important issues tends to match amount of coverage give to those issues in the media h Catharsis Argues that media se and violence have positive effects by allowing ppl to live out antisocial desires in mediated fantasy world instead of real world iC calTheo es Crit theorists question theories used n media effects studies as well as methods used 0 Focus less on behavior effects on indivs more on how indivscommunities interp media and on large scale cultural impacts of media Ebb ow of causeeffect bt media and society is not a one way st 0 Media themselves are the effects of class dominationracial prejudice Media might be used by owners to assertmake hegemonic an idea that ts w their interests 0 Split in crit theor bt those who focus on polit econideology and those who focus on studies of culture Among former ppl often assume powerful effects bc they assume that powerful media owners can assert the ideology interests in their media content Among latter rather than term selec percep they speak of audiences who are active quotreadersquot of media text Some focus on role of audience others on more quality crit approach to media Some speak of quotgroup mediationquot or quotinterpretive communitiesquot of groups who are similar in edu occupation wealth family background Others use term multistep ow to desc way social interact affect percep of media E Media and AntiSocial Behavior Anti social behavior is contrary to prevailing norms for social conduct lncl unlawful stuff like murderhate crimesrapedrug abuse as well as things viewed as objectionable like drunkennessaggressionpromiscuity a Violence Effects of TV violence have received far more attn than any other type of media impact Hundreds of exp studies demonstrate that kids imitate what they see Some discount them on grounds that they re not in realworld settings Survey studies also tend to show relationship bt violent behavviewership of violent TV Consistent w cultivation theory Familypeer in uence socioecon status and subst abuse are bigger factors than TV tho Number of studies sugg that video games are even worse b Prejudice Media may promote sexism racism other prejudice Encourage stereotyping the formation of generalizations abt group of ppl on basis of limited info Harmful when they become rationale for treating others poorly Oppressed groups may internalize these stereotypesundermine own self respect Minority groups are underrepped on TV blackslatinosLGBTold ppldisabled c Sexual Behavior Sex in media erupted as issue in 205 in aftermath of wave of Hollywood sex scandals Watching porn contribs to extramarital sexsex for hire Males exposed to porn more likely to have negative opinion of women d Drug Abuse Cigarette ads have been banned from TV Beerwine commercials are one of leading sources of ad revenue on TV Critics say that seeing these ads leads to consumption of products esp in young ppl F Communications Media and Prosocial Behavior Prosocial is opp of antisocial stuff we want to encourage in our kids Prosoc media fall along continuum based on relative mix of entertainmentinfo content a Information Campaigns Use techniques of pub relationsadvertising to sell ppl on prosoc behav Seek to achieve specif changes in audience Have spotty record of success Can succeed with clear objectivessharply de ned target audiences nd ways to overcome indifference Social marketing combines media interpersonal in uence and carefully managed efforts to introd recommended products dir into the lives of the target audience Many face too many obstacles to succeed some are ineffective to begin with b Informal Education Must artfully combine education and entertainment best ex is Sesame Street Incidental learning is side effect of exposure to entertainment c Formal Education Delivery of courses through the media is formally known as distance educann New trend is putting courses on internet Wide variability in effectiveness d Impacts of Advertising Advertisers are happy to achieve limited impacts at least when using conventional mass media Merely seek to strengthen our brand awarenessloyalty Even w modest goals many ad campaigns are a op Sometimes outgunned by stronger competitors sometimes just ineffective Ads can exploit young viewers by using hosts of children s shows to sell stuff Online adsmarketing forces a rethinking of basic questions about ad effectiveness e Impacts of Political Communication Polit camps have largely evolved into ad camps where cand is the product Camp coverage that appears in the media incl news stories opinion polls pub appearances by cands debates editorial endorsements are inherently more effective than polit ads Commonly held beliefs attitudes misconceptions abt current issues are called pub opinion G Understanding Societal Impacts Could be viewed as aggregate of indiv effects across large groups of ppl but indiv effects don39t transl dir into broad social impacts Communications Media and Social Inequality Inequality bt social groups as de ned by wealth race gender 0 Equal access to internet doesn39t equal social equality according to knowledge gap hypothesis gap is bt the information haves and the quothavenotsquot Media and Community 0 TV usage may lower community involvement 0 Online relationships are poor sub for real relationships lack intimacy and risks 0 Internet paradox social tech used mainly to communicate with others could reduce social involvement and lead to lonelinessdepression Health and Environment Comm media affects physmental health 0 TV viewing assoc w obesity in kids 0 May also cause attn disorders Verylow frequency VLF radiation also poses threat may cause cancermiscarriage Clearer evidence of pub health hazard stemming from texting and driving Media and the Economy i The Quantity of Work 0 Info tech improves productivity by eliminating employees Called quotjob displacementquot by labor economists o Offshoring use of advanced comm networks to link Americans to cust service agentsloan officers located in dev countries 0 Old corporate pyramid few top execs command platoon of middle managers who direct legions of rankandfile workers has toppled Info tech has made it possible for top management to coord activities w far fewer mid managers called attened pyramid Core and ring model mid management is elim rank and le are all contingent employees who are addedsubtracted as conditions warrant 0 Virtual corp where even top management is in constant ux w networks of workers org for partic tasks disbanded when no longer needed ii Work Gets Worse Youth of today will have several careers days of lifelong employment w one company are over Insecurity could place downward oressure on bene tswages iii Work Gets Better 0 Rays of hope too like decentralization 0 Computer networks make it possible to integrate the work of distant suppliersbackroom operations moving them farther out to suburbsrural areas 0 More ppl can work where they want to liveavoid commuting Chapter 17 Global Communications Media A Acting Globally Regionally and Nationally O a Regionalization b Cultural Proximity 0 c National Production B The Global Media News Agencies 0 b Radio Broadcasting Q i International Radio 0 ii National Radio 0 c Music 0 d Film 0 e Video 0 f Television 0 i Television Flows o g Cable and Satellite TV 0 h Telecommunications Systems 0 i Computer Access 0 j The Internet 0 C International Regulation D Whose World is it a Political Economy of the Internet b Political Economy of Cultural Imperialism O c Cultural Impact of Media and Information Flows 0 d Free Flow of Information 0 e Trade in Media 0 f Media and NationalLocal Development 0 Chapter 5 Recorded Music A History From Roots to Records Roots of today s popular music can be traced to earlier music trads Hip hop has roots in African drumming white gospel spread to country Some of earliest printed stuff was music US sheet music indust dates 2 late 19th cent Back then songwriters not performers were popular a The Victrola Late 18005early 19005 inventors made devices to bring music to public Eg music boxe5nickelodeon5 Thomas Edison invented phonograph 1st acoustic recplayback tech Victrola was phonograph made in 1906 for home use b Early Recorded Music n D Victrola intro d ppl to more new music faster than ever Jazz and 5howtune5 pop in 205305 blue5 pop among blacks Big Band and the Radio Days Radio had immediate impact on rec d music ppl bought fewer records Radio took off in 205 recordphono 5ae5 dropped by half Gradually ppl began buying own recordings of music they heard Recording indust relied on radio to make arti5t5 known performers became more important than composers Music broadcast live bc radio had no high delity radio fee5 hadn t been wrked out Big Band Music and the World War II Generation 305405 most pop music was quotbig bandquot orchestras w singers like Frank Sinatra record sales dipped but Sinatra fan5 wanted his latest records and they were cheap e New Musical Genres natl radio networks carried pop music of the day regional companiesnetworks helped dev new genres in south new genres built on traditions like gospel blue5 bluegrass genres blended bluegrassgospelwestern became country and western followed southern migrants to Midwest as they looked for jobs blue5 followed black migrants from south to ChicagoNYC blue5 greatly in rock and roll were blended w pop to make RampB black music orig considerd race music not targeted at white5 for most of 305505 f Rock and Pop History rock hybridized many genres made them into something new deepest roots in blues but also country western swing rockabilly