KIN360-ClassNotes.pdf KIN 360
Popular in Physical Growth and Motor Behavior
Popular in Kinesiology
verified elite notetaker
This 40 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 360 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. J Learnman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Physical Growth and Motor Behavior in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
Reviews for KIN360-ClassNotes.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/27/15
KIN 360 Physical Growth and Motor Behavior 82813 Exam 1 0 Motor development continuous agerelated process of change in movement as well as the interacting constraints in the individual environment and task that drive these changes 0 Why study it to know where you client should be based on age to know where your client was before the injury as far as motor skills 9413 Chapter 1 Physical Growth and Motor Development 0 Who cares about motor development 0 Educators gym teachers and early childhood therapists engineers and designers health care providers 0 Motor development development of movement abilities 0 Continuous process of change in functional capacity 0 Related to but not dependent on age 0 Sequential change 0 Cognitive 0 Social 0 Motor control nervous system s control of the muscles to permit skills and coordinated movements 0 Very closely related to motor development a lot of overlap 0 Physical growth quantitative increase in size or magnitude 0 For human from conception to late adolescence 0 Growth and motor development refer to size and functional capac y 0 Not referring to weight gain or mass gain due to strength training later in life Maturation progress toward physical maturity 0 State of optimal functional integration of an individual s body systems and the ability to reproduce 0 Development continues long after maturity is reached 0 Aging growing older 0 Changes that lead to the lost of adaptability or function and eventually leads to death 0 Newell39s Model patterns of interaction lead to changes in motor development may limit or discourage movements but at the same times encourage or permit other movements 0 Constraints structural and functional 0 Accounts for the complexity of the interaction of individual environmental and task along with age related change Individual constraints physical and mental characteristics 0 Example height limb length strength motivation 0 Structural relate to individuals body structure often change 0 Functional relate to behavioral functions change rapidly Motivation fear experience attention span Environmental constraints exist outside the body 0 Physical or sociocultural 0 Example Temp light humidity gravity surface Task constraints external to the body relate to goal of a movement or activity 0 Example for basketball put ball in hoop by passing shooUngd beng How do we know it is change 0 Could be lucky error in measurement record results over time to see if a trend is forming Picturing change on graph with x and y 0 Age on horizontal axis x days weeks months years 0 Measurement of interest on vertical axis y Paradox of universality vs variability o If you had a gym full of preschool aged children what would we see See a lot of the same motor skills but individually many speci c differences structural body differences Children can arrive at the same point developmentally using different pathways some will be above average some will be average and some will be below average Researching developmental change Longitudinal research study when the same individual or group is observed performing the same tasks or behaviors on numerous occasions over a long period of time 0 Example REM sleep over years of time Crosssectional research study where developmental change is IMPLIED by observing individuals or groups of varying ages at one point in time 0 Example going to a grade school and comparing the 3rd and 4th grade MixedlongitudinalSequential research study where several age groups are observed at one time or over a short time span 0 Permitting observation of an age span that is longer than the observation period Cohort group whose members share a common characteristic 0 Example age experience interests 9913 Chapter 2 Theories of motor development Maturation perspective motor development driven by maturation of systems neural systems 0 Minimal in uences of environment 0 Qualitative and discontinuous 0 History of the maturational perspective Gesell and McGraw in 19305 0 Suggested invariable genetically determined 0 Research cotwin control strategy 0 Associated motor behavior changes with development of nervous system 0 Advancement in CNS system triggers appearance of a new skill Longlast beliefs from maturation theory 0 Basic motor skills emerge automatically 0 No need for special training 0 Mild deprivation doesn t stop development 0 Nervous system is most important 0 Descriptive methodology in motor development 0 Characteristics of maturationists o Normative description 0 Quantitative scores used 0 Biomechanical descriptions of movement patterns in skills 0 Information processing perspective social learning by Bandura behaviorism by Skinner 0 Brain like a complex computer 0 Focus is on the environment 0 Research investigates stimulusresponse links feedback and knowledge of results 0 Young adults were studied rst as basis of comparison for performance of children and older adults Perceptual motor development inside information processing framework 19605 early work tried to link learning disabilities to delayed perceptual motor development Ecological perspective development driven by interrelationship of individual environment and task 0 Neural system one of many responsible for action 0 Control is distributed throughout the body global and local levels 0 Two branches Dynamic systems I Perceptionaction 0 Example teenager having difficulty swimming because they haven t been around water or parents don t know how to swim either Dynamic system theory 19805 by Kugler Kelso and Turvey 0 Body systems selforganize not driven solely by CNS 0 Body systems performer s environment and task demands interact 0 Some systems may develop more slowly in the young or degrade faster in the old 0 Change occurs across lifespan Perceptionaction theory jj Gibson in 19605 and 705 o Affordance function an environmental object provides to an individual Characteristics de ne objects meanings Object functions are based on individuals intrinsic dimension body scale Both branches of ecological perspective reject CNS as executive controller 91113 Chapter 3 Motion and Stability Biomechanics principle of mechanics to explore biology Developmental biomechanics changes in the biomechanics as we change movements Changes are Predictable 0 Can be seen across of motor skills 0 Often produce more force velocity or accuracy Newton39s rst law an object stays at rests stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by a force 0 Inertia is resistance to motion related to mass 0 Momentum Mass Velocity 0 We must exert force to move objectsourselves o More inertia means that it is harder to move the object Increase linear length and increase ROM for more force Newton39s second law object s force is related to mass and acceleration 0 Force Mass Acceleration 0 Acceleration ForceMass Newton39s third law for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction 0 When you push on something it pushes back on you Use force in the plane of motion where you want to move yourself or an object Avoid rotational movement to reduce force in the desired plane Increase rotational velocity swing it faster Increase relative length fully extend it at release or contact To make an object move increase force application for a given time 0 Example karate chop to bricks To make an object stop increase time over which a given force is appHed 0 Example soft landing in gymnastics Open Kinetic Chain correctly timed sequence of movements that an individual uses to successfully perform a skill Stability ability to resist movement 0 Increase it base of support lower the center of gravity Balance ability to maintain equilibrium 0 Increase it increase stability improve strength coordination and proprioception awareness to environment around you muscle awareness and body StabilityMobility trade off Using these principles of motion and stability to detect and correct errors Observe the complete skills Analyze each phrase and its key elements Use your knowledge of mechanics in your analysis Select errors to be corrected Decide on appropriate method for the correction of errors 91613 LJ39gtLJLJII I Chapter 