GRG 366C Activities 2, 4, 5
GRG 366C Activities 2, 4, 5 GRG 366C
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Cassidy Schap on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to GRG 366C at University of Texas at Austin taught by Thoralf Meyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Comparative Ecosystems in Geography at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Cassidy Schap Meyer Comparative Ecosystems 27 March 2014 Wind Farms Why quotNot in My Back Yardquot is Hurting the Planet There is no question that humans are consuming energy at rapidly increasing rates In the past 30 years the economy has experiences 33 growth and that growth has been accompanied by a 36 increase in energy consumption Saidur et al 2011 Unlike the most common forms of energy used today wind energy is not a fossil fuel and it therefore presents very little negative impact on the environment It is a green energy source that has the potential to provide the power that we need without the harsh impacts of coal and oil However there is still some opposition to the creation of wind farms based on the arguments that they pose a threat to bird populations and create a noise pollution problem nd these arguments faulty and I will explain why the good outweighs the potential negatives of wind turbines Skepticism is thrown on the implementation of wind turbines in rural areas because they aegedy pose a threat to migratory birds which face risk of injury or death when colliding with the turbines However studies have shown that the number of birds killed by rotor blades is minor in relation to the amount of migratory birds killed by vehicle collisions hunting and other anthropogenic sources Saidur et al 2011 J Bellebaum et al 2013 While it is true that the existence of wind turbines on the path of migratory birds could pose a small risk to their wellbeing it is a negligible risk in comparison to the other risks they face Indeed the good seems to outweigh the bad with wind energy providing a much more viable form of clean energy than other sources Saidur et al 2011 Additionally there are many ways to mitigate the problem by installing better lighting and making efforts to place the turbines out of the path of the birds Another concern about the introduction of windmills is the general issue with noise created by the turbines In a survey in an area considering implementing the turbines both people in support of and in opposition to the idea expresses irritation at the noise that would come from having the wind farm so close Groth and Vogt 2014 While it is true that the aesthetic effects of the wind farms may be of concern to some it is another case in which the good outweighs the bad The purpose of wind farms is to create a new source of energy that decreases our economy s dependence on foreign oil and the whooshing sound emitted from turbines is the price that is paid for it Additionally the turbines can be placed far enough away from residences that noise is reduced as well as ensuring that regular maintenance on the towers and engines prevents any avoided noise from becoming a problem Saidur et al 2011 The overwhelming theme is that public support is overall very high for the introduction of wind energy but when it comes time to bring them in individuals do not want to sacri ce their perceived comfort they re ne with it so long as it s not in their backyard However the windmills provide far more bene t than they do damage and that fact must be taken into account when considering whether a wind farm is a good idea Sources Saidur R NA Rahim MR Islam and KH Solangi quotEnvironmental Impact of Wind Energyquot Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 155 2011 2423430Web ofSCience Web 26 Mar 2014 J Bellebaum F KornerNievergelt T Durr and U Mammen quotWind turbine fatalities approach a level of concern in a raptor populationquot journal for Nature Conservation 216 2013394400 Web 0f5cience Web 26 Mar 2014 Theresa M Groth and Christine Vogt quotResidents39 perceptions of wind turbines An analysis of two townships in Michiganquot Energy Policy 65 2014 251260 Web ofSCience Web 26 Mar 2014 El Ni o and La Nina are both phases of what is known as the El Nina Southern Oscillation ENSO cycle This cycle causes uctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere in the Paci c Ocean The ENSO occurs irregularly but typically happens every three to six years During an El Niho event rainfall increases dramatically in some parts of the world while other parts experience prolonged droughts The episode lasts approximately one year and some areas receive rainfall amounts four to ten times higher than normal Holmgren et al 2001 Sea surface temperatures can rise by at least 05 degrees Celsius causing typically cold currents to become warmer During a La Nina event these