young quotrockquot audience gradually moved to RampBsoul gave rise to Motown rock still somewhat uni ed as genre until 605 diverged w Motown Engl groups like Beatles and Rolling Stones and heavy rockers like Led Zeppelin and Jimi Hendrix record indust relied on radio more than ever as promo device got too close when labels bribed DJs in practice called quotpayolaquot g The Record Boom and Pop Music record indust slumped in WWII bc of material shortages tech innovations revitalized indust 1947 magnetic tape improved sound delity reduced costs made editing easier indust could produce more artists at less costs w better quality limits of 45 rpm singleradio preferences limited pop songs to under 6 mins beatlesothers pushed toward longer songs more complex ideasarrangements h The Rock Revolution Will Be Segmented post1970 record compsradio stations began to div into distinct rock formats album oriented rock Top 40 rock oldies heavy metal adult contemp RampBurban disco country and western by 905 dozens of subgenres from 605 pop rock soul roots 1982 intro of CD began new round of recording format wars some found sound harshbrittle but were compactresistant to damage late 905 CDs replaced vinylcassettes and CD retail moved to Internet radio joined digi trend made internet stations 2002 copyright fees imposed on Internet radio stations i Digital Recording of ppl recording music w low cost digi equipment is skyrocketing music indust role as gatekeepers over who gets to record has srsly diminished many new options for consumers about how to buyobtainrecordstoremix music rapid cost decrease allowed artists to record own local music j Music on the Internet true potential of digi recording came when ppl playedrecorded music on CD drives built into personal computers could sendreceive les via internet Napster allowed ppl to steal music so The Man started ling suits Pirate Bay still in service after a bunch of court battles MegaUpload forced to close in 2012 Record indust slowly created sys to let ppl pay for music online 2003 Apple debuted iTunes of companies like Amazon now offering downloads download sales still main source of digital pro ts for music indust subscrip services allowed unlim streaming CD sales keep declining Focusing only on recorded music sales is problem Ignores major revenue from concertslive performances Internetphone services global markets and publishing licensing platform use internet radio soundtracks B Technology Trends Let s Make Music 1st music recordings were purely analog lasted almost 100 yr digital CDs seemed revolutionary at rst what really reshaped music was cpubased tech like GarageBand and Internet a New Digital Formats laptopsmartphone doubles as stereo mp3 players store quotnearquot CD quality music for mobile listening only quotnearquot bc uses digi compression does not make perfect reproductions higher bit rate offers higher quality but mp3s take up tenth of space CDs did now record studios emph volume over delity better for blasting in earbuds b Sinking the Pirates piracy of music led to dev of music indust s secure digital music initiative made it possible to encrypt music so only paying customers can download can put quotexpiration datequot if subscriber doesn39t keep paying copy prevention prevented ripping of own CDs tech is aiding RIAA to track piracy online uses library of digital ngerprints can ID music traded as far back as 2000 hopes to use to promote laws that will make it possible to automatically block transmission of pirated recordings over internet c Streaming and Cloud Music Services quotcloudquot is term for storing legally purchased music on internet so can be downloadedstreamed to any device anywhere any time d Social Media Music social media are changing music promotion myspace was orig musicoriented site for bands to promo music now bandsdistributorsindep musicians push music thru youtubeFBetc C Industry The SuitsThe Recording Industry econregulatory changes encourage concen of ownership of most major players music largely controlled by the suits who run record industry key elements of indust talent producers recording studios recording companies and their labels distributors indep promoters retailers musicians success also depends on songwritersmanagersarrangers a The Talent groups form at local level perform locally try to book shows out of town gain reputation they make recordings to circulate to record cossell directly on Internet many move to quotmusic citiesquot with more talent scouts etc a few are discoveredmake it big most break up and move on b Recording Studios and Record Companies studios are now much cheaper than they used to be indep bands can pay to use facilities wout a label can also record CDsmp3s on computers wont be as good but will let them distrib their sound recording cos are still gatekeepers still decide who gets distribpromoted on natl radio in concert in stores etc 4 big comps dom d indust Sony EMI Universal Warner Music Group EMI declinedsold for parts in 2011 leaving 3 Ownership of music groups has been volatile in face of CD sale decHnes Recorded music is v much internatl indust All big comps have ops in many countries where they dev local and promote global artists Record comps decide what to promote via radiobillboardsnewspapermagazines Promoting groups can cost millions so labels oft tempted to drop groups that aren t quickly successful Many groups increasingly go w indep label owned by some1 outside 3 maj comps Most tend to see promo of band as long term project See le sharing as an ally Important part of promo of groups w natl potential used to be videos on MTV MTV got replaced by YouTube c Music Distribution Variety of ways to do it Some store like Walmart deal directly w record comps iTunes is top music retailer increasingly dom form of distrib is internet purchasedownload pre2011 streaming was fairly marginal part of revenue labelsartistswriters get v small amt each time song is played but it adds up d Music Industry Associations RIAA and others are music indust s lobbyinglegal arm Help artists collect royalties from live covers radio plays internet radio elevator music use in commercial channels for stores etc Some artists happy to let fans recordshare their concerts Others wanted to avoid record comps used le sharing to marketsell music Work on the assumption that ppl will buy CDsconcert tix anyway D Who Controls the Music a Recorded Music in the Age of the New Media Giants Music biz never reg in same way that broadcast traditionally was Most maj lm studios once involved in music but now see it as less pro t Salesmergers happened resulted in big 3 sony universal Warner Antitrust concerns raised by 2 segments of indust concert promoticket sales Both dom d by LiveNation after 2010 merger w Ticketmaster b Sharing or Stealing Copyright issues have long been a problem More so w rise of sampling mashups and multimedia Internet allows les to be shared so easily Most of the music shared is copyrighted sharing can be considered piracy RIAA began suing indiv users proved so controversial that they stopped Seems le sharing is declining in favor of other free online music like Internet radio c Pity the Poor Starving Artists Favorite tactic to stop piracy is calling attention to damage to poor artists Comically hypocritical since record indust bleeds artists dry Artists don39t even own their songs you sign over rights Artists disagree on how to deal w record Indus Some sign on hope for best others go w indep labels d Getting Distributed Means Getting Creative Both artists and indust struggle w internet toppling old techniques for promotionmarketing Internet radio can promote to v specialized interests Recording comps insisted on royalties from webcasters SoundExchange nonpro t collects royalties for copyright owners Record comps now starting to experiment w new methods like online labels Internet provides counterforce to indust giants e Music Censorship Until 605 indust have some selfcensorship FCC rules against obscenityindecency restricted music w bad lyrics Major rock groups on big labels started using graphic langexplicit themes Spread to rap and hiphop Congress hearings in 89 resulted in content warning labels f Global Impact of Pop Music Genres Raphiphop owed quicklywidely to rest of world Not necessarily foreigners listening to US rap but making their own Many see it as appropriate protest for their circumstances Some critics insist that raphiphop re ect a specif Africanamerican urban culturehistory so other cultures appropriation is new form of cultural imperialism homogenization or Americanization Cultures never static always takes in new formsideas Rap itself is hybrid w many roots esp from Africa Chapter 9 The Internet A History Spinning the Web 0 Early computers used in military defense 0 Internet originally dev to continue weapons research called ARPANET Funded by US dept of defense a The Web is Born 0 1st personal computer was Alto dev by Xerox in 705 0 bill gates wrote programming language called BASIC founded Microsoft 0 1984 Apple intro d hires graphics multimedia to personal cpu popularized hypertext linking early systems used TVs for display 0 1972 birth of the internet 0 ARPANET had public demo email was intro d network got its nameessence TCPIP basic protocols for Internet 0 More use by college profs pushed Internet away from Dept of Defense toward users b The Dot Com Boom Mosaic was 1st internet browser so avg user could surf the web 0 Dev d at univ of Illinois rewritten for Netscape 0 1995 operation of Net turned over