4 Growth and Aging Change Individual Constraints Genetic and extrinsic factors in uence growth and aging Universality patterns that hold true for all humans Speci city individual variation Prenatal development early development is controlled by genes 0 Normal development and inherited abnormal development 0 Embryo or fetus is sensitive to extrinsic factors Positive and negative effects Invasive prenatal assessments o Amniocentesis sample of amniotic uid during pregnancy 0 Chorionic villus sampling procedure to diagnosefind conditions Noninvasive prenatal assessments 0 Ultrasound most common 0 3D images using new imaging software Embryonic development conception to 8 weeks 0 Differentiation of cells to form speci c tissues and organs 0 Limbs formed at 4 weeks 0 Human form noticeable at 8 weeks Fetal development 8 weeks to birth 0 Continued growth by hyperplasia increase in cell numbers and hypertrophy cell size gets bigger o Cephalocaudal head to toe and proximodistal near to far 0 Plasticity capability of taking on a new function Fetal nourishment oxygen and nutrients diffuse between fetal and maternal blood in the placenta 0 Poor maternal health status can affect fetus Abnormal prenatal development source of abnormal development can be genetic or extrinsic Congenital defects present at birth can derive from genetic or extrinsic source Genetic causes at abnormal development 0 Can be dominant defective gene from one parent disorders or recessive defective gene from each parent 0 Can result from mutation of a gene 0 Effects on growth and maturation are variable Extrinsic causes of abnormal development 0 Can affect fetus thru nourishment or physical environment 0 Teratogens delivered thru nourishment system act as malformationproducing agents 0 Teratogenic effects too much or too little of a substance 0 Placenta screen some substance large viruses but not all harmful ones 0 Harmful environmental factors pressure temp X and gamma rays oxygende cient atmospheres pollutants o Tissues undergoing rapid development at time of exposure are most vulnerable Teratogens harmful substances 0 Substances pregnant women should avoid sh mercury caffeine alcohol drugs certain cheeses smoking 0 What environmentsituations should pregnant women avoid radiation airplanes xrays contact sports resistance training avoid exercise on your back 0 What substances or supplements are women encouraged to take during pregnancy foic acid calcium iron Postnatal development overall growth foows sigmoid S shape pattern 0 Timing of spurt and steady periods can vary between individuals and genders 0 Timing differs between the sexes Height follows sigmoid pattern 0 Girls peak height occurs at 11512 years growth in height tapers off around 14 and ends around 16 0 Boys peak height occurs at 13514 years growth in height tapers off around 17 ends around 18 0 Long growth period of males contributes to absolute height differences Individual variation individuals can differ from the averages Weight follows sigmoid pattern 0 Susceptible to extrinsic factors like diet and exercise 0 Ppl grow up and then ll out Peak weight follows peak height 0 Boys 255 months 0 Girls 35105 months Relative growth body as a whole follows a sigmoid pattern speci c parts tissues organs have different growth rates 0 Body proportions change from headheavy shortlegged form at birth to adult proportion o In adolescence boys increase in shoulder breadth Physiological maturation as children and youth become older they grow in size and mature 0 Children vary in maturation rate 0 Difficult to infer maturity from age alone size alone or age and size together Secondary sex characteristics appear as a function of maturation Extrinsic in uences on postnatal growth individuals are especially sensitive during periods of rapid growth 0 Catchup growth demonstrates extrinsic in uences o Extrinsic factors affecting growth during pregnancy diet PA Adulthood and Aging 0 Height is stable in adulthood but may decrease in older adu hood Compression of cartilage pads Osteoporosis 0 Average adult starts gaining weight in the 205 Diet and exercise Loss of muscle mass Summary 0 Prenatal development is in uenced by genetic and extrinsic factors 0 Most extrinsic factors thru in uential thru the nourishment system 0 Growth abnormalities can be caused by genes environment or both 0 Whole body growth follows sigmoid pattern with timing differences between the sexes and between individuals 0 Growing older extrinsic factors contribute more to individual variability 91813 Exam 2 Chapter 5 Development and aging of Body system Ratelimiting constraints system that lags in development can be a developmental rate limiter Skeletal system embryo has a cartilage model of the skeleton o Ossi cation begins at primary centers in the midportions of long bones Postnatal growth in the skeletal system 0 Growth in bone length occurs at secondary centers at the ends of bones o Epiphyseal plates growth plates pressure epiphyses the centers 0 Appositional growth increase in bone girth o Traction epiphyses where the muscles attach tendons to bones Cessation of bone growth growth at the epiphyseal plates stops at different times for different bones o All typically close at 18 or 19 0 Closure occurs at a younger age in girls Skeletal systems in adults bone undergoes remodeling throughout the life span 0 Old bone is absorbed new bone is formed Bone growth slows fails to keep pace with reabsorption Bone becomes more brittle Structure itself changes little unless osteoporosis Extent of bone loss is in uenced by hormone levels diet and exercise Osteoporosis leads to rib cage collapse stooped posture reduced height 0 Too much protein not enough calcium OOOO Muscular system 0 Prenatal growth hyperplasia increase in cell production and hypertrophy increase in size 0 Postnatal growth hypertrophy 0 Muscle growth sigmoid pattern 0 Muscles increase in diameter and length by addition of sarcomeres 0 Differences between the sexes become marked in teen years Muscle ber type 0 Adult muscle is composed of type I slow twitch type lla type llb bers Type II fast twitch bers 0 At birth 1520 of bers are undifferentiated o By age 1 distribution of muscle ber type is similar to adult distributions Muscular system in adults 0 Loss of muscle mass is minimal until age 50 o By 80 average 30 of muscle mass is lost 0 Loss occurs in number and size of muscle bers around age 70 0 Type II bers undergo a greater loss Cardiac muscle 0 Prenatally hyperplasia and hypertrophy o Postnatally sigmoid pattern 0 Heart and blood vessels sized appropriate to body 0 Old age heart loses elasticity and valves become more brotic Adipose system 0 Some fat is needed for energy storage insulation protection 0 Fat increase until 6 months then gradually until 8 years old 0 Teen years girls increase fat more dramatically than boys do 0 Growth hyperplasia and hypertrophy 0 Individual variability great Fat distribution changes with growth 0 Children more internal fat because skeletal system isn t fully developed protection 0 Subcutaneous fat increase from age 67 years until 1213 in boys and girls 0 Subcutaneous fat continues to increase in girls Adipose tissue in older adults 0 Men and women gain fat during adulthood o Increases in trunk fat 0 Subcutaneous fat on limbs decrease 0 Example of excess adipose tissue fat exibility bending down Endocrine system regulates growth and maturation thru hormones 0 Excess or de ciency can alter growth 0 Hormones stimulate protein anabolism tissue building 0 Neurological feedback loops regulate hormone levels 0 lnsulin vital for carb metabolism Growth hormone secreted by anterior pituitary o Necessary for normal growth 0 De ciency can result in growth abnormality Thyroid hormones secreted by thyroid gland 0 In uence whole body growth 0 Plays a role in skeletal growth Gonadal hormones in uences growth sexual maturation o Androgen secreted by testes and adrenal glands in girls and boys Promote growth of muscle mass Hasten epiphyseal growth plate closure 0 Estrogen secreted by ovaries adrenal cortex in boys and girls Promotes accumulation of fat Quickens epiphyseal growth plate closure Endocrine system in older adults 0 lmbalances may develop between nervous endocrine and immune systems 0 Thyroid disorders are common 0 Decreasing gonadal hormone levels are associated with loss of bone and muscle tissue Nervous system genes direct its development 0 Extrinsic factors exert in uence in the formation of synaptic connections Prenatal neural development neuron formation differentiation into general