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GRG 304E Labs 1-10

by: Cassidy Schap

GRG 304E Labs 1-10 GRG 304E

Cassidy Schap
GPA 3.78
Environmental Science: changing world
Thoralf Meyer

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About this Document

These are the labs for GRG 304E with Thoralf Meyer from Fall 2013.
Environmental Science: changing world
Thoralf Meyer
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This 29 page Bundle was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GRG 304E at University of Texas at Austin taught by Thoralf Meyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science: changing world in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Lab 1 TASK 01 Do some research and provide an example of an ecosystem tourism project use internet as a resource Provide a short introduction to the project describe what makes this project unique and point out its positive effects on the environment and how these are accomplished DON T FORGET THE REFERENCE 2 pages font 11 spacing 2 TASK 02 Virtual Field Trip Costa Rica This Virtual Field Trip takes us to a small country in Central America Costa Rica Costa Rica abounds with wildlife a fact that people from all over the world capitalize on by vacationing along its coasts and jungles Such a groundswell of visitors dramatically impacts the health of the natural ecosystems however certain groups are working to incorporate eco tourismquot into tourism management To see this in action we took a tour of an ecolodge noting some of the ways that tourism can be ecologically friendly Discussion Questions 1 How many more species per unit area live in Costa Rica compared to the United States a 2 times more b 6 times more c 10 times more d 20 times more 2 What renewable energy sources provide the ecolodge with electricity a Wind and thermal b Wind and tidal c Solar and wind d Solar and hydropower 3 The ecolodge serves local food grown in the area How many miles does food travel before it gets to you in the US a 100 miles b 500 miles c 1000 miles d 1500 miles Cassidy Schap GRG304E Meyer 26 September 2013 Cane Toads It s Okay to Run Over Them In the 1930s one of Australia s major exports was sugar cane and sugar cane byproducts The economy was thriving but a threat was discovered that had the potential to cripple the trade The threat was a species of insect called cane beetles or Dermolepida albohirtum The adult beetles were feeding on the leaves of the sugar cane but the larvae which fed on the roots caused the real problems Searching for a way to control the pests the Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations introduced cane toads Bufo marinus to the ecosystem in 1935 Cane toads native to South and Central America were brought in from Hawaii as a natural predator of the beetle However while they proved to be wildly unsuccessful at preying on the beetles they had far better luck in reproducing From the approximately three thousand toads that were released into the Queensland area the toads have multiplied into the millions spreading out from the northeast part of the continent In their natural habitat the population of cane toads is generally manageable but in Australia there are very few predators that have managed to successfully prey upon the toads The reasons for this are numerous the first being that the toads on average weigh about 18 kilograms and measure between 15 and 23 centimeters More importantly however is the toad s natural defense mechanism a parotid gland behind the ear that secretes a milky toxin While they may just seem to be a nuisance cane toads pose a very real threat to the Australian ecosystems Due to their lack of natural predators the toads do not hide making them prone to attack by larger predators who are then poisoned by the toxin in the toad s glands This has radically altered the biodiversity in some areas due to the large drop in population size following the arrival of the cane toad in a new area Other issues involve competition for resources between the toads and native species as the toads multiply rapidly consuming both the food and space that would have otherwise been taken by native organisms Attempts have been made in the past to control the number of toads andor slow their growth including the physical trapping of toads and introduction of detrimental organisms However they have been largely unsuccessful Removing toads has simply led to a replacement of the old toads with new toads which thrive due to the reduced number of resource competitors Locals have even