to commercial providers 0 AOL offered internet access to everyone 0 Amazon eBay and Yahoo were all founded AOL didn t last c Reining in the Net Internetgood place to connect w people get info and nd things you need Govt sought ways to control it when it evaded laws 0 Content restrictions became issue Telecomm act banned indecent material ruled unconstitutional 0 Parents came to replace TV w Internet as biggest threat to kids 0 Global polit communication is problem cultural differences 0 Issue of protecting intellectual property 0 Foreign govts wanted internatl oversight end to US control of internet 0 UN published Internet Governance Forum furthers diversitysecurityedu d Old Media in the Internet Age 0 Google is king of new media passed TVcable netw newspapers as 1 forads 0 File sharing ravaged music indust Net ix competes w HBO Many old media are adapting going digital e The Rise of Social Media Origins BBSvideotex 70s GeoCities 905 blogging 97 Wikipedia 2001 0 Web 20 model audience provides much of the content 0 Ads hope to go viral let internet users spread it for them 0 FB is portal to newsentertainment social interaction forum for ads Polit movements use social media to organize rebel Repressive govts use internet to track dissidents prevent info access B Technology Trends Following Moore s Law Moore s law processing capacity in cpu chips doubled every 18mo since 19605 0 Value of internet incr w of users a Computer Technology Trends 0 Same tech in computers migrates to mobile devices iPod TiVoDVR BluRay etc 0 Prev trend make cpu more powerful new trend is to make them simplercompact b Network Technology Trends DSL connections caught up to cable modems in race to wire country for broadband Bband over power lines BPL could mean low cost bband for everyone 0 Wireless 3G4G phones let you access Web faster than current netw WiFi hotspots allow you to connect in public 0 lnternet2 experiment w next gen lnternet tech give previews c lnternet Trends i lP Version 6 o Extends length of Internet addresses so more can be made 0 Capacity for trillions of addresses smoother streaming of audiovideo ii Cloud Computing 0 Gdocs lets you store docs on internet instead of hard drive 0 iCloud stores your infodata online can delete it from your phone iii Plugins o helper programs work w browser to perform number of funcUons 0 among most pop is Flash turns cpu into multimedia machine iv Scripts 0 can change appearance of buttons as you mouse over them 0 orderpayment info is sent to web store s cpu w CGI scripts v New Markup Languages 0 variations on basic HTML make web customizable 0 ex RSS 0 XHTML is designed to attach useful labels to web content vi HTML5 o Combines semantic web features w multimedia players 0 Allows users to interact w web pages in new ways vii Tracking 0000000 0 0 Some sites put cookies on visitors hard drives Lets site recognize user don39t have to log in every time Can trackcollate info wout user s knowledge Web bugs are shitty little privacy invaders Even wout them privacy not assured Internet protocol routinely uses IP address to route info Spywareadware DLed when you install other apps from internet Monitors sur ng behavior can cause pop ups holes in browser or OS software allow hackers access to personal info The Industry David vs Goliath Google is current goliath dethroned Yahoo and Microsoft 0 Nearly all revenue comes from ads 0 Google is a web portal software publisher cell phone distrib social networking site email service and online vid distrib Computer Toy Makers 0 Hardware sector incl cpu makers cpu storage devices and their periphery 0 Dell and HewlettPackard rule in personal cpu market Where Microsoft Rules Dominates personal cpu OS software windows and applications like word processors and web browsers MS Word and Internet Explorer 0 Sales are made through retailers that offer titles from many diff publishers Large amt of software is freewareshareware authors don39t claim copydght Hope that users pay voluntarily or make them pay for addtl features Internet Service Providers 0 Connect users to internet provide email accounts 0 ATampT and Comcast are industry leaders account for 12 US Internet subscriptions 0 Usually lease high speed connections from telecomm carriers 0 Over 400 in US w natl coverage many are local operations but giant phonecable companies still dom Content Providers 0 Web pages oft made by in house design depts Some of largest are multimedia depts At old media titans eg Disney 0 New media comps Google Amazon have inhouse staffs 0 Another model reformat content prod for old media eg NYT Indie design rms and Web developers blend creativity of graphic designers w technical skills of webmasterscpu programmers Internet Organizations 0 Internet backbone officially called very highspeed Backbone Network Service vBNS Connects lSPs Web servers and indiv computers all over world 0 Notfor profit cooperative enterprise of major regional networks 0 Internet made up of high speed digital lines leased by regional netw from longdistance phone companies 0 At local lvl lSPs ownlease hispeed lines that connect local users to internet 0 Larger natl lSPs maintain own hispeed netw interconnect w rest of internet at regional Network Access Points NAPs Assignment of addressesdomain names entrusted to ICANN Decides who gets rights to domain names charges fee to owners ISOC nongovt internatl membership society promotes orderly usedev of internet 0 World Wide Web Consortium W3C internatl membership org formsapproves standards for the Web eg new HTML5 0 Internet Architecture Board IAB committee win ISOC makes policy decisions abt operationsfuture devs Members are mostly employees of large corps w nancial stakes in Internet 0 Internet Engineering Task Force IETF oversees technical matters Content What s on the Internet 0 Can be char according to domains appended to uniform resource locators URLs Last set of letters eg edu indicate top lvl domain 0 Each top lvl domain has characteristic types of content Electronic Publishing 0 Incl online versions of conventional print media and info pub d only on internet 0 Even formal old media NYT reorg content for online users add links to other sites online forums etc Mag publishers put full copies online have mobile apps 0 Not lim to big corps many amateur mags once called zines now called blogs Corp sites run by large comps usually only pub info about own productsservices Govt info is growing in importance US gov sites among most popular 0 All lvls of govt moving toward egovt citizens can find public info about everything Entertainment 0 File sharing intro d idea of getting music via internet 0 Spread to print video video games etc Adsupported online content preserves illusion of being quotfreequot 0 YouTube hosts professional and amateur vids alike Hulu specialized in hosting TV series from big media eg NBC 0 Pay entertainment services are beginning to dominate Some se indiv songscontent others charge subscrip fee c Online Games Staple of onine gaming once called MultiUser Dungeons RP games evolved from text based fantasy games dev d into multiuser graphical interfaces MMORPGs are most popular genre sorcerymagic fantasy themes are most common 0 Online casino games allow real world betting were curbed bylaw d Portals Combine directoriesinterpersona communicationinfo in allpurpose quotlaunch padquot Org s around familiar content news entertainment etc 0 Advertisers see them as web eq to electronic mass media e Search Engines 0 seek info by matching words you type to keywords from website ownerscontent same queries posed to diff engines may get diff results due to diff ways of searching for keywords specialized engines for academic articles videos etc f Social Media currently most popular online genre 0 FB is evolving past social media as it becomes genpurpose platform for newsentertainmentads Social media craze has led to every major site going social 0 Online news stories invite commentary prompt you to quotsharequot 0 Links to social sites allow readers to react in real time g Blogs Org d around special themes w hope of attracting ikeminded contributors Somewhat upstaged by FB discussion groups but commentary has growing impact on public discourse h Electronic Commerce 0 Business that make sales direc to consumers known as quotb to cquot 0 Follow familiar catalog shopping model except product info is online Called category killers spec in one line of products ie kid s toys 0 Others eg Amazon imitate malls carry many diff types of products 0 Services sold onine as well eg travel agents hote clerks auction sites 0 Biggest category is business to business sell products to rms i What Makes a Good Web Page 0 Email is most common activity 0 Some techniques to incr engagement borrow from old media contestsgiveaways Graphic designers adapt eye catching colorslayouts from magazines 0 Web surfers prefer short items to lengthy ones Interactivity is unique to web also customized content Ppl get attached to sites that remember their infoconsumer habits Good web pages being basd on how much time ppl spend on site re ects old media thinking ie need to deliver eyeballs to advertisers Another way is good sites are winners of Webby awards 0 Other thought says amt of time spent on site indicates bad design Idea is that best site will be easiest to use so ppl have to spend less time E Getting the Most out of the Internet a Does Information Want to be Free Copyrights and patents are most important tools that corps use to control internet Digital Millennium Copyright act 98 is key