type and migration Neuron once in place develop an axon to carry signals to neurons glands organs and muscles Teratogens might disturb normal migration and branching of neurons Early neural development late in prenatal development neurons start to re electrical impulses 0 Strengthen connections and weakens others 0 Neural network becomes more ef cient with experience Postnatal neurological growth brain growth increases rapidly after birth 0 Stimulation of learning increases number of synaptic connec ons Growth 0 increases in size of neurons 0 proli c branching to form synapses 0 increases in glial cells for support and nourishment of neurons 0 increases in myelin to insulate axons Brain structures 0 spinal and lower brain centers are relatively advanced at birth 0 cerebral cortex becomes more functional after birth 0 myelination of axons allows faster conduction of neural impulses 0 direction of myelination tends to follow direction of conduc on Nervous system in older adults aging involves loss of neurons dendrites synapses neurotransmitters and myelin Exercise promotes improved cognitive function Summary 0 Systems interact as they develop and age 0 During periods of rapid change a system might be more sensitive to extrinsic factors 0 Extrinsic factors play a greater role genetic factors lesser role as one moves through life 0 Model of constraints shows that a system can act as rate limiter during growth or as accelerator of aging 100713 Interacting constraints allow young infants to learn to drive Early Motor behavior 0 Re exive stereotypical responses elicited by speci c external stimuli o Spontaneous movements not caused by known external stimuli Spontaneous behavior 0 Original theory extraneous no purpose 0 Current theory building blocks similar to some voluntary movements 0 Examples spontaneous arm movements resembles reaching spontaneous kicking resembles adult walking Re exes o Re exive movements occur quickly after onset of stimuli o Involve single muscle or speci c group of muscles 0 Cant be extinguished at any one time o Persistence may indicate neurological problems Purpose of Re exes o Builtin responses facilitate survival 0 Allow dialogue with environment 0 Re exive movements result in sensory consequences adaptation 0 Provide building blocks for future movement Primitive re exes 0 Protection nutrition survival 0 Appear during gestation or at birth 0 Disappear by 6 months of age Postural re exes 0 Basis for future movements 0 Stimulation from higher brain centers 0 Eventually modi ed into more complex patterns to initiate voluntary movement Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Re ex infant starts in supine position 0 Stimulus turns head to one side 0 Response sameside arm and leg extend Palmar Grasp Re ex o Stimulus touch palm with nger or object 0 Response hand closes tightly around nger or object Symmetrical Tonic Neck Re ex infant starts in supported sitting position 0 Stimulus extend head and neck or ex head and neck 0 response arms extend and legs ex or arms ex and legs extend 0 place baby in a sitting position tip forward neck exes arm ex legs extend 0 place baby in a sitting position tip backward neck extends arms extend legs ex Moro Re ex infant starts in supine position 0 Stimulus shake head by tapping pillow 0 Response arms legs ngers extend then arms and legs ex Stepping Re ex o Stimulus place soles of feet on at surface 0 Response legs move in walking pattern What constraints exist during the re exive period 0 Structural functional environmental physical environment sociocultural task goals rules equipment Later infancy voluntary control of movements 0 Understanding of environment object in environment 0 Meaningful interactions with others 0 Postural reactions Postural reactions begin around 4 months help maintain in changing environment 0 Initially similar to re exes then incorporated into general repertoire Labyrinthine Righting Re ex infant is supported upright o Stimulus tilt infant 0 Response head moves to stay Derotative Righting infant starts in supine position 0 Stimulus turn head to one side or turn legs and pelvis to others side 0 Response body follows head in rotation or trunk and head follow in rotation Parachute infant is held upright o Stimulus lower infant toward ground rapidly 0 Response legs and arms extend Motor Milestones o Fundamental motor skills building blocks leading to complex motor skills cumulative sequential 2 months lifts head in prone position 3 months lifts shoulders turns head 5 months rolls over sits unsupported 7 months gets on hands and knees 8 months creeps army crawl crawls on hands and knees o 9 months pulls to stand cruises furniture 0 10 months stands alone 0 12 months walks alone Rate LimitersControllers individual constraints that inhibit or slow attainment of a motor skill o Rapidly changes during early childhood Rate limiters for posture and balance appear to involve coupling of sensory info and motor response Infants continuously calibrate sensory motor response Structural explanation re exes re ect the structure of the nervous system Functional explanation re exes help an infant survive Applied explanation re exes lead up to voluntary skills giving infants an opportunity to practice coordinated movements before they are voluntary The perspective that re exes are not related to later voluntary movement is consistent with maturational theory 0 as the cerebral cortex and spinal motor pathways mature the cortex takes control over lower brain and spinal cord centers OOOOO The perspective that re exes are related to later movement is consistent with dynamic systems theory 0 Re exive movements can be elicited or damped by manipulating task and environmental constraints Individual constraints 0 Maturation of the CNS 0 Development of muscular strength and endurance 0 Development of posture and balance 0 Improvement of sensory processing 100913 3 voluntary movement groups 0 stability head control upright posture o locomotion crawling creeping walking 0 manipulation reaching grasping releasing Individual constraints CNS maturation high strength and endurance high postural balance high sensory processing movement experiences Environmental constraints parental handling 1st child syndrome play area Cephalocaudal pattern of development head control upper body control lower body control Locomotion moving from place to place 0 Moving on one two or four limbs Crawling walking running hopping skipping galloping etc Crawling moving on hands and abdomen all four limbs in contact with oor inef cient body is dragged Creeping moving on hands and knees all four limbs in contact with oor body is elevated off the oor more ef cient Rate limiters balance strength coordination Walking rst form of upright bipedal locomotion 50 phasing of legs 0 Period of double support both feet followed by a period of single support Early walking max stability and balance arms in high guard feet spread out 0 Rate controllers strength and balance Pro cient walking trading stability for mobility o Stride length increase base of support is reduced pelvis is rotated opposition of arms and legs occurs Later walking outtoeing increases stride length decreases pelvic rotation decreases speed decreases objects are used as balance aids Early walking myth there is little evidence that early walking will accelerate or re ne future skill performance Running occurs 67 months after walking 50 phasing of legs ight phase followed by single support Early running arms in high guard limited range of motion short stride length little rotation Pro cient running increased stride length planar movement narrow base of support trunk rotation opposition Later running patterns help increase stability and balance 0 Decreases in stride length ROM number of strides speed 0 Rate controllers balance and strength jump individual propels self off ground with one or two feet lands on two 0 Children begin simple jumping before 2 0 Vertical or horizontal jump in front or back of you jumps 0 Rate limiters force production project body off ground Early jumping only jumping vertically onefoot take off landing no or limited preparatory movements Pro cient jumping preparatory crouch maximizes takeoff force 0 Both feet leave ground at the same time 0 Arm swing utilized during jump o For vertical jump force is directed downward and body is extended 0 For horizontal jump force is directed down and backward knees are exed during ight Hop individual propels self off ground with one foot lands on same foot 0 Starts later than jumping 0 Rate limiters force