Ch 6 GOVT 2306.003
Popular in State and Local Government
Popular in Political Science
POLS 1101 096
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Date Created: 09/27/15
l V 39 t I I l I I c I I Ilit r i I l I 7 I 1 39 I a t I I I l l I I U I l I 39 I i I I II g i C 1 5391 If I l H L 39 i 39 7 r i 39l ll V P 3 ll 9 39r 1 i IiIIL hquot c 1 u 1hr m at his i u E quotII V l iLI i l 7 39ii 44 u Fm t39 it 39 r gin P g 152 x gd w39 quot 7 lefi E 39 EE39EI IV 1 39 quot quotLiE I d L i V I l 39 par 1 39 39 i39 Ir a l iii 39 l i l l ll l rt ll i d l l l quotquotT3939 i39l d39 litii iihijii i lTE Dineen Marcher had had enough A lawyer and mother of an incoming ninth grader in a prestigious Austin high school she couldn39t believe what she was hearing Fifteen percent of her daughter s final grade in history would come from a new mandated statewide test one that the teacher had never seen This struck her as unfair and unreasonable How could students prepare for such a test Why 15 percent of the grade She Went first to the principal to protest but to no avail This was after all a mandated state test part of a 30year effort of the education reformers to bring testing and accountability to all elementary and secondary schools across the state So Majcher raised the ante getting the Austin School Board to request a waiver from the State Board of Education from the quot15 percent rule The request was denied Raising the ante again lvlajcher signed up to testify at legislative committee hearings that had been called for January 2012 During the hearings Majcher met others from across Texas who were also dissatisfied with the testing movement that had dominated educational policy for over 30 years Together these individuals established an interest group called Texans Advocating for Meaningful Student Assessment or TAMSA The group became known in the legislature as Mothers Against Drunk Testing The goals of TAMSA were clearly articulated on its website to improve public education in Texas through the use of meaningful and effective student assessments that allow for more productive class room instruction and more efficient use of public funds On their face these goals might seem to be relatively uncontroversial in fact however they were questioning the philosophy of educational reform that had dominated the state for aimost three decades TAMSA enabled people to join together and seek policy change in a number of ways first by provid ing likeminded individuals an organizational structure for discussing problems and offering solutions second by providing a vehicle for working with other organizations like the Texas Association of School Administrators who were also concerned with testing third by raising money to help pay for their efforts and fourth by educating the public and policy makers alike about the problems of testing across the elementary and secondary curriculum TAMSA spearheaded the drive to change public policy regarding testing in the state What had begun as a protest about unfair testing was morphing into an interest group with a clear political object 1T1 172 was seen to be one of the best ways to ensure d those that didn t From rowing list of tests in a variety of subjects was created 1 Under STAAR State of Texas Assessment des 3 through 12 were subject to a list ncluded in students39 Since the early 19803testing accountability by identifying schools that worked an 1984 to 2008 an everwg to promote accountability and reform of Academic Readiness students in gra V I of tests including 15 endof course tests that were to be I final grades Over the years suppor from a variety of sources from both parties leaders at the t for reform through testing and accountability came inside and outside the legislature Leading legislators Texas Education Agency and business leaders 39 r r e W came to believe statewide testing was a key to higher performance Gfeorlg W Bush identified testing as a central part of his plan for educ39a ippleregtO Ehind I i A 39 t theheartofhisWo l is u g Texas in the 90s and placed testing a p p lpterests 39 739 quot the early 2000s Key business in initiatives when he was precident in l q I I I an including the Texas Association of Business supported expahd fd testll girl8 g the tests as a way to ratchet up the Quality Of POO perform39nghsclsoots ZEDquot 39 l i 1 I 739 i I involved in creating e as s the state Not surprisingly the businesses I p m p h came to support the tests As the debates over reform were proceeding I the i I l i 39 tetawas 39 quot 39 fiveyear contract With the sis is islature Pearson publishers had a a p V V r pp p I I h esgtimated to be worth 462 million Testing itself had become big business wit V l 7 39 2 quot quot state legislature bi interests worth protecting in the s K I ab gi39iven the interests supportins testing and decadesold accountalpjlll ltIif ge tives few thought at the beginning of the 2013 legislative sessen t a was the wind But it was New legislators open to new ideas about e 0 were chairing the educational committees in both the House39lgndE the mg th l r r quot 39 quot lt form had lost their abi i39y o co Entrenched interests in educational re I 7 agenda On a paltry budget of under 100000 drawing upon inexpensge social media and relying on the expertise of a few key membersITAMFAfpligemeam m V 397 i quot to rethink what educations reo r ma or role in getting the legislature I p M I restonse to the efforts of TAMSA and other likeminded groups and indigigua ls 39 go the legislature dropped the number of end ofayear course exams from it matter The story of Dineen lviajcher and TAMSA highlights howlintere st groups n in Texas politics Interest groups provide support fUl EXIS tll39lg 39POI39QBS quotI m h areas of public policyi support legislators in their electoral campaigns a b s mp to articulate ideas from which policies can be crafted Teras politics can le in l I i