weapon Entertainment indust wants to limit distrib to secure sites that charge percopy Many large ISPs oppose net neutrality wants to charge more for more bandwidth Net neutrality advocates fear ISPs will use power to jack up rates Could allow them to control the devdistrib of contentnew technology b Closing the Digital Divide White ppl are more likely to have home broadband 0 Income gap is huge Govt is working hard to close the gap with legislation and subsidies Danger is that as pub institutionspolitical activism move online poor ppl will be disenfranchised By internatl standards US broadband service is slow and expensive c Government Hands Off or Hands On Govt intervention can curb corp abuse but too much could destroy internet freedoms Govts like to tax what they control could retard growth of internet Tempting to use govt to solve internet social problems 0 Communications Decency Act was attempt to ban porn 0 Child Online Privacy Protection Act restrains sites that gather info from kids 0 Too much govt could infringe on civil liberties Patriot act uses internet ISPs as govt informers Homeland Security Act lets govt agents sift through emailactivity logs to detect quotpatterns of terrorist activityquot 0 Cultural differences create issue of what s okay in one country being banned in another 0 New role for govt is protecting citizens against cyber warfare When googleseveral major sites were hacked set off natl defense alarms Economy depends on internet and critical infrastructure systems phone networkenergy grids that are susceptible to attack Concern that attacks by terrorists will be impossible to stop due to uncontrolled nature of internet d Online Safety 0 Phishing scams social engineering may ask for personal info passwords or 0 Other popular crimes spreading viruses soliciting sex from minors pitching fraudulent stock market schemes via email Privacy at risk from spamming and spyware keyloggers etc lnternet cafes are popular sites of infection Cookies can be used by online advertisers lndiv users need 3 basic protections virus scanner spam lter spyware eraser Browser and OS should be set to autoupdate to plug security holes 0 Simple passwords can leave accounts vulnerable to hackers Media Now Chapter 10 Public Relations A History From Press Agentry to Public Relations 0 3 main elements informing persuading integrating people a Civilizations and its Public Relations 0 PR is foundation in ancient societies Widespread printing created boom in public communication 0 1792 Natl Assembly of France created 1st govt run propaganda industry b The American Way colonies used PR experts to spur political change 0 Hamilton Washington Jay used PR papers to get Const rati ed o Phineas T Barnum was greatest PR guy of 19th cent 0 Sent anon articles to stir controversy draw interest c The Timing was Right 0 Rise of Indust Age grew need for PR ppl 0 Post WWI more factors US building consumer culture ppl doing more leisure activities public opinion was common topic of convo Adspublicity became staple in newspapermags radiosmovies War movies used PR to sway pub opinion Entrepreneurs realized indust need for PR ppl to create good reps Westinghouse v Thomas Edison was 1st ex of PR by powerful econ interests Assoc of American Railroads 1st used term public relations in 1897 0 Charities used PR rms to help communicate w their organizers d PR Pioneers in the Modern World 0 lvy Ledbetter Lee was early forerunner Championed transparency in businesses Helped the Rockefellers defend their name from muckrakers Edward L Bernays coined quotpublic relations counsel in 1923 0 Viewed PR as art applied to science 0 Found out what pub liked abt clients then advertised those qualities 0 Played a large part in WWl PR Helped advance feminism w Torches of Freedom campaign e Public Relations Matures o In 305405 orgs founded to rep the interests of PR practitioners o 1948 Pub Rel Society of America PRSA forms 0 by late 605 PR was professionally recognized enterprise spurred by political turbulence across the world 0 also new consumer movement that sought to protect ppl against unsafe products bad working conditions unfair pricing etc corps had to rewrite their policies to ensure satisfaction 805905 businessgovt targeted by initiatives to preventcure eco disaster Exxon oil tanker spill showed need for crisis communication management f The New Millennium Meltdown Good PR needed in response to natl events dt com boombust 911 attacks Enron scandal PR ppl criticized for not doing enough to persuade comps to come clean sooner Also praised for work duringafter 911 to help corps govt agencies NPOs communicate w US public and world abt what happened what to expect next g Global Public Relations ncr in promopublicity campaigns across natlregional borders Could be important step in global cooperation efforts Could in ame natl passions create tension abt cultural imperialismworld dom B Technology Trends Tools for Getting the Job Done PR ppl promote goodwillcommunication bt clients and the public Also promote publicity for organizations imageproductservice Grown from print publications to strategies like viral marketing lncl video clips games text verbal messages social media Since 1900 dom PR toosnews releases pitch letters press kits Sent to tradtl media info sent to public as objective news content New formats still effective use diff tech to get info direct to ppl Most important skills excellent writing research to understand audience a Traditional Tools b News releases news stories w up to date info sent to newsrooms Written in bcast or print style contain news elements Some are used as a lead to prompt reporters to investigate further For PR best releases are published w no changes For news ppl this re ects poorly on them Pitch letters offer story ideas to particular reporters include contacts websites other resources Press kits are collection of materials abt client include cover letter news release publishable photos brochures bios business cards etc New Tools Video news releases are equ to print news releases Professional readytoair sent to news orgs Appears to audience as though it came from objective reporter Webcasts incorp streaming vidaudio like press conferences Reportersproducers view vidtextpics from their desktop Supplement to vid news releases Useimpact incr as Internet grows as direct source of newsinfo for indivs and media ppl alike Respond to quoton demandquot requests for ppl who missed orig bcast Podcasts are audio interviews w industry repsexecs are put online Satellite media tours SMT differ are vid of spokesperson being interviewed distrib by satellite Unlike VNR SMT are pitched to media weeks in advance PR person controls message previews questions from media Stations can run it live tape it for later use or edit excerpts into news programs ESMTs are via Internet allow virtual attendanceparticip in press conferences Email has given way to texting for instant communication Online communications blogstweetsetc spread newsrumorsattacksopinions so fast require near impossible reaction time from PR ppl c Social Media Major tools for data gathering and getting messages out FB in trouble for selling users consumer info and selling to clients PR depts Many corps use Youtube to sell imageserviceproduct d PR Databases Help gatherdisseminate info Full of info abt reporterseditors in US and around world PR ppl use them to research indiv records print address labels send blast faxesemailstweets Journalists use them to request infoassistance on stories theyre covedng Online trackingmonitoring lets PR ppl see what mediacompetitorspublic are saying abt employersclients C Industry Inside the Public Relations Profession 2012 PRSA est new def of PR strategic communications process that builds mutually bene cial relationships bt orgs and their public a PR Agencies and Corporate Communications PR ppl usually work at PR agency or win a company Agencies contract w diff clients to perform distinct roles for variable amt of time Needs of client determines what kind of PR experts are wanted PR ppl who works win a corp do corp communications Handles media relations public representation internal communications b Elements of Successful Public Relations 0 Based on research incl pub opinion polls surveys questionnaires interviews focus groups literature searches o Is continuous process but 3 basis phases preparation implementation impact 0 Begin w assessment of public attitudes Then create v detailed strategy managed v carefully Third PR has goal of fostering pub support 0 Last step is always an eval of the campaign what worked and what didn39t 0 PR uses all forms of communication digital electronic print personal appearances c Professional Resources 0 In nite resources on web for PR ppl of all kinds 0 PR ppl can be char in terms of the orgs they belong to and the publications they read PRSA is largestoldest org in industry but others have formed 0 Some cater to speci c groups some are invite only some are internatl D Public Relations Functions and Forms 0 Some forms of PR de ned by tools of the trade others by the function they perform for clients needs of their publics and relationship w those publics a Public Relations Functions 0 PR ppl advisecounsel org s management serve as early warning system on issues related to org s success and respond to crises Provide tech supp w emph on publicity promo and media relations 0 Act as gatekeepers w press legislators govt of cials b The Publics of Public Relations Publics are the diff audiences PR ppl communicate w on