taken up running the toads over for sport relishing in the audible popping sound made when they are crushed While there has been talk of introducing another species to control the toad population this seems unwise as it could very well end the same way the introduction of the toads did It seems to me that the best way to control the toad population would be to prevent them from breeding or hinder the process If there were a hormone that could be introduced that affected the fertility of the female toads their overlarge number of offspring would thereby be reduced However there is then a risk of inadvertently affecting other species fertility and further damaging biodiversity in the area The best available method may be to simply remove the eggs from the ponds and marshes they are laid in The eggs are laid in such large quantities that it would be feasible to use a net to pull the eggs out of the water and dispose of them Naturally this would be a large undertaking considering the widespread nature of the infestation but if property owners took responsibility for the water on their land it is possible that the population could be controlled manually at least until a more effective method could be implemented Bibliography Laman T quotCane Toadquot National Geographic National Geographic nd Web 24 Sep 2013 lthttpanimalsnationalgeographiccomanimalsamphibianscanetoadgt Cameron E quotCane Toadquot Australian Museum Np 22 Nov 2012 Web 24 Sep 2013 lthttpaustralianmuseumnetauCaneToadgt quotThe Feral Cane Toad Bufo marinusquot Australian Government Department of the Environment Australian Government 23 Sep 2011 Web 24 Sep 2013 Part 01 Questions 1 A 2 C 3 B Part 03 Questions 1a As the consumption rate increases the amount of the toxin present increases If the shrimp eats more algae it consumes more DDT in its lifetime Thus the concentration of DDT in the shrimp is higher Therefore as the fish consumes the shrimp it consumes more DDT meaning that when the human consumes the fish the human is also consuming more DDT All in all as consumption increases the amount of DDT ingested by each organism increases 1b As the body weight of the organism increases it requires a larger amount of DDT to administer a fatal dose While the fatal dose for a human will remain 500 mgkg if there is more kg of mass there would need to be more mg of DDT present to be fatal Therefore as mass increases the quantity of DDT in mg required for death increases A heavier person could eat more contaminated fish than a lighter person before the toxin killed them 2a Because body mass plays a key part in determining the amount of a toxin that an organism can tolerate before it becomes fatal children are more susceptible to smaller amounts of toxins than adults are A child would only need to eat a fraction of the amount an adult eats before toxin levels became fatal Therefore children s intake of possibly contaminated materials must be much more closely monitored than that of an adult to ensure that they do not accidentally ingest a lethal amount without realizing it Furthermore children are still developing so toxin levels that are not fatal may still pose a serious risk to the developmental health of the child 2b People living in LDCs are at a disadvantage here for a multitude of reasons First because the GDP of their country is low it is likely that they live in poverty Thus it can be assumed that their bodyweight is low relative to that of a person of similar ageheight gender in a developed country As was stated before the lower a person s bodyweight the less of a toxin that can consume before the levels become fatal This means that a person in an LDC can consume less of a toxin before they are killed Additionally they have fewer options for food so their only options may be to eat the food they can get contaminated or not or just not eat at all 3 People who eat meat are more at risk because in their lifetime they will eat fish contaminated with higher concentrations of toxicants Vegetarians are less at risk though it is still possible for them to be exposed to the toxin Via animal byproducts and plant matter but they would have to eat significantly more of it to reach the levels of a carnivore Vegans are the best off of the three as they consume neither meat nor animal byproducts which contain the highest concentration of toxins Vegans are solely at risk from plant matter which contains much lower concentrations due to its place at the bottom of the trophic pyramid Cassidy Schap GRG304E Honors Meyer 3 October 2013 Campus Nightlife is Crazier than