production balance force absorption Early hop support leg is lifted not projecting the body arms are inactive swing leg is held rigidly in front of body Pro cient hopping swing leg leads hip and moves thru full ROM support leg extends fully at hip oppositional arm movement generates force support leg is exed on landing Leap individual propels self off ground with one foot extends ight period lands on opposite foot Gallop forward step on one foot leap on other 0 Pro cient individual can lead with either leg arm can be used 0 Rate controller coordination differential force production Slide sideways step on one foot leap on other 0 Rate controller coordination turning to one side Skip symmetric alternating stephops on one foot then on the other 0 Pro cient oppositional arm swing 0 Rate controller coordination ability to perform two tasks with one leg Early galloping sliding skipping o Arrhythmic and stiff movements 0 Little or no arm movement 0 Little or no trunk rotation o Exaggeration of vertical lift 0 Short stride or step length Pro cient galloping sliding skipping knees on landing movements are rhythmic heelfoot or forefoot landings 101413 Ballistic skills performer applies force to an object in order to project it 0 Example throwing kicking striking 0 Not all individuals reach highest developmental steps 0 Older adults appear to maintain coordination of ballistic movements Assessment of ballistic skills 0 Developmental sequences can be used as checklist 0 Individuals are in a developmental step if a majority of executions fall into that category 0 Observation should be conducted from the appropriate direction Throwing underhand one or two arm sidearm overarm one or two arm 0 Most common in sport onehand over arm Product measures outcome accuracy distance ball velocity quantitative 0 Example throwing velocity jumping distance Process measures movement pattern developmental sequences qualitative 0 Example assessing whether or not a child follows through after kicking a ball examining arm location during running Product scores are feedback for children Practitioners focus on process measures Early overarm throwing mostly arm action elbow pointed throw executed by elbow extension alone Pro cient overarm throwing for force thrower uses windup opposite leg long step differentiated trunk rotation 0 Upper arm and forearm lag o Movements are sequential to transfer momentum Developmental change in overarm throwing o Trunk action no forward or backward movement block rotation differentiated rotation o Backswing no forward or backward movement should exion upward backswing downward circular backswing 0 Foot action no step homolateral step short contralateral step long contralateral step 0 Upper arm action oblique aligned but not independent lagging o Forearm action no lag lag delayed lag Throwing in Adulthood 0 Older adults demonstrate moderately advanced steps 0 Difference observed between the sexes 0 Ball velocities moderate o Musculoskeletal constraints might in uence movement patterns 0 Change is slow involves decline in performance related to control Throwing for Accuracy may use lower developmental steps Kicking strikes ball with foot need eyefoot coordination Early kicking no step is taken with nonkicking leg kicking leg pushes forward Pro cient kicking windup is used trunk rotates forward arms move in opposition to legs 0 movement is sequential thigh rotates forward then lower leg extends o Punting ball is dropped from than hands then kicked more difficult Early punting ball is tossed up rather than dropped punter often contacts ball with toes rather than instep o Pro cient punting arms are extended to drop ball before nal stride arms then drop to sides and move into opposition to legs punter leaps onto supporting leg swings punting leg vigorously up to make contact punting leg is kept straight toes are pointed 0 Developmental changes in punting arms 0 Ballrelease phase upward toss late drop from chest height late drop from waist height early drop from chest height 0 Ballcontact phase arm drop arm abduction arm opposition No short step ankle exed long step ankle extended leap and hop 0 Sidearm striking various body parts can be used hitting with a racket 0 Early sidearm striking chopping motion elbow extension little leg and trunk movement Pro cient sidearm striking sideways preparatory stance and long step trunk rotation horizontal swing through large ROM sequential movements 0 Developmental changes in sidearm striking 0 Sequences for foot and trunk in overarm throw can be used Trend is toward use of trunk rotation Plane of swing progresses from vertical to horizontal Grip changes from power grip to quotshakehands grip Elbows are held away from the body and extended before contact Overarm striking without an implement volleyball serve with an implement tennis serve 0 Early overarm striking limited trunk rotation swing with collapsed elbow little or no lag with swing forward much like early throwing in appearance 0 Pro cient overarm striking lower and upper trunk are rotated more than 90 degrees elbow is held between 90 and 119 degrees at start of forward movement racket lags behind arm in forward movement is sequential 0 Developmental changes in overarm striking o Trunk upper and lower arm and leg similar to overarm throwing o Preparatory trunk action no trunk rotation minimal trunk rotation total trunk rotation o Elbow action in ballcontact phase very small or very large angle intermediate angle 289 degrees ideal angle 90 119 degrees 0 Spinal and pelvic ROM rotation of less than 45 degrees rotation of 4589 degrees rotation of 90 degrees or more 0 Racket action no racket lag racket lag delayed racket lag 0 Older adult striking reach peak force earlier in swing may need to exert more force than younger golfers for same shot are just as accurate as younger golfers O O O 0 102113 0 Fine motor movement movements that are predominantly produced by the small muscles or muscle groups in the body 0 Manipulation use of hands 0 Intrinsic and extrinsic movements Intrinsic managing an object already in the hand Extrinsic displacing objects thru movements of the upper limb Simple synergies of manipulation action of all the digits is similar digits converge on an object 0 Example squeezing a rubber ball handwriting Reciprocal synergies of manipulation thumb and other digits more reciprocally and simultaneously to produce relatively dissimilar movements 0 Example twiddling thumb rolling a pen back and forth between ngers exion of ngers as thumb extends Sequential patters of manipulation sequence of hand movements not simultaneous systematic sequence of hand movements leads to attainment of goal 0 Example tying a knot unscrewing a lid Prehension Halverson 1931 act of capability of holding and manipulating objects in various ways in uenced by maturation 0 Example approaching grasping reaching 0 Power arm or body is primary mover 0 Precision used for ne manipulation tasks Grasping prehension is the grasping of an object 0 Object size and shape in uence type of grasp Hohlstein o 10 phases of development Halverson 4 months capable of making contact with an object failure 5 months ability to contact crudely failure primitive squeeze scooped against body with arm 6 months squeeze grasp clumsy unsuccessful sweep amp palm 7 months hand grasp top amp palm I 8 months superior palm grasp whole ngers from side with help 9 months inferior fore nger grasp whole ngers from side without help 13 months fore nger grasp nger tips whelp superior fore nger grasp nger tips without help Haptic perception the ability to acquire info about objects with the hands to discriminate and recognize objects from handling them as opposed to looking at them 0 Temp size volume texture weight shape hard soft Handmouth movements 0 34 months infants become consistent in moving the hand to mouth o 5 months infants open the mouth in anticipation of hand s ardval 3 phases of object manipulation o Birth3 months babies clutch object with st palmar grasp suf cient to detect haptic qualities of an object o 4 months variety of hand movements visual control of manipulation exchange object from hand to hand 0 910 months twohanded manipulation easy one hand can position while the other hand explores Bimanual control complementary use of two hands to achieve a goal 0 2 months bilateral extension and raising of arms 4 months clasps hands at midline 45 months reach for objects with both hands 8 months bangs two objects together 1 year pulls objects apart and connect objects together 0 End of year 2 complimentary activities