daily basis 0 Ex customers employees shareholders donors pressmedia c Four Models of Public Relations 0 1 Model of early press agentry assoc w PT Barnum used creativityvarious other means to attract audiences 2 Public info model sending newsinfo abt compproductservice out to public seen in newspapers TV online 0 3 Testing various methods to in pub opinion seeing if they work 0 4 Using social scienti c methods to foster mutual understanding bt orgspublics E Making Public Relations Ethical and Effective a Personal Ethics in the Profession when PR ppl don39t think abt social consequences of actions publicclientPR image all lose 0 can cause huge domino effect attract mass media attn there are accepted guidelines for ethics in PR but many PR ppl are pressured to give unequiv supp to employers actions even when they re unethical b Crisis Communications Management bene ts of good PR greater sensitivity to pub needs incr credibilityaccountability stronger pub ID better press coverage incr employee morale larger mkt sharem incr sales better internal mgmt bad PR happens when PR ppl do jobs poorly or client doesn39t prioritize PR in crisis comm ppl want to hear acceptance of responsib concern plans to x it c Private lnterests VS The Public Interest natural tensions bt corp interests and the public seen when corps charged w corruption enviro pollution undue polit in uence etc press coverage can advance corp interests strong earnings successful govt initiatives noteworthy charity events just by putting their name in the news lobbyists try to in votes on legis affecting major corps by donating to politicians PR ppl are both makers of messages and the messengers d Professional Development Great concern abt maintaining high standards in writingcritical thinking Huge growth in of local natl internatl PR conf seminars workshops These are sponsored by professional assoc universities forpro t corps e Use of Research and Evaluation General criticism PR ppl need to do more research on audiences incr eval of impactefficacy of PR efforts is part of reason for limited assessment budgets focus on tactical thinking research techniques incl enviro monitoring assessing corp climate audits eval an org s standing w its publics readability studies analyzing a publication s efficacy Chapter 12 The Third Screen Smartphones and Tablets A History Better Living through Telecommunications a The New Media of Yesteryear Early history of electronic telecommunications was dominated by wireline o Telegraph 1844early forerunner of the internet Graham bell photophone transmitted voice wirelesst through air over beams of light Early phones had party lines multiple users who occasionally joined the convo precursor to today s social media b The Rise of Ma Bell Bell Telephone Company est 1877 Acquired Western Electric started vertical integration Used patent rights to undercut competition refused to interconnect competitors w its long distance network 1910 now called ATampT acquired Western Union Telegraph Company threat of antitrust suit ATampT cancelled the deal promised to mend its ruthless ways committed to quotuniversal servicequot socalled Kingsbury Commitment enacted into law in 1921 in Graham Act still de nes philosophy behind telecomm regulations today exempted ATampT from Sherman Antitrust Act validated notion of quotnatural monopolyquot c The Telephone and Society slowly expanded from the elite circles of wealthy tradespeople became lifeline for rural families felt less isolatedspurred migration to 39burbs mixed bag for women connected them to familyfriends but con ned them to their homes more than when they made social calls in person ATampT became major player in natl politics Phone subscrips declined during Great Depression ATampT paid stockholders Repubs and laid off 10005 of workers most Dems Placed communications policy on the agenda of Dem prez Franklin Roosevelt Comm Act of 1934 de ned ATI39 as common carrier required them to offer service to all paying customers on equal basis prohibited from having interest in the content Had to submit nancial reportsrate noti cations with the FCC d Cutting the Wires Wireless dates back to Marconi s radio Originally too bulky to be mobile on anything but ships 1st land based mobile radios cop cars Detroit 19205 advanced rapidly during WWII 1st handheld personal comm device walkie talkies invented by a Canadian ATampT swiftly coopted wireless comm PostWWll wireless microwave systems replace phone cables on routes bt major cities Fixed in place anchored to tall towers Personal mobile phones have been around since 1947 early models had limited carrying capacity Led to years long waitlists busy signals annoyances Pagers came in the 60s to relieve some of the demand precursor to texting 1975 CB radio opened to public became 1st wireless comm craze public got lsthand info abt wireless comm but CB was v limited no private convos limited range not enough channels demand caused FCC to reallocate TV channels for new type of mobile phone service 2nCI gen of wireless phones came in 95 ATampT dominated FCC declined to set a technical standard rest of world settled on European standard GSM enjoyed lower prices wider availability faster innovann Left the US lagging behind in telecomm for rst time since telegraph e The Government Steps Aside Telecomm Act of 96 restrictions preventing telecomm companies in one industry form entering other telecomm industries were relaxed dereg Triggered merger frenzy among companies wanting to offer every service possible Promoted competition in locallong distance markets expanded consumer options f The Third Screen Arrives Number portability let ppl switch from wireline to cell service amp keep their number Steve Jobs didn39t invent the smartphone Adding visual displays dates back to ATampT s TV experiments in 19205 First cell that could be called smartphone was IBM s Simon 1992 Touch screen data voice capabilities built in apps Aimed at businessppl too bulky to catch on w consumers PDAs intro d at about that same time Nokia intro d phones w email and address books in 96 Blackberry 1999 made mobile messaging a cultural phenomenon Apple Newton 93 penbased handheld cpu massive op Upside to cell phones security in emergencies intensify nature of social interactions allow users to micro manage appointments Downsides driving safety hazard annoying in public places can be way of withdrawing from face to face interactions with those closest to us potentially addictive qualities health hazard of electromagnetic leakage g Media on the Third Screen iPad made media execs rethink future of mobile distrib screen large enough to be viable video player game device music player ereader apps create quotwalled gardenquot makes sure people view the ads 0 App store gives publishers way to sell subscrips wout setting up their own sites Market for smartphone video is blooming 0 TV providers are integrating tablets w TV viewing 0 Transition to digital TV in 09 opened new territory in communications spectrum 0 Telecom execs see mobile contentfees collected from electronic B shopping done on mobile mcommerce Hope it will replace dwindling revenues from wireline phone businesses and boost slacking cell phone pro ts Technology Trends Digital Wireless World a From Analog to Digital For dialup Internet modem converts digital pulses to signals the phone system processes as if they were sound DSL transmits digital video as well as data over standard phone lines Requires change in connections inside phone company s central office switch Called a digital service but is v close relative of dialup modem b Digital Networks Digital telecom began in 605 w intro of T1 converted voices to pulses and back again Fiberoptic carriers are ideal for cpu data are immune to electrical interference Optical carrier systems in Internet backbone reach speeds of bils of bits persecond Universities need OCs to cope w volume of musicvideo les students access Now phone companies are installing FiOS connections directly into homes Cable Tv companies also doing that but prefer to make nal connections w copperbased medium Packet switching divides data streams into chunks mixes data from many users into shared high speed channel 0 Also found in internal data netw that organizations run for themselves LAN local area networks Ethernet is common standard for netw in college cpu labsdorms Use ber optic or fat phone cables and now wireless connections Voice calls can be packeted terminated to conventional phone lines or completed bt cpus connected to Internet free long distance calling c Mobile Networks 0 Uses tech v sim to radio bcasting but operates in diff part of comm spectrum i Mobile Evolution 0 O O 0 Wireless comm of today is outgrowth of WWII radar detection systems Initially wireless comm were microwave systems found at center of telecom netw carried bulk of calls bt cities Orig mobile phone service operated from 1 central antenna Could hold 46 calls at once not nearly enough ii First Generation 0 Cellular takes name from div ing large service areas into clusters of small zones cells only few miles across 0 Transmitters are relatively weak possible to reuse their 0 frequencies in nearby cells wout interference 1st gen cell phones AMPS use analog transmission iii Second Generation 0 O O O O 0 digital use smaller cells digi compression used to shrink streams of digitssave netw capac y digi transmission allows several users to share each channel expand capacity lower cost most countries adopted common standard for 2rml gen phones called GSM US