Previously Assumed College campuses are known for their oddly nocturnal class of humans called students who sleep all day and only come out at night when the harsh light of the sun is no longer there to force them to be productive However the humans are not the only creatures on the UT campus that are most active at night Two species that are extremely common on campus are the cockroach and the opossum both heavily active at night and neither that one would really want to run into while walking home The American cockroach Peripaneta Americana is extraordinarily common on campus The species generally prefers warm moist climates making Texas a prime location Being that they are scavengers they feed on decaying organic matter including food scraps beer dead skin and hair cells along with nearly everything else that becomes available to them This makes college campuses a perfect habitat for them Students walk around dropping food shedding skin cells spilling drinks and generally leaving behind enormous amounts of food that the cockroach can take advantage of Because cockroaches tend to inhabit moist dark areas they are perfectly suited to the campus living situation Most dorms have basements boiler rooms laundry facilities and other similarly dank places that provide the perfect habitat for the roach Were the campus not here the roaches would simply have to find residential areas that fit their needs accordingly but the existence of the campus gives them considerably more opportunity The sheer density of the population on campus provides food while the necessary largescale living situation allows for perfect conditions Opossums Didelphimorphia are another order of nightloving creatures that frequently roam the UT campus the most common seemingly being the Virginia Opossum Didelphis virginiana The largest of this species can be just larger than a big house cat making it the largest of the opossum species They tend to prefer dark moist places and because they are semiarboreal they are often found in wooded areas near riverbanks or ponds They are scavengers meaning that they will eat just about anything they can get including pet food rotting fruit and garbage It is not an uncommon sight to see a pair of glowing opossum eyes peering out of a dumpster in West Campus The existence of the campus has likely only aided the opossum in survival Opossums are slow creatures meaning that they are more likely than not to fall prey to a coyote or a fox Living in an urban area reduces the risk of predation significantly and also ensures a much more stable food source than in the woods However they do now run a greater risk of being hit by a car and becoming road kill Overall the existence of the campus has changed the natural factors of the area significantly Organisms come into more frequent contact with humans and their living areas but often this benefits the creatures Scavengers and rodents are able to scour human trash for food While birds are able to pick up leftovers around the restaurant on campus The density of the living area means that species are more likely to interact With one another more frequently simply because we are all occupying the same spaces Cassidy Schap GRG304E Honors Meyer 10 October 2013 Small island nations face many problems one major concern being the very nite amount of resources Whether it is land water minerals or energy sources smaller nations separated from mainland must budget their resources very carefully Problems arise from inadequate waste management depleted sh populations and poverty Schmidt 2005 As part of the Economic Branch of the government it is our responsibility to ensure that the economic practices of the island are sustainable in the long run In an effort to reduce the environmental impact of the local markets encouraging the implementation of laws regulating the economy is important One such law might be to provide government subsidies for shermen and shing companies that sh sustainably By creating incentive to use the public resources in an ecofriendly way overuse would stop being nancially bene cial Conservation of sh populations would become the pro table action This would also cover the costs that shermen might incur by shing less or shing more cautiously By creating a limit of how much they can catch it would also create a limit to how much they can earn from their work With a subsidy in place this cost would be less discouraging and would have an overall positive effect on the environment and the economy as a whole Another system that would bene t the economy