with two hands Development of writing technique develops between 26 mature writing pattern observed at 7 Developmental changes of writing 0 Hand moves closer to the tip of the pencil o Movements come from the shoulder then elbow 0 Fingers and thumb gain control dynamic tripod how adults write Supinated grasp uses all four ngers and thumb wrapped around pencil in a st Pronated grasp palm down hand position Dynamic tripod thumb middle nger index nger mature way 0 at 7 and continues to re ne up to 14 Handwriting o 4 uppercase large unorganized on the page 0 56 mastered printing 0 7 smaller letters and can print lowercase letters 0 78 master uppercase letters and printing name 0 9 years spacing between letters is mastered Reaching improves when infants can maintain postural control Manual performance declines after age 50 o Movements slowed coordination scores declined Rapid aiming movements initiation and acceleration to peak velocity then deceleration and termination phase Fundamental manipulative skills performer gains possession or control of an object catching is the most common OOOO 0 Catching objects are catch in the hands so they can be manipulated 0 Beginning catching children sometimes trap ball against chest or turn their head and close their eyes 0 Pro cient catching hands give with the ball to gradually absorb force catcher moves from side to side or forward and back to intercept the ball ngers are pointed up for high balls and down for low balls 0 Developmental changes in catching 0 Arm action little response hugging scooping arms give 0 Hand action palms up palms in palms adjusted 0 Body action no adjustment awkward adjustment proper adjustment 0 Anticipation involved in manipulative tasks and interception skills 0 Coincidenceanticipation tasks anticipating completion of movement to coincide with arrival of moving object 0 Perceptionaction perspective 0 lnvariants stable patterns 0 Expanding optical array visual pattern that expands or constricts on the retina Catching in older adulthood little research is available less accurate can improve with practice in uenced by factors affecting movement speed or ability to reach Manipulative skills set humans apart 0 Infants become skilled at reaching and grasping Children are accomplished catchers by 11 or 12 years age but catching tasks that require movement are difficult Again probably affects getting to a ball more than it affects manipulative aspects of catching Assessment of catching o For comparisons task and environmental constraints must be consistent 0 Number of catches in a set of attempts can be scored 0 The developmental sequence can provide info about the movement process 102813 Exam 3 Sensation neural activity triggered by a stimulus activating a sensory receptor oTravel thru sensory nerve pathways to the brain Perception multistage process in the CNS 0 Selection processing organization integration of info from senses o Perception gives meaning illusions Sensation vs Perception identical sensation can yield different perceptions Sensory systems function as individual structural constraints Visual development infants have functionally useful vision 0 6 months vision is adequate for locomotion thru the Acuity sharpness of sight 0 1 month acuity is 20400 5 of adult level 0 10 years 2020 Measurement of acuity reading block letters where size of 0 Results expressed on Snellen scale and toddlers Visual changes with aging 0 Older adults need more light in dim environments Presbyopia affects ability to see nearby images can be Symptoms of visual problems at any age 0 Lack of handeye coordination O Unusual head movements Visual perception space objects movements Development of space perception 0 Infants have mechanics for retinal disparity and motion Perception of objects size shape motion based on info aboutedges 0 Whole and part Shape and orientation 0 Focuses on the visual auditory and kinesthetic senses environment 5 years 2030 0 spaces between parts of letters can be manipulated Optokinetic nystagmus re ex that can be used with infants 0 Decline ability for skills and everyday living tasks corrected 0 Squinting Under or overreaching for objects 0 Perception of space requires perception of depth and distance from retinal disparity motion parallax or optic ow parallax o 6 months infants perceive depth Aspects of object perception 0 Figure and ground 0 Development of object perception o Infants may use depth and motion more than edges o Children re ne gureground and wholepart perception o Preadolescents reach adult levels Distance and object perception interact o With good visual perception objects retain size even if retinal image size changes due to change in distance from observer to object Development of shape and orientation perception o Newborns are sensitive to object and shape o Newborns perceive faces mother s face at 4 days old Perception of motion some neurological mechanisms are dedicated to detecting motion infants perceive motion Kinesthesis arise from proprioceptors two types somatosensors and vestibular apparatus Kinesthetic receptor in muscle spindles Golgi tendon organs joint receptors vestibular semicircular canals cutaneous receptors Kinesthesis in infancy o Receptors probably function prenatally o Newborns respond to touch and can locate touches to the face o Vestibular functions by age 2 or earlier Kinesthetic changes with aging o Research is sparse some older adults experience loss of sensitivity Kinesthetic perception o Single vs multiple touch points o Objects o Body o Limb movements o Spatial orientation and direction Tactile localization newborns can feel touches perception of touch location improves in early childhood o one touch and two touch nearby touches improves in cthhood Object perception infants explore manually and orally purposeful manual exploration improves in childhood Preferential looking infants look at new or novel objects over familiar ones attention wanders from objects to which the infant knows already Body awareness identifying body parts knowing body s special dimensions Laterality knowing sides of body are distinct 0 Children show adult like responses by age 10 o Labeling left and right improves in late childhood o Children with developmental delay struggle to cross midline of body with hand and arm to complete a task on opposite sides Lateral dominance preferring one eye ear hand or foot over the other o Infants show preference o no evidence shows that pure dominance is necessary Limb movement we must be able to reproduce a limb movement or relocate a limb position o Perception of limb movement improves in late childhood Spatial orientation and direction directionality improves in late cthhood Kinesthetic changes with aging o Some sensitivity may be lost o Older adults show impairments in judging passive leg movements oAccuracy in judging muscle tension is retained o More research is needed Hearing structures external ear middle ear cochlea of the innerear Auditory in infancy infants threshold for sound is higher than adults but allows detection of normal speaking voice o 3 months hear low frequency sounds o infants listen to speech more than music Auditory changes with aging o Hearing loss presbycusis is more frequency in older adu s Can be physiological or exposure to environmental noise patterns auditory gure and ground 3 years children can locate even distant sounds o o 14 months can discriminate basic speech sounds o Older adults may have difficulty with speech perception oTemporal patterns perceived by age 1 Auditory perception location differences in similar sounds Location 0 Newborns turn in the direction of sound o Older adults have difficulty locating sounds Differences E Accuracy improves in childhood due to declines in sensitivity to pure tones Patterns time intensity frequency o Intensity changes detected by 511 months Simple frequency patterns are discriminated under 6 months Figure and ground o Infants can distinguish a sound from ambient noise o Older adults dif culty in hearing conversations and background noise Sensory development sensory systems are functional at birth improvement during infancy is rapid Perceptual development infants have basic ability complex judgment improves in childhood adults have difficulty perceiving if senses are impaired lntermodal perception events are perceived through various modalities O o Begins at birth o Infants must learn how unique sensations from different modalities are related to one another o Infants must learn about the world from uni ed info coming thru different modalities o