operators built networks w 2 other competing standards GSM phones intro d world to texting formally SMS iv Third Generation 0 O 0 36 phones were rst to cross phone and handheld cpu w built in browser and email service network speeds allow you to send pics LD videos surf Web etc not all phones w these features are 36 some are quot256quot v Fourth Generation 0 O 0 4G avail rst in 2010 era of incompatible cell standards may end since carriers all over world are adopting LTE treat both voice and data streams as packets of data like on Internet Vi WiFi 0 O hotspots cropping up everywhere send Internet s TCPIP packets thru air to wireless receivers 0 phones that use wi let you make quotfreequot calls through cpu connchons vi i Bluetooth 0 O 0 desktop version of wireless networking links digital cell phone to personal cpu wireless printer scanner etc can connect cell phones to cars viii Satellite O 0000 O 0 voice calls using sats like those used by sat Tv companies not possible wireless voicedata services provided by sats in Low Earth Orbit smallercheaper receivers w small antenna instead of dish constantly changing position dozens needed to ensure coverage sat phones have never been economical option mostly used by foreign correspondents arctic explorers etc satbased broadband Internet services also slow to develop popular sat technologyGPS ix Smartphone Gadgetry O O O O 0 GPS used in phones to give turn by turn directions etc Multi touch interface a la Apple are becoming standard Near Field Communication capabilities being built into phones short range radio transmitters allow you to send info eg authorizing credit card charge by bumping phones w another NFC equipped device For now Apple has lock on combo of voicerec and Al to produce lifelike personal assistant Siri is example of quotcloud computingquot requests are automatically relayed from phone to remote cpu that processes the request Plans for headmounted displays that will project info from Internet onto eyeglasses eg Google glass New sensors will monitor enviro around you andor your own internal state C Industry The Telecomm Mosaic 0 Phone indust has familiar old media new media transition going on 0 Conventional wireline phone indust mobile comm indust as it converges with Internet tech a The Wireline Industry 0 Phone companies can be div d into 3 categories based on scope of calls they were traditionally allowed to carry internatl long distance and local Distinctions are becoming ragged bc Telecom Act of 96 was meant to eliminate them lnternatl record carriers lRCs handle long distance calls bt countries lnterexchange carriers lXCs carry domestic long distance calls Long distance calls include those made bt area codes and those completed within area codes that cross local access and transport area LATA boundaries LATAs set during ATampTs reign now leaders are Verizon and Sprint Remaining longdist market is div d bt1005 of smaller companies Local phone service is domain of local exchange carriers LECs 1984 s ATampT split est seven Regional Bell Operating Companies RBOCs that have now merged to 3 Verizon Qwest ATampT these 3 and 750 local indep companies that existed preATampT split are called incumbent LECs or lLECs compete w competitive local exchange carriers CLECs b The Wireless Industry 4 competitors w natl cell networks ATampT Verizon Sprint Nextel T Mobile 100 other companies that ownoperate own netw 50 more are virtual carriers w no netw of their own lease space from major carriers and resell it Mobile Virtual Network Operators MVNOs phone manufacturers are obviously in the picture Samsung and LG from South Korea are world leaders in terms of phones in use Apple is catching up fast and Google bought Motorola in 2011 dumb phones have features programmed on cpu chips built into the hardware but smartphones require software have operating systems just like cpus do makers of the OSs make own apps but popularly has spawned cottage market c Satellite Carriers most of leading bcastcable netw are distrib by 2 carriers Intelsat amp SES Americom build launch maintain the satellites lease transponders to CBS CNN PBS etc direct bcast satelltire DBS operator DirecTV contracts w Hughes Satellite Dish Network uses EchoStar together count 15 of US homes as subscribers D Content There s an App for Us a Wireless Apps some app categories t neatly into functions of mass media surveillance apps for keeping current values transmission apps for students and entertainment music fun games are all wellrepped tradtl mass media newspapers TV were never suited for some vital functions apps provide like making staying t being productive at work 0 one genre not found is porn bc Apple censors apps feat Nudityexplicit sex 0 Apple developers can t publish apps that use Flash bc Apple won t allow it b LocationBased Services Vary their content according to where we are add new dimensions to online activity 0 Social networking apps eg Fouquuare create map of where friends are 0 Advertisers like idea of location based ads phones that scan barcodes from billboardsinstore displays Mcommerce is just catching on in US Shoppers who use mobile web to search for deals at other retailers or order out of stock sale items online are one aspect of this trend c Wireline Apps Basic local phone service called POTS plain old telephone service 0 Functions dial tone transmission switching haven t changed since 18905 0 Interactive features are called Custom local area signaling services CLASS if implemented as valueadded services rather than in phone s hardware 0 Includes caller ID voicemail redial etc o Wireline companies starting to imitate cell phone features eg texting Longdist calls still placed by specialized carrier 0 quot also do the tollfree calls E Media Literacy Service for Everyone Main issues regarding infrastructure industry revolve around ful lling the Kingsbury Commitment how to provide affordable service to all a Set My Cell Phone Free 0 Important consideration is whether phone is quotlockedquot ie can only be used on network of the carrier you buy it from Carriers lock phones in attempt to recoup cost of phones offered freediscounted Lock is software on the SIM card b Consumer Issues in Telecommunications 0 Telecom Act of 96 was intended to untangle ownership rules and lineof business restrictions and let free market forces prevail for bene t of consumers Hope was that industry would stay uid competitiontech change would drive down prices 0 1005 of longdist carriers but rock bottom prices are through VoIP providers 0 pick up the call from local phone company and switch it thru Internet where it rings thru a normal phone on the other side agreement bt FCC and phone companies says carriers must notify you when you near your monthly limit no nasty surprises on the bill slash phone bill by textingcalling through data netw instead of phone netw eg Skype iMessage cell phones are making pay phones obsolete but many now charge heinously high prices and exist in vulnerable areas c Whose Subsidies Are Unfair Has long been the practice to subsidize some phone uses at expense of others Presplit ATampT diverted revenues from longdist to subsidize local phone service 0 Some users subsidized as matter of social policy low income households get special rates homeless ppl are provided w phones to connect them to jobshousing 2011 FCC reshaped universal service policy by redirecting some of the funds to improve broadband Internet access 0 rural subscribers pay same rates as city folk even though it costs more to serve them 0 now moves to quotdeaveragequot phone rates so they match true cost of service 0 may drive many rural ppl off network 0 all residential phone subscribers are subsidized by businesses d Who Controls the Airwaves Historically licenses to use comm frequencies were awarded in competitive proceedings by the FCC to companies best quali ed to operate in public interest 0 Now free markets are in regulation is out auctions replaced competition 0 Less govt bureaucracy is needed to monitor proceeds from auction go into public treasury so in theory they reduce the tax burden for all 0 In reality auction proceeds are unpredictable subject to speculation 0 Some winning bidders are bankrupted by huge fees other get bargain pdces o Auctions mean less govt in uence in achieving important social goals 0 Recently regulation has started to swing back in direction of govt intervention Econ stimulus plan 2009 required FCC to formulate natl broadband strategy 0 FCC wants to make speedcost competitive w other developed nations 0 W massive incr in cell use even new allocations may not satisfy demand Radical idea take spectrum away from TV bcasters 2012 Congress enacted law that will auction off bcast TV channels to wireless providers 0 TV occupies prime space where signals easily penetrate buildings Current allocations waste valuable space by leaving blank channel to prevent interference e All of Our Circuits areDestroyed World trade center was major hub for telecom Attack destroyed switching equipment cell phone and bcast antennas on top of the Twin Towers and beroptic links in the basement Emergency 911 phone service never failed portable cell towers were brought in Ppl in NOLA weren t so lucky Katrina immediately knocked out power for millions of ppl More lines incl cell towers continued to fail as emergency backups ran outofgas Dept of Defense restored comm links via sat but no one had batteries for sat phones Resulting chaos was pointed reminder of how vital telecom is to our civilization f Big Brother is