greatly is sustainable tourism Small island nations generally require outside tourists and traf c to support their local economy because local populations are so low and generally impoverished Schmidt 2005 Encouraging tourism would be encouraging the economy to grow The issue here is creating tourism that would not detract or degrade the natural environment By restricting tourist operations to those that either bene t or do no harm to the environment the economic branch of the government would be able to both boost the economy and prevent ecological damage This would provide a positive social impact as well as natives would face less pressure from poverty and would thus have a higher standard of living The struggles facing small island nations are great but with proper stimulation from the government they could be mediated or even remedied entirely Regulating tourism and subsidizing sustainable economic practices are two of many ways that the Economic Branch of the government could positively impact the society as a whole They provide solutions to the problems without creating further problems which is vital in creating an economy that will not only grow but one that will remain stable as the nation faces new problems when they arise Bibliography Schmidt C W quotKeeping A oat A Strategy for Small Island Nationsquot NCBI National Institute of Health Sep 2005 Web 10 Oct 2013 lthttpwwwncbinlmnihgovmearticlesPMC1280424gt Cassidy Schap Meyer GRG304E Honors 17 October 2013 Climate Models Climate models aim to simulate Earth s climate change Frequently emphasis is placed on global climate sensitivity in regards to environmental variations especially anthropocentric problems A major focus of GISS GCM simulations is to study the human impact on the climate as well as the effects of a changing climate on society and the environment Schmidt 2013 In particular the NASA GISS AtmosphereOcean model focuses on climate predictions on a decade time scale The model shows a 120 year time scale and the dynamics of the simulation do stabilize over time However it shows a decrease in temperature and salinity in the North Atlantic and a poor representation of thermohaline circulation Schmidt 2013 Roy Spencer s simple climate model illustrates how natural monthlytoyearly variability in global cloud cover and evaporation can affect our satellite observations of both temperature and total radiation It runs a 100 year simulation on a monthly scale and aims to show that the Earth is not so sensitive as some scientists try to make it out to be Spencer 2010 With wide parameters for measurements and relatively non uxuating data the model shows that the Earth s climate is not in as dire trouble as other models show It maintains that because other scientists are making more sensitive models the Earth appears to be more sensitive than it actually is With Spencer s calculations the sea levels and polar ice stay relatively stable throughout the years uctuating with time but remaining in relative stasis Climate models tell scientists a lot of things but a problem that often occurs is that the data does not match up with other models and even contradicts them outright National Research Council 1991 Because of this scientists have a hard time ascertaining which models are correct and which need to be adjusted Because of this many simulations are run until the results start to be relatively stable and then they are compared with other models Through this researchers can assimilate the data into one comprehensive picture that allows them to most accurately predict the way that man and nature will affect Earth s climate in the coming years Bibliography Schmidt GaVin quotNational Aeronautics and Space Administrationquot NASA GISS Research Projects amp Groups Global Climate Modeling Np 8 July 2013 Web 17 Oct 2013 National Research Council F oardimensional Model Assimilation of Data A Strategy for the Earth System Sciences Washington DC National Academy 1991 Print Spencer Roy W The Great Global Warming Blunder How Mother Nature Fooled the World s Top Climate Scientists New York Encounter 2010 Print Questions 1 B 2 A 3 C 4 A 5 B 6D Data 1 Kerbey Lane Ford Mustang 2006 19 mpg Lexus RX350 2009 20mpg Nissan Versa 2007 28mpg Hyundai Elantra 2012 32mpg VWJetta 2008 25 mpg Toyota Prius 2009 46mpg Acura TSX 2008 23mpg Dodge Nitro 2009 18mpg Toyota Camry 2002 24mpg Kia Rio 2010 30mpg Chevy Tahoe 2010 17mpg Data 2 Whata burger Toyota Camry 2011 26mpg Chevy Sonic 20mpg Kia Spectra 2006 25mpg Chevy Captiva 18mpg Chrysler Sebring 2005 21mpg Honda CRV 2005 22mpg