Matching tasks and subtle discrimination improves throughout childhood and adolescence o Accuracy of performance is related to order of presentation easiest versions present visual info rst Amodal invariants patterns in space or time that do not differ across modalities Auditoryvisual intermodal perception newborns turn toward sound Visualkinesthetic intermodal perception infants seem to relate objects they can see to objects they have mouthed o 1 year recognition of an object across modalities o selecting items that match across modalities comes later Auditorykinesthetic intermodal perception perception improves in childhood more research is needed Spatialtemporal intermodal perception space and time are variant across modalities o Integrating two spatial stimuli is easiest two temporal stimuli is hardest Integrating spatial and temporal stimuli is intermediate in dif culty Ability to integrate subtle aspects continues to improve 0 0 103013 Role of action in perception o Developmentalists think movement is important to perceptual development Piaget on perceptualmotor theories of the 19605 0 Reality is constructed by relating action to sensory info 0 Children move thru stages 0 Perception and action are not well organized in infancy Perceptualmotor activities give children experience in performing skills based on perceptual info also reinforce concepts like shapes and direction Motor and cognitive development are intertwined 0 Part of prefrontal cortex and contralateral neocerebellum are coactivated o Prefrontal cortex might be involved in motor activity 0 Caudate nucleus and dopamine are involved in neural circuits Ecological views 0 Reality does not need to be constructed 0 Perception of environment is head of purposeful movement 0 Perceptionaction loops guide movement Recent research 0 Perception develops ahead of movement skills 0 Movement skills are acquired with guidance and perceptual info 0 New actions make new info available 0 Exercise stimulates brain activity that helps learning and memory Held and Hein 1963 o Placed kittens in a merrygoround one kitten in a gondola the other able to walk 0 Both had equivalent perceptions but only one was able to move 0 Motor skill development in the passive kitten was hindered Bertenthal Campos amp Barrett 1984 Kermoian amp Campos 1988 o Locomotor experience was provided to prewalkers by baby walkers o Locomotor experience rather than age was associated with response to heights 0 Perception of spatial relationships was enhanced by locomotor experience Lockman 1984 McKenzie amp Bigelow 1986 0 Study challenged infants to move around barriers 0 Spatial perception improved with increased locomotor expenence Gibson et al 1987 o Locomotor experience in uenced perception of surfaces and slopes 0 With increased experience infants showed more sensitivity to surfaces and slopes Perception of affordances o Ecological view it is the affordance that is perceived Affordances involve what the environment permits given the capabilities of the performer They are perceived directly without cognitive analysis of object characteristics 0 Example stairs afford climbing Warren 1984 related stair height to leg length No single model has been found to apply over the life span Affordance incorporate body scale 0 Body scale is an individual s size relative to the environment 0 Body scales change over the life span 0 Scaling of sports equipment and environments allows individuals of various sizes to perform similar movements 0 Tool use in the rst year 0 Infants use trialanderror exploration 0 Infants relate objects to other objects and to surfaces 0 Affordances involve relationships between objects 0 Selfgenerated opportunity for perceptual learning exists tool use facilitates perceptual development 0 Movement facilities perceptual development 0 Deprivation can put individuals at risk of de cient perceptual development 0 Movement experience might in uence survival of synaptic connections in early development Perceptionaction ecosystem posture and balance 0 Involves visual auditory and kinesthetic input from proprioceptive and vestibular receptors 0 Posture and balance are maintained in various situations Stationary and moving on various body parts and surfaces 0 Posture and balance are speci c to environmental and task constraints 0 Balance in childhood 0 Balance improves throughout childhood and adolescence 0 Pattern of improvement is task speci c 0 Trend is to rely more on kinesthetic information and less on visual information 0 Balance during locomotion 0 We use frames of reference Supporting surface gravity 0 Challenge is to control the many degrees of freedom of movement at the various body joints We can stabilize our heads on our trunks We can stabilize head position orientation of head in space 0 Challenges to balance Assaiante Model model identi es four time periods 0 Birth to standing cephalocaudal direction of muscle control 0 Standing to age 6 years coordination of upper and lower body 0 Age 7 years through adolescence re nement of head stabilization o Adulthood re ned control of degrees of freedom in the neck 0 Task of childhood Learn how different frames of reference complement each other during movement 0 Balance changes with aging younger adults 0 Younger adults on a movable platform use ankle muscles to regain balance after small slow perturbations 0 They use a hip strategy to regain balance after larger faster perturbations Balance changes with aging older adults perturbation 0 take longer to initiate a response to perturbation 0 They sometimes use the opposite pattern of younger adu s System changes contributing to balance dif culty in older adults 0 Changes in sensory receptors 0 Loss of strength 0 Arthritic conditions in joints 0 Slower nerve conduction speed 0 Balance training with older adults 0 Balance improves with practice in responding to perturbations 0 Exercise programs that stress strength and balance reduce falls 0 Assessment of postural control and balance 0 We can observe responses on a force plate when balance is perturbed when perceptual information from one system con icts with that from another system and when one source of information such as vision is taken away 0 Observation can involve electromyographs Perception and action as an ecosystem 0 Actions are coupled with perceptions 0 Movement experience is important to and facilitates perceptual development 0 Perceptual system environment interactions demonstrate interdependence of movement and perceptual development 111313 Sociocultural constraints culturally speci c concepts about movement behaviors environmental constraint 0 Social values mores customs ideals Social constraints universal group attitudes values and mores that in uence behaviors of individuals within the group 0 Create an atmosphere encouraging socially acceptable movement activities and discouraging ones that are not socially acceptable Gender typing sex refers to male or female biological characteristics gender refers to socially determined masculine or feminine characteristics 0 Example of a sociocultural constraint 0 People encourage children to participate in quotgender appropriate activities Boys masculine sports football wrestling Girls feminine sports gymnastics gure skating o Societal attitudes about genderappropriate activities can restrict physical activity options for boys and girl Socialization Process all lead to social role 0 Socializing agents family peers coaches teachers 0 Social situations games play environment toys 0 Personal attributes perceived sport ability Signi cant others in uential people who are considered socializing agents 0 Parents important during childhood gender of both child and parent matters fathers reinforce gender typing same sex parent may be more in uential o Siblings is an individual s rst playgroup girls sport participation is in uenced by brothers and sisters as people grow older sibling in uence tends to diminish 0 Peers important after childhood provide a strong in uence for group activities like sports team 0 Coaches and Teachers research is inconclusive regarding their role in socialization in PA research suggests they act primarily to reinforce existing socialization patterns Social situation play environments and games can act as constraints 0 Lack of adequate space can diminish opportunities for gross motor activity 0 Gendertyped play environments games and toys can deprive girls of opportunities to perform complex difficult skills 0 Understanding sociocultural constraints 0 We are often unaware of our sociologically or culturally