effects are reversed with ocean temperatures becoming cooler than usual and El Nino rainfall effects to reverse t J a 2 e TH ENDS tn Emmi 3 Em39urf Regions showing increased precipitation blue and drier conditions orange during El Nino a and La Nina b phases of the ENSO phenomenon Holmgren et al 2001 Due to the increase in water temperature during an El Nino event some regions experience more storms than usual In these areas more latent heat is released as water changes states over the water and land More sensible heat is also recorded as the storms and the ocean currents heat up the air around them Conversely La Nina effects would cause drops in latent heat in areas experiencing droughts because less water is changing state Sensible heat will also be less because the cooler ocean currents cause a decrease in the temperature of the area ENSO events have a strong effect on the countries on the west coast of South America but Chile is affected especially The shing market is an enormous part of the economy occupying parts of both the agricultural sector and the industrial sector CIA 2014 The stability and health of the shing market off the coast of South America depends heavily on the upwelling of cold nutrient rich water to replace the depleted warmer surface water However during an ENSO event the change in ocean currents causes a diminished upwelling robbing marine life of the nutrients it needs Siel eld et al 2013 This puts a dent in the market as there is a less dense population of sh to drive the economy LOCALITY Arica Pisagua lquique Chipana Tocopilla Mejillones Antofagasta N9 89 80 79 53 44 42 36 SPECIES ENSO 198283 198687 199192 199798 Anormaly 55 9C 25 C 409C 509C N9 SPECIES 57 11 23 36 Bibliography Holmgren Milena Marten Scheffer Exequiel Ezcurra Julio Guti rrez and Godefridus MJ Mohren quotEl Ni o Effects on the Dynamics of Terrestrial Ecosystemsquot ii eno s in Ecology anol Evolution 162 February 2001 8994 Environmental Issues anol Policy Index Web 28 Jan 2014 Sielfeld Walter Mauricio Vargas Viviana Berrios and Gabriela Aguirre quotInvestigaciones Marinas Warm ENSO Events and Their Effects on the Coastal Fish Fauna of Northern Chilequot lnvestigaciones Marinas Np Dec 2013 Web 30 Jan 2014 quotSouth America Chilequot CIA World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency nd Web 29 Jan 2014 Cassidy Schap Comparative Ecosystems Meyer 9 April 2014 Hurricane Increase from a Physical Perspective Hurricanes typicay form over warm oceans as thunderstorms extracting latent heat from the surface of the water Energy ie temperature is key in the formation and intensity of hurricanes As the storms form they gain their strength and intensity from the heat of the water and they often ose strength as they pass over cooer waters moving west but pick back up as they near the warmer water in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico Because of this correlation much of the information regarding hurricane intensity focuses on the surface temperature of the ocean Emanuel 1999 The warmer the water is the more latent heat is taken up by the storm Ocean water evaporates and rises into the air which then condenses to form clouds and releases the latent heat into the atmosphere In a hurricane the heat is also released within the clouds further allowing the hurricane to feed off of this energy to gain strength North Carolina State University 2012 This is signi cant because climate change projections indicate that global ocean temperatures will rise accompanied by thermal expansion melting of land ice and consequent rises in sea level Mousavi et al 2011 This essentially translates into an increase in energy available for hurricanes to feed off of creating more frequent opportunities for the storms to gain power and become destructive These factors have the potential to lead to higher hurricane activity increased intensity and as a result signi cant increases in damage done to property and coastlines In conclusion the climate change will have a signi cant effect on hurricanes Rises in global temps will lead to higher ocean temperatures creating ideal conditions for hurricane formation and providing ample energy for the storms to feed off of as they become more intense Bibliography Emanuel Kerry quotThermodynamic Control of Hurricane Intensityquot Nature 401 1999 66569 Nature International Weeklyourna OfSCience 14 Oct 1999 Web 9 Apr 2014 quotLatent and Sensible Heatquot Climate Education Modules North Carolina State University 4 May 2012 Web 9 Apr 2014 Mousavi Mir Emad Jennifer Irish Ashley Frey Francisco Olivera and Billy Edge quotGlobal Warming and Hurricanes The Potential Impact of Hurricane lntensi cation and Sea Level Rise on Coastal Floodingquot Climatic Change 1043 2011 57597 EBSCO Web 9 Apr 2014
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