Listening 911 attacks produced changed in telecom surveillance laws law enforcement can only wire your phonehack your email with a warrant must have probable causesufficient evidence to think crime will be uncovered info abt timedestination of calls is considered less private is easier to obtain law enforcement has to certify that it s needed for the investigation no hearingprobable cause required turned into natl scandal when ppl found out phone companies had been supplying govt w records of billions of domestic calls from ordinary ppl so patterns of communication that might reveal terrorist activity could be discovered legalized in 08 by congress digital tech complicates phone surveillance if you tap Internet connection all you hear is noise copper wireseasy to tap bc they radiate electromag energy easily intercepted beroptic lines are untappable wout actually cutting into them led law ppl to request and get access ports to digital netws in phone central offices under Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act have special access to Internet provider netws after Sept 11 congress passed Patriot Act signif expanded scope of surveillance trapandtrace authority extends to Internet so no warrant needed to demand the records of the websites you visited FBICIA can do nationwide roving wiretaps wout going through local courts or even naming any suspects Law seems to have loopholes allowing agencies to bypass restrictions by claiming search is covered by Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act where warrants are issued in secret We hope the govt uses these measures to crack down on terrorists but some fear it will lead to Orwellian society where govt monitors every move citizens make g Privacy on the Line Electronic Communication Privacy Act assures us our wireline convos cant be tappedrecorded wout our permissionlegal authorization If you use a cordless phone you lose legal right to privacy they use frequencies easily accessible in the FM spectrum easily intercepted If you use a cell phone the transmission is protected by law scanners cant access cell phone frequencies New privacy threat from cell phone locator services Providers are required to use tech that makes it possible to ID the location of a cell win 1000 ft emergency calls can be traced New GPSenables phones are even more accurate 2011 Apple was revealed to be quietly storing location info in hidden les on iPhones smartphone companies are eager to turn that info into by selling it to suspicious parents and marketers Telephone Consumer Protection Act provides DoNotCall list sign up to have your phone number protected from telemarketer calls Violators face huge nes but nonpro ts pollsters researchers and companies with which you have a prior relationship are exempt Another privacy option is to encrypt your calls Digital cell calls are scrambled and some of them scatter pieces of your convo across wide range of channels makes them hard to intercept Tarantino didn39t invent nonlinear storytelling in lm but Rez DogsPulp Fiction made playing w narration cool and prompted others to experiment In past 15yr Tarantino s wild techniques prob most visible in on unorthodox lm narration Tarantino effect indicates rising of alt narratives Outside lm many factors helped shape trend of unconventional narration o Fragmenting quotpostmodern conditionquot its revolt against master narratives 0 Prevalence of shorter narrative forms like music videos 0 Video games stressing interaction require various player strategies eg role playing team building repeatedly taking players to same situations 0 Rise of internet usage 0 Rise of indep lm and need to make products stand out Trend is drawing scholarly critics attn Roger Ebert s 2005 lm list incl 4 w narrative variant called quotinterlocking story motifquot of alt lm narratives is incr over past few yrs not new but used to be rare novelties stood out bc they deviated from dom narrative model Hwood s chron linear three act structure can be found among all kinds of lms indep and Hwood and in between is a worldwide thing not just American despite all the atl narr activity no one has sought to classify the lms by pot types there is a need for systematic approach arrangemnt based on how the narr deviate from dominant narr paradigm classi cation helps understand the naturedegree of narr innovation Previous Classi cation Schemes Comolli and Narboni called for poitbased crit that enlightened readers abt ideological content of lm Delineated 7 types based on how ideology was conveyed What is most useful to us is author s distinction bt content and form bt subj of lm and mode lmmaker uses to depict it ChatmanBordewelletc more exact abt lm form content narration Proposed story what lm is about and narrative discourse how lmmaker tells story Bordwell proposed 4 modes of lm classical Hwood narr art lm narr char by story gaps looseno causality much amibiguity lack of closure historical materialist narr esp ideologically driven lms of early Soviet era and parametric narr Berg focuses on syuzhets plotting how lmmaker relates story events De nes an alt narr as one that diverges signif but not totally from Hwood narr Hwood narr char by goaloriented protag lm s main causal agent Syuzhet adheres to causal chain where cause leads to effect so on Bsic plot is undisturbed stage the disturbance the struggle and elim of disturb A Few Point About the Rationale for Classi cation 0 Chapter 11 Advertising A History From Handbills to Web Links Often thought of as 20th century phenomenon Has existed for centuries 0 Printing press spawned new form of ad handbill Also enabled 1st newspaper ads a Advertising in America Earliest ads were classi ed ads 0 Benjamin Day s New York Sun originated idea of mass circulation newspaper b The Rise of the Advertising Profession Earliest ads pros were essentiall ad agents Wholesaled ad space for publishers Palmer coined term quotad agencyquot in 1849 Offered wider range of services than other agents 0 Sold ad space produced the ads delivered to publishers veri ed their placement WWI ads stopped focusing on material needs of avg citizen focused on good of country as a whole 0 Designed to build public sentiment for war effort appealed to homefront to stop unnecessary consumption and buy war bonds instead c The Rise of Broadcast Advertisers 0 Radio was new tech of early 20th cent Became ad medium when RCA bought chain of stations established NBC 0 Radio gave natl advertisers unprecedented means of distrib messages 0 Designed to bring in news info entertainment depended solely on from ads 0 Limitations couldn39t show products didn39t lend self to detailed description 0 Provided opportunity for growth of magazine ads bt WWI and WWII Post WWII TV exploded as ad medium Competed w other mediums as main medium of natl ads 0 Combo of sightsound gave more dramatic ads d Hard Sell v Soft Sell 0 Ads used to be briefdirect De ning moment 1905 John Kennedy de ned ads as quotsalesmanship in printquot 0 Was a quothard sellquot approach to ads as sales tool 0 Used persuasive techniques intro d quotreason whyquot philosophy 0 Ads became lengthy argument from advertiser Expected to prompt delayed response next time person went to the store Lent itself to print media declined as radioTV got popular Soft sell took advantage of new ability to print photos Feat Enticingentertaining images of product Emotional appeal not physical So prevalent by 19805 period is called era of creativity e The Era of Integrated Marketing Communication IMC Bcast TV audience has been fragmented by cablelnternetvideo games Viewers can skip ads w TiVo Has led to return to product placement Companies share cost of making program agree to purchase ads IMC encourages use of all channels available to advertisers Tradtl media aren t only options needs of advertiser determines which media is used Companies try to nd combo of ads direct marketing PR sales promo f Advertising Now Ads allow to connectengage w consumers on indiv level lnternet provides 1st global comm medium 2 types stand out social media and sponsored links on google ads taking adv of new ways to attract customers via social media Pepsi generates buzz by donating to charities Others rely on lowcost promo like FB fan pages Sponsored links are revolution in way ads are boughtsoldeval Advertisers bid in auction for prime location near top of results Allows ads to precisely target consumers actively seeking info about products Give ability to measure response to ads w Google s analytic data B Technology New Advertising Media a Advertising in Cyberspace New tech creates enviro where consumers are approached online and IRL Banner ads took adv of basic hypertext linking Clickthrough rates eventually dropped ads started looking at IP addresses Tell website owners where ppl surfed from where they go next W cookies and web bugs gave ability to lDprobe the mediaconsumption habits of indiv consumers on mass scale Ad servers partner w websites to show ads that reach mils of users but target indivs Use demographic info and sur ng patterns Responsible for many of the pop up ads Gmail analyzes words in your emails to target ads to you 0 Internet Ad Bureau intro d new sizeplcement options 0 Viral marketing aim to stimulate brandrelated discussion hope that others keep it going spreading word abt product b Social Networking Sites Advertisers New Frontier Social media users usually provide demographic info that advertisers use 0 FB ads use targeted ads to connect w users 0 Makes it easy for smalltime advertisers