based assumptions about groups of people 0 We often teach activities favored by the dominant culture o It can be uncomfortable to examine our personal biases or those of our culture 0 By exploring sociocultural constraints we gain greater insight into human motor development 111813 0 7 things parents do to make their kids hate sports 0 They forget their children are kids they embarrass their kids they compare their kids they don t show up they overschedule their kids they live through their kids they don t look out for their kids 0 What parents should say when their kids perform 0 Before the competition have fun play hard I love you 0 After the competition did you have fun I m proud of you I love you Psychosocial in uences interaction of individual functional constraints with environmental sociocultural constraints SelfEsteem social interactions and emotions equal selfesteem 0 Social interactions parental appraisal comparison with others teacher or coach feedback 0 Emotions enjoyment pride excitement with success disappointment stress with failure Selfesteem selfevaluation of individual capability o lndividual s belief in correctness of selfevaluation more important than accuracy of selfevaluation 0 Domains social academic physical Development of selfesteem children under 10 depend on appraisals of and comparisons with peer to determine physical competence o Emotions associated with participant in sport and PA affect self esteem development 0 Casual attributions reasons people give for their successes and failures 0 Individuals tend to act in ways that con rm their beliefs 0 An individual with high selfesteem makes the following casual attributions Internal individual responsible for own successfailure Stable outcomein uencing factors consistent from one situation to next Controllable individual in control of outcome in uencing factors 0 An individual with low selfesteem makes the following casual attributions External success and failure due to in uences outside the individual Unstable outcome based on uctuating in uences outside the individual Uncontrollable individual unable to control or in uence outcome Children s attributions 0 Children with high selfesteem give internal stable controllable reasons for outcomes 0 Children with low selfesteem tend to make inaccurate attributions about outcomes and exhibit unwillingness to try challenging tasks lack of effort to do well avoidance of participation Adult s attributions o Observing past and present accomplishments and failures 0 Comparing themselves with others 0 Receiving verbal persuasion from others 0 Observing their physiological state or tness level Motivation to participate o Selfesteem and motivation to participate are related in both children and adults 0 High motivation level is essential for beginning or maintaining participation in sports and physical activities Children s reasons for persistence 0 Be competent by improving skills or attaining goals Affiliate with or make new friends Be part of a team Undertake competition and be successful Havefun 0 Improve tness Children s reasons for dropping out o Dislike of coach Lack of playing time Too much pressure Too much time required Overemphasis on winning Lack of fun 0000 00000 0 Lack of progress 0 Lack of success Adult participation levels may be limited by these factors Stereotypes of appropriate activity levels 0 Limited access to facilities and programs 0 Childhood experiences 0 Concerns over personal limitations on exercise 0 o O Belief that exercise is harmful to health Lack of role models 0 Lack of knowledge about appropriate exercise programs Adult exercise participation personal incentives sense of self perceived options Psychosocial in uences across the life span 0 Physical activity has been proven bene cial at all ages 0 Participation in physical activity re ects motivation to participate o Motivated individuals at all ages tend to have higher levels of selfesteem o Selfesteem can be improved through efforts of peers teachers coaches and signi cant others Knowledge bases performance related to size of knowledge base sport or danceform speci c 0 Less need to remember great deal of info 0 More effective use of cognitive processes 0 Less demand for conscious attention to some tasks Performance enabled by practice of physical skills and by increased knowledge Types of knowledge 0 Declarative factual info topicspeci c 0 Procedural howto info topicspeci c 0 Strategic general rules and strategies generalizable across activities NoviceExpert differences 0 Have more declarative and procedural knowledge Organize information in a methodical structure Make more inferences Analyze problems at a more advanced level Recognize patterns more quickly Preplan some responses to speci c situations Organize knowledge relative to the goal of the game 0 Spend much time learning about the topic Development of knowledge base declarative knowledge comes before procedural knowledge and strategic develops last Gender differences in sport performances may result partially from differences in knowledge of a sport OOOOOO 0 Boys sport knowledge development is promoted Knowledge bases in older adulthood 0 Expert knowledge might offset some loss of physical ability 0 Learning about an activity can improve older adults performances Assessment of decision making as an indicator of knowledge 0 Written knowledge tests 0 Interviews 0 Observing recording coding decisions made by athletes during play 0 Talkaloud recordings made between points or pitches Memory in adulthood 0 Remember more when they know more about a topic and motivated 0 Fit older adults remember better than un t older adults Speed of cognitive function 0 Many activities require quick accurate responses 0 Researchers work from an info processing perspective 0 Children and older adults take longer to process cognitive info than younger adults do Speed of cognitive processing in children 0 Reaction time time is measured between onset of stimulus and initiation of response speed increases from age 3 to adolescence 0 Continuous tracking process involves matching movement to a target time to response improves with advancing age 0 Selection of a response selection improves with advancing age it improves especially for incompatible stimulusresponse arrangements 0 Central rather than peripheral functions account for children s slower processing speeds Speed of cognitive processing in adults 0 Speed in single discrete actions does not change much 0 Speed in simple continuous or repetitive actions does not change much 0 Speed in sequences of different types of movements slows noticeably 0 Speed in learning new tasks is reduced 0 Older adults are more susceptible to distraction Older adult slowing o CNS functions are more responsible choice reaction time slows slowing is more pronounced on more complicated tasks 0 Developmentalists speculate that quotneural noisequot increases with age and contributes to slowing Active lifestyle minimize slowing 0 Active older adults are not much slower than young adults in reaction time o Metaanalysis established that tness training improves cognitive performance especially if it uses a challenging exercise program at a suf cient training level 0 Exercise may favorably affect both brain structure and func on o The older adult brain may have more plasticity than thought before Knowledge as a functional constraint Performance can be limited by limited knowledge Performance can be enhanced by expert knowledge Knowledge can be acquired at any age Acquiring knowledge takes time and experience 0 000 112013 Cardiorespiratory endurance CR and children 0 Myths system development restricts vigorous activity children automatically get enough exercise 0 High of children in Western societies have risk factors for heart disease Physiological responses to shortterm exercises 0 During brief intense activity oxygen reserves and energy sources are depleted 0 As exercise period lengthens the anaerobic system contributes less and the aerobic system takes over Anaerobic without oxygen rate at which the body can meet demand for shortterm intense activity Anaerobic capacity max oxygen de cit the body can tolerate Factors related to anaerobic performance factors change with growth 0 Body size 0 Ability to metabolize fuel sources in the muscles 0 Quick mobilization of oxygen delivery systems Anaerobic responses in childhood 0 Children have smaller anaerobic power output than adults 0 Muscle mass is smaller 0 Absolute quantities of energy reserves are smaller Changes in anaerobic response with growth and