BMW 5 Series 1995 23 mpg Scion TC 22mpg Honda Accord 2002 23mpg Chevy Tahoe 15mpg Kia Soul 2010 28mpg Toyota Corolla 1993 24mpg VW Jetta 2007 24mpg Ford Explorer 2000 16 mpg Hyundai Accent 2010 30 mpg Cadillac CTS 2011 21mpg Chevy Cavalier 905 17mpg ln niti G375 2008 20mpg Subaru lmpreza 2005 23mpg Toyota Camry 2010 26 mpg Chevy Silverado 2009 21mpg Toyota Camry 2010 26 mpg Toyota Tacoma 2007 21mpg Toyota Tundra 2006 l8mpg Dodge Dakota 2006 17mpg Ford Mustang 2011 17mpg Chevy Silverado 2012 21mpg Volvo S40 2006 21mpg Chevy Suburban 2009 16mpg Chevy Colorado 1998 15mpg Hyundai Elantra 2011 32mpg Chevy Trailblazer 16mpg Honda Civic 2010 29 mpg Kia Spectra 2010 27mpg Ford Ranger 2004 21mpg Ford Explorer 2000 16mpg Ford Fiesta 2010 32mpg Jeep Laredo 2007 18mpg Honda Accord 2003 25mpg Cassidy Schap GRG304E Meyer 31 October 2013 Runo Lab When it rains in a city like Austin natural absorption processes are hindered by the large portion of the area that is covered by concrete and manmade structures Because of this much of the water that would have been absorbed into the ground becomes runoff The average annual rainfall in Austin was found to be 2941 and it was taken from data collected annually for the last six years Rainfall measurements are as follows 2007 4591 in 2008 1598 in 2009 34J1in201028A2in201116 MWL20123513inUVOAA2012L From the map of campus given to us the total covered area was 78840 mquot2 As this area represents 10 of the total campus area the number was then multiplied by 10 for a total of 788400 mquot2 To calculate the total annual runoff on the UT campus we used these two numbers but rst had to convert both to decimeters 2941 in 254 cm dm 746 dm m 01cm With that conversion for rainfall we then converted the area in mquot2 to dmA2 1 mquot2 100 dmquot2 so 788400 mquot2 78840000 dmquot2 From this we were able to calculate the annual runoff by multiplying the covered area in dmquot2 and the annual rainfall in dm to get the answer in dmquot3 746 dm X 78840000 dmquot2 588146400 dmquot3 Then because 1 dmquot3 1 L we have our calculated total runoff of 588146400 L Runoff can have damaging effects on the environment particularly in places like Austin that have many hills and valleys It can erode soil and carry away bene cial sediment along with the major ooding in lowlying areas that can drown out vegetation and damage property Additionally because it is running off it is not absorbing back into the ground and recharging the aquifers This can lead to severely depleted water tables which in coastal areas can result in saltwater intrusion However if this water could be harnessed and reused it could be highly bene cial While using it for eating and cooking is probably not advisable without treating it in some way it could be redirected and used for irrigation or re control in atrisk areas This would also require a good deal of energy for capture transportation and cleaning so the riskbene t analysis would have to show that it was a worthy expenditure This would allow humans to help negate the effect of the buildings that caused the runoff by redirecting it to useful channels Bibliography NOAA quotMONTHLYANNUAL AVERAGE PRECIPITATIONquot National Weather Service Southern Region Headquarters weathergov nd Web 31 Oct 2013 GRG 304E Lab 08 Title Objectives In Class Due Next Week Campus Area Runoff Calculation Understanding of runoff during storm events 1 2 3 Measure a defined area near the new CLA building 15 min Think where runoff does and where it does not occur during storm events Get back into class your TA will show you how to calculate runoff in class Take the map and the sketch paper handed out by your TA Each square in the sketch paper represents an area of 16 square meters Overlay it onto the map and calculate the runoff produced over this particular area red outline of campus The map represents 10 of the campus area Challenge find out what the average annual rainfall over the UT campus Austin is Considering that the particular area on the map is representative for all of campus Calculate the total annual runoff In your report present all calculations and pay attention to units Discuss your results with relevance to groundwater recharge and think about how to reuse the water generated by rainfall IF you know how to use a spatial analysis software package use it Let me know how you achieved your area calculation Lab 08 Assignment sheet Runoff especially in urban areas provides a signi cant challenge to city planners We will assess runoff using Waller Creek as an example The United States Geological