to place ads c They Have Our Number 0 Database marketing advertisers used stored info abt consumer to personalize ads 0 Info is stored in natl databases sold to advertisers Relies on data mining ongoing compilationanalysis of relevant data for purpose of updating marketing strategies d ECommerce At ecomm sites can nd productpricing info ask q s read reviews buy things 0 Some ecomm ppl still rely on spam unwanted commercial email 0 Harvest emails from unwitting ppl in chat roomsdiscussion groups 0 CANSPAM Law makes this shit illegal legitimate spammers get consent before recording emails 0 spam persists bc it is free to send e Smartphone Advertising 0 diff methods result in highly targetedmeasured ads helps determine cost effectiveness 0 ads reach ppl thru phones which are used almost constantly apps can read barcodes DL product info coupons etc f More New Advertising sat radio extends ad reach cuts into ad revenue of tradtl radio networks 0 also adsupported internet radio oldest form outdoor sign is undergoing makeover digital imaging puts signs on stadiumarena walls that don39t exist in real life reach large audiences can be changed quicklyefficiently DVRS let ppl skip ads ads have to get creative product placement Drives ads in theatres etc 0 New tech allows ads in unexpected places 0 DVRs are pushing ratings measurement for commercials C Inside the Advertising Industry Advertisers initiate ads either create it themselves or contract ad agency Message is placed in one or more of the ad media each has own formstructu re Research orgs evalmeasure target group message content media vehicles Ad agencies make dramatic changes in purchase of ads based on audience trends a Advertisers Top categories retail telecommunications automotive services medicine Brand all dimensions tangibleintangible that give a product value Ad indust structorg around goal of communicating brand as clearly as possible Marketing manager responsible for ad budget execution of family of brands Ad process starts when mrkting mgr calls for meeting w ad mgr of rm Discuss ad goals deadlines expectations Creation of ad message usually delegated to ad agency provide objective perspec Local retailers use coop ad support from natl companies Though brand mgr and ad magr remain important there is growing need for all marketing employees to know smthing abt advertising b Inside the Advertising Agency Ad agencies planproduce campaigns for major companies Orgs of businessppl who create ad plans for clients Do research strategic planning generate creative ideas Account execs are liason bt agency and client Mobilizecoordinate agency s work on ad campaign New tech requires agencies to have more skills i The Creative Department 0 Creative strategykey element what ad will say to achieve goal of campaign 0 Copywritersgraphic designers use research data work on quotbig ideaquot 0 Concepting saying smthing in unique way but ensuring that ppl understand 0 Classic ex energizer bunny 0 Many ppl involved in ad execution writers artists art directors musicians graphic designers experts researchers ii The Media Department 0 Selects media to carry the message based on budget given 0 Account exec keeps all parties up to date on progress 0 New tech forces media dept to consider new options esp online 0 Best media placementswhen buyers understand overall strategy and creative concept c Advertising Media 0 Ads are most important for tvradio Magnewspaper rely on sales subscrip and ads 0 Ads try to reach largest of target audience at lowest price 0 Cost of media depends on sizecomposition of audience prestige of the medium 0 Magazines still generate massive ad revenue 0 Paid circulation determine how much mag can charge for ads 0 Factors to consider characteristics of diff media nature of target audience d Research 0 Few ads can actually get through to people make them want to do things 0 Research measures effectiveness eval potential impact 0 Account execs depend on research to provide consumer pro les key info about competitors 0 Research encompasses radiotv ratings tracking online behavior circulation s for magnewspapers consumer pro les media usage habits qualitative studies to gauge audience reactions to media vehicles reports on annual ad spending lvls of leading natl brands copy tests that eval effectiveness of ads under dev 0 Show whether ad is being shown to target group and the rough numbers 0 Motivational research lets advertisers talk direct w indivs abt what drives them 0 Copy testing is used to assess efficacy of ads while in dev D Content Advertising s Forms of Persuasion Ad must communicate product info like price features distrib etc 0 Have to cut through clutter of competition get viewers attn a Mining Pop Culture 0 Borrow familiar symbols promote consumer ID with the product 0 Ads are re ection of socialcultural norms due to tendencynecessity to communicate in the language of the familiar b ConsumerGenerated Content 0 Rush toward online vid adsresult of broadband penetrationconsumer demand 0 Video ads rollopen banner ads standalone vid ads designed to showtell more about product 0 Some get help from ppl with consumergenerated content c Relationship Marketing Advertisersconsumers communicated one on one thru personalized media Internet direct mail phone Use databases to personalize messages emph on talking and growing Successful when brand loyalty is achieved d Direct Marketing Concentrates marketer s resources on most likely prospects Has immediacy bc recipients of message are asked to take direct acUon 2 major adv can be customized to indivs using personal info from databases effectiveness can be measured so they can be continually netuned popular w book publishers record club magazines infomercials are form of bcast direct marketing relies on many of same ppl as advertising but also some unique ones rms specialize in compilingmatching phoneemail lists assembling directmail packages receive tollfree calls etc e Targeting the Market i Give New Information 0 announcements regarding new productsimprovements contests etc ii Reinforce Current Practices 0 used by corps that are already dom want to make consumers less interested in competitors 0 addresses frequent users who don39t need to be convinced of its merits 0 try to incr brand loyalty iii Change a Predisposition o exempli ed by ads that directly call out the competition 0 most difficult to execute has to addresschange the purchasing habits of those who regularly use a competitors product f Understanding Consumer Needs regardless of approach all ads but appeal to a buying motive to be successful most effective ads communicate the need clearlyrepetitively wellliked ads not always successful by other measures E The Changim Nature of the Consumer demographic segmentation categorizes ppl based on personalhousehold char like age sex ethnicity income for most advertisers women bt 1849 are primary target buy most stuff ageethnicity are of notable importance currently a Importance of Diversity target markets shouldn t be thought of as homogenous groups 0 many ads portray stereotypes about race promote unrealistic expectations about women b Global Advertising 0 Internet allows businesses to reach foreign market cheaply Ads are online wout high overhead costs 0 lnternatl ads expanding due to aggressive competition from foreign businesses F Analyzing Advertising a Hidden Messages 0 Ads don39t just sell products encourage materialistic way of life Reinforce market econ create consumer culture 0 Acquisition of goodsfoundation of valuespleasuresgoals Black Fridaycyber Monday exemplify this banacy Internet raises concerns for a loooot of people 0 Over time info can be matched w indiv consumers even those careful to avoid revealing personal info on the web 0 For advertisers results in greater efficiency o It is becoming easier and easier for advertisers to get personal info cDeceonn Most advertisers avoid this to protect their good name 0 Some just push their claims too far Puffery making exaggerated claims that cant be proven One criterion for deception could mislead a reasonable consumer d Advertising Harmful Products Alcoholtabacco are legal have free speech right to advertise in US 0 Have limits cig ads banned on tv since 1971 o Moved to mags required to have health warnings Alcohol ads emph industry selfreg instead of legislation FTC guideline is that alc ads should only appear where at least 70 of audience are over 21 e Children and Advertising 0 Kids are vulnerable lack resources to make informed decisions Qhapter 5 Media Policy and Law A Guiding the Media Media s free speech is protected by 1st amendment 0 Much is owned privately potential for abuse of power so are regulated B Communications Policies 0 a Freedom of Speech 0 i Defamation o HPoHUcalSpeech 0 iii Obscenity and Indecency 0 iv Violence 0 v Commercial Speech 0 b Protecting Privacy 0 i Preventing Government Snooping ii Pieventing Commercial Snooping c Protectcing Intellectual Property i Encouraging Creativity ii Piotecting Consumer Rights d Ownerghip lssues i Media Concentration ii Swnership and Diversity C Univeorsal Service a VVho Owns the Spectrum b 39Fechnical Standards i Standard Bodies ii International Standards D The PoolicyMaking Process a Pederal Regulation and PolicyMaking i The Federal Communications Commission ii gepartment of Commerce 0 iii The Federal Trade Commission 0 iv The Justice Department 0 v The Courts 0 vi The Congress 0 b State and Local Regulation c Lobbies d The Fourth Estate


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