maturation 0 Energy reserves increase muscle mass increases 0 Tolerance of byproducts of metabolic process is improved 0 Mean and peak anaerobic power improves 0 Gender differences re ect muscle mass differences 0 Improved neuromuscular coordination contributes to improved performance of anaerobic activities 0 More mature children have better anaerobic performance Anaerobic responses in adulthood 0 Once adult body size is attained anaerobic performance is stable 0 Improvement re ects training alone 0 In older adulthood a loss of muscle mass can result in declining anaerobic performance Anaerobic training effects 0 Preadolescent and adolescent boys improve anaerobic performance with anaerobic training 0 One study found improvements in prepubescent girls 0 Master athletes who train sufficiently maintain anaerobic performance as they age Anaerobic performance possible eld tests include 50 yard or 50 m dash or sprinting a ight of stairs Physiological responses to prolonged exercise 0 Oxidative breakdown of food stores 0 Depletion of local energy reserves 0 Aerobic power is the rate at which longterm oxygen demand is met 0 Body increases heart and respiratory rates cardiac output and oxygen uptake to deliver oxygen to muscles 0 Cardiac output can increase through increased heart rate or increased stroke volume Aerobic capacity total energy available for prolonged activity Aerobic responses in childhood 0 Have smaller stroke volume thus smaller cardiac output 0 Compensate in part with higher heart rate 0 Have lower concentrations of hemoglobin 0 Have an efficient system but can t exercise for as long as adu scan Changes in aerobic response with growth and maturation 0 Heart size increases 0 Hemoglobin concentration increases 0 Oxygenextraction ability increases to adult levels 0 Ability to sustain exercise is related to body size and maturity level 0 By late adolescence and into adulthood trained men have an advantage over trained women Maximal Oxygen Uptake largest amount of oxygen the body can consume during aerobic strongly related to lean body mass 0 Increases linearly from 4 to late adolescence in boys and to age 12 to 13 in girls o Maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight is then stable in boys and declines slightly in girls Aerobic performance longer exercise bouts 0 Performance may be graded get more intense in stages 0 Effort can be maximal or submaximal o Maximal oxygen uptake is often measured to see how efficiently participant uses oxygen 0 Can measure highest exercise load tolerated before exhaustion but this carries risk 0 A 1600 m run can be used as eld test for youth Aerobic performance in adulthood 0 Average maximal oxygen uptake per kilogram of body weight falls about 1 per year after the 205 0 Athletic and active adults maintain higher maximal oxygen uptake than do sedentary adults Structural changes in the heart with aging 0 Loss of cardiac muscle Loss of elasticity in cardiac muscle Thickening of left ventricle Fibrotic changes in the valves Loss of elasticity in major blood vessels Functional changes accompany structural changes 0 Maximum achievable heart rate with exercise declines 0 Stroke volume in some older adults declines 0 Cardiac output declines Respiratory changes with aging o Elasticity of lung tissue declines o Vital capacity decreases especially in smokers o Oxygen carbon dioxide exchange loses efficiency Endurance training effects in adults 0 Maximal oxygen uptake increases 0 Stroke volume increases 0 Maximum cardiac output increases 0 Oxygen is better extracted from blood at muscle sites 0 Ventilation improves Training effects in children 0 Growth status and maturation level must be considered 0 Trigger hypothesis Katch 1983 holds that the hormonal levels of puberty are necessary for substantial training effect 0 Aerobic training yields small improvements at best in preadolescents o Aerobic training yields signi cant improvements after pube y Training effects in older adults OOOO 0 Adults who remain active decline in aerobic endurance only gradually o Sedentary adults who begin training can increase maximal oxygen uptake and improve blood lipid levels 0 Improvement is associated with increased muscle mass Lifelong effects of training in youth 0 Research is limited 0 Women with more PE during their youth exercised more frequently in adulthood 0 Youth sport participation predicts young adult activity levels 0 Saltin and Grimby 1968 Maximal oxygen uptake was measured in men 50 to 59 and categorized by activity Subjects were asked about activity in youth Those engaged in lifelong activity had highest maximal oxygen uptake measures Sedentary adults who had been active in youth had higher measures than those who had been inactive in youth Effects of diseases 0 Shortterm infectious disease reduces working capacity by varying degrees 0 Those with longterm diseases should never be placed at risk 0 Parents educational staff and medical staff should form a team to determine safe levels of activity 0 Participants should be monitored closely Cardiorespiratory endurance o It improves with body growth 0 Training especially after puberty improves endurance o If training is not maintained bene ts will reverse 0 Gender differences exist after puberty 12213 0 Strength ability to exert force enhances performance related to muscle mass and neurological factors 0 Childhood is a period of steady increase in strength Girls continue a steady increase Boys have a growth spurt in strength 0 Muscle mass growth follows sigmoid pattern 0 Force is exerted against resistance 0 lsotonic or isokinetic strength if limbs moves 0 Isometric if exerted against immovable resistance or object lsotonic tests 1rep max Isometric tests dynamometer or cable tensiometer Functional strength tests chinups exed arm hang rope climbing After growth stops increases in muscle mass are associated with resistance training Strength in middle and older adulthood 0 Strength generally declines gradually after 305 0 Loss of strength may be greater than loss of muscle mass due to changes in ber types nervous system vascular system 0 Muscular coordination factors might be involved in declining strength 0 Some older adults do not lose strength 0 Loss of strength is affected by exercise and activity levels Flexibility ability to move joints through a full ROM speci c to each particularjoint o Decline of exibility starts in childhood 0 Girls as a group are more exible than boys because exibility exercises are quotsocially acceptablequot for girls Goniometer used to measure exibility also sit and reach test Flexibility in adulthood o Gradually lose exibility especially in littleused joints and after age 50 0 Adults who maintain training for exibility maintain their levels Flexibility training can maintain ROM can improve ROM in those with limited range can restore lost mobility 0 ROM re ects activity and training more than age Importance of body composition 0 Determines appearance 0 Affects self concept 0 Related to working capacity 0 Excess weight adds to workload 0 Excess fat limits ROM 0 Obesity places one at risk of diseases Development of body composition genetic and environmental factors diet and exercise 0 fat tissue increases rapidly in rst 6 months and early adolescence 0 increases continue in girls throughout adolescence 0 muscle tissue development follows sigmoid pattern Body composition and exercise in adulthood 0 average middleaged adult loses fatfree body mass and gains fat 0 regular exercisers are known to maintain muscle and fat levels 0 research studies found bene cial effects of exercise among groups but individual results vary Obesity 0 Rates are increasing around the world and at all ages 0 Chances are that obese children remain obsess into adu hood 0 Metabolic and thyroid disorders account for less than 1 ofcases 0 Rapid increase implicated environmental rather than genetic factors Less active diets of sugar and fat Exercise as a strategy to reduce obesity 0 Exercise can offset the decrease in basal metabolic rate that accompanies caloric restriction 0 Exercise promotes development of muscle tissue which requires more calories for maintenance 0 Exercise expends calories 0 Exercise is effective in controlling obesity over the life span Exercise promotion Summary 0 Diet and exercise greatly affect relative levels of at and lean body mass 0 Regular exercise promotes muscle mass and increases basal metabolic rate 0 Over the long term exercise can alter the body s structural constraints for movement
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'