Services USGS provides free publicly available environmental data incl but not limited to satellite imagery water quality air quality and others Using the link below explore and utilize the data provided by USGS You will further need the measurements taken during the lab in order to successfully complete the lab httptxusosoov Use the Historical Stream ow data Peak ow data set for the Waller Creek Measurement Station NW of the corner of E 23rd Street and San Jacinto Blvd Please note that all units are to be provided in metric units This means you will need to convert the measurements provided by USGS Runoff is calculated as a volumetric unit per time Discharge D Cross sectional area of water body A x speed V Equation 1 D A x V Typical units 0 D m3 5 o A m2 0 V ms Please note that this lab requires the results from last week39s run off calculation Combine the two labs into one lab report and state all methods used including last weeks Remember the proper structure Abstract Introduction 0 Think why this is important especially in light of city planning and climate change Methods 0 There was a theoretical component last week 0 And a eld component this week 0 Present all formulas used pay attention to units Resu s Present all calculations 0 Present maps graphics and interpret Discussion 0 Compare discharge measured during the lab and the max discharge indicated by USGS ls Waller Creek capable of draining the water from the campus area during a 100 mm storm event occurring over a period of 1 hour assuming equal rainfall distribution 0 What is the highest discharge for Waller Creek on the USGS record 0 Also compare the flow speeds at low water and during the record indicated by the USGS website References Cassidy Schap GRG304E Honors Meyer 7 November 2013 Runoff Lab I Abstract This report presents data concerning the annual runoff on the University of Texas at Austin campus Data in this lab was theoretically calculated using the approximated average annual rainfall in Austin TX along with the estimated area on campus in mquot2 that is covered by pavement or some other nonporous surface Scienti c measurements were taken by All runoff measurements were converted to decimetersquot3 and then converted to Liters in a 11 ratio The experiment concluded that theoretical measurements of runoff were than the scienti c calculations ll Introduction When cities are constructed areas that were once elds are paved over and replaced by hard nonporous surfaces These surfaces lack the ability to absorb water resulting in runoff after any signi cant amount of rainfall With the predicted changes in climate conditions ocean temperatures will eventually rise leading to more severe storms Larger volumes of rain can cause substantial problems for city planners when the water runs off of the concrete surfaces into lower lying areas resulting in ooding and potentially substantial property damage In more severe cases it can even lead to loss of human life These are the challenges city planners face as they expand further into the undeveloped countryside covering even more land with pavement They must nd ways to develop the land while managing the risks of ooding and damage from runoff Ill Methods Week 1 Theoretical calculations 1 Calculate average annual rainfall in Austin Tx a Using data collected from the past six years average the annual rainfalls to get the overall average b Formula Year 1 2007 Year 2 2008 Year 3 2009 Year 4 2010 Year 5 2011 Year 6 20126Average Annual Rainfall 2 Calculate total covered area on campus a Trace covered areas from map of section of campus onto graph paper b Calculate number of squares on graph paper within the area given by the map length width c Total of squares squares in uncovered area Covered squares d Covered squares 16 mquot2 Total covered area e Map represents 10 of campus so multiply covered area by 10 to determine total covered area on campus 3 Convert both numbers to decimeters a To convert inches of rainfall to decimeters convert inches to centimeters and centimeters to decimeters 1 inch 254 cm and 1 dm 1 cm b To convert area in mquot2 to dmquot2 remember that 1 mquot2 100 dmquot2 4 Calculate annual runoff in L a Covered area dmquot2 Annual Rainfall dm Annual runoff dmquot3 b Convert dmquot3 to L 1 dmquot3 1 L Week 2 Field Calculations 1 Note average rainfall over Waller Creek area 2Take measurements of the creek area a length of top bank length of bottom bank depth of river bwater velocity ms 3Cacuate the crosssectional area of Waller Creek a area formula for a trapezoid A 5b1b2h 4 Calculate discharge for Waller creek aD AV IV Results Week 1 Theoretical calculations 1 Calculate average annual rainfall in Austin Tx a 4591 in 1598 in 3411 in 2842 in 1690 in 3513 in6 2941 in 2 Calculate total covered area on campus a Trace covered areas from map of section of campus onto graph paper 62 squares 88 squares 5456 squares 5456 squares 528 squares 4928 squares 4928 squares 16 mquot2 78848 mquot2 e 78848 mquot2 10 788480 mquot2 3 Convert both numbers to decimeters a 2941 in 254 cmin dm01 cm 746 dm b 788480 mquot2 100 dmquot2mquot2 78848000 dmquot2 4 Calculate annual runoff in L a 78848000 dmquot2 746 dm 588206080 dmquot3 b 588206080 dmquot3 588206080 L of annual runoff Week 2 Field Calculations 1Average rainfall 828 m 2Take measurements of the creek area ab1 17m b2 7m h 39m bwater velocity 35 ms 3 Calculate the crosssectional area of Waller Creek 906 aA 5b1b2h 517739 468 mquot2 4 Calculate discharge for Waller creek a D AV 468351638 mquot3s V Discussion VI References quotClimate Change Impacts Stronger Storms and Hurricanesquot Natureorg The Nature Conservancy 28 Feb 2011 Web 04 Nov 2013 NOAA quotMonthlyAnnual Average Precipitationquot National Weather Service Southern Region Headquarters weathergov nd Web 31 Oct 2013 quotWater Resources of Texasquot Texas Water Science Center Home Page United States Geological Services 04 Nov 2013 Web 06 Nov 2013 lthttptxusgsgovgt Cassidy Schap GRG304E Meyer 14 November 2013 Diversity Measurement Lab I Introduction The purpose of this lab is to identify three species common to both urban and natural settings and measure whether they are more diverse in one setting or the other For my report the species I chose are Tipula oeracea crane y Actias una una moth and Peripaneta fuliginosa cockroach The settings in which I observed these species are the Arab Cowboy Hookah Lounge patio urban and the back deck of a lake house on Lake Conroe rural My hypothesis was that at similar times of day with similar amounts of light these three insect species would be more populous and diverse in the rural setting LMethods a Pick two locations one rural and one urban b Identify three to four species that are common to both areas c In both locations sit for 45 minutes at the same time of day and count the number of individuals present from each species d Create a table with the number of individuals per species and the total number of individuals in each area e Using the Simpson index formula calculate D diversity LResults a Two locations Arab Cowboy patio and back deck of lake house b Three species Tipula oeracea crane y Actias una una moth and Peripaneta fuliginosa cockroach c Time of day dusk around 600 pm d Arab Cowboy urban Species Name Number of Individuals n Tipula oeracea 19 Actias una 7 Peripaneta fuliginosa 28 Total 54 Lake Conroe rural Species Name Number of Individuals n Tipula oeracea 33 Actias una 12 Peripaneta fuliginosa 53 Total 98 e Arab Cowboy Species Name Number of nn1 Individuals n Tipula oeracea 19 342 Actias una 7 42 Peripaneta fuliginosa 28 798 Total 54 1182 La ke Con roe Species Name Number of nn1 Individuals n Tipula oleracea 33 1056 Actias luna 12 132 Periplaneta fuliginosa 53 2756 Total 98 3944 Mini 391 D 1 f Simpson index mm 4 Arab Cowboy D 1 11825453 D 5870021 Lake Conroe D 1 39449897 D 5851041 M Discussion The two habitats chosen for this lab were the back patio of the Arab Cowboy Hookah Lounge and the back deck of a lake house on Lake Conroe The Arab Cowboy is located on 24th street just past Towers University Dormitory and is relatively urban when compared to the deck of the lake house The patio mostly consists of wooden picnic tables on a gravel oor and the lighting comes from three strands of quotfairy lightsquot ie smaller versions of traditional Christmas lights strung across the wooden rafters of the patio39s roof The light is rather dim and the ying insects tend to hover around them while the cockroaches dart in and out from under the tables At the lake house the back deck is an elevated wooden area enclosed by wooden beams and it looks out over an area of short grass that spans outward about twenty meters before turning into taller grass The lake is approximately 300 meters away from the deck The light sources are two relatively dim oodlights attached to tail metal poles and again the insects showed a tendency to hover around them As predicted in my hypothesis the Simpson index for the lake house was lower than that of the Arab Cowboy meaning that the diversity was higher at the lake house This is likely because the area is more rural and thus is disturbed less by humans as compared to the patio at the hookah lounge Additionally the grass is taller which provides more places for the insect to live and feed on other insects as opposed to the gravel and wood at Arab Cowboy 1 References quotSimpsons Diversity Indexquot Simpsons Diversity Index Np nd Web 14 Nov 2013 Drees Bastiaan M and John A Jt Jackman A Field Guide to Texas Insects Houston TX Gulf 1998 Print Cassidy Schap GRG304E Honors Meyer 19 September 2013 Tar Sands Economic Godsend or Environmental Nightmare It is no secret that the United States is constantly looking for new sources of energy to keep fuel prices down and remain ahead of the game as a world leader In the past oil pipelines have been erected across the country to transport oil from all sides of the country However as concerns arise about the scarcity of oil and controversy about fracking continues the use of tar sands has become an issue Tar sands are viscous crude oil deposits mixed with clay sand and bitumen There are large deposits of tar sand in both Colorado and Utah though they are not yet being actively developed The United States major focus is the impending Keystone pipeline which would transport tar sands from Canada and the northernmost parts of the United States down to the Gulf of Mexico effectively spanning the entire width of the continental US The use of these tar sands would create thousands of jobs both on building the pipelines and extracting the oil Additionally the use of the sands would generate billions of dollars in revenue for the US economy However at what cost to the environment Tar sands require an incredibly resource heavy extraction process Because of this they produce as much as three times as much greenhouse gas as the extraction of regular oil would Not to mention that this makes tar sands one of the most expensive energy types in the world to produce In addition to the cost of refining the tar sands there are also concerns about the amount of water the process uses particularly in arid places that have shortages of water already Due to the waterintensive extraction process one barrel of oil from tar sands requires several barrels of water which has caused environmentalists to express concerns about how the process could be maintained in the long run if there is a drought or other similar shortage Yet another concern about the use of the sands is the very real possibility of spills and leaks as it is being transported The combination of the chemicals and the sand in the raw tar sands creates a heavily corrosive substance which easily damages steel leading to an unstable piping system Because tar sands differ from traditional crude oil the cleanup methods are not the same and it thus makes it significantly harder to remove the spilled tar sands In Michigan in 2010 a pipeline carrying tar sands leakcd spilling 819000 gallons of the toxic sands into the water supply In addition to the environmental setbacks the damage to the human population was significant as well People were plagued with migraines vomiting lethargy chronic coughs and more Allin all tar sands are a heavily controversial topic While it is possible that they may bring jobs and revenue to the United States economy there is much concern about whether it will be worth it in the long run if something were to go wrong like a spill or a leak into the water supply Even without a leak the cost will be high in damaged farmland destroyed habitats and carbon emissions ooding the air as the sands are mined in open pits that destroy much of the land surrounding them The reality is that the mining and transport of these tar sands will have a significant impact on the environment around them but it is now up to the government to decide whether they believe these impacts to be negligible enough to put their plans into motion Until then the only thing left is to wait and see Sources Np Web 19 Sep 2013 lthttpranorgwhataretarsandsgt quotTar Sand Basicsquot 2012 Oil Shale and Tar Sand Programmatic EIS Information Center Np Web 19 Sep 2013 lthttpostseisanlgovguidetarsandsgt Dirty F aels Tar Sands Perf Jackson Joshua Sierra Club 2012 Web 19 Sep 2013 Jervey Ben quotTar Sands in the United States What You Need to Knowquot DeSmag Blag Np 10 Apr 2012 Web 19 Sep 2013 Durbin M n page lthttpwwwpipelineandgasjournalcomkeystoneXlwillpipeenergyand economicsecurityusgt O39Sullivan Erin Np Web 19 Sep 2013 lthttpwwwearthisland0rgjournallindeXphpelisteListReadh0wtarsandsspillsfr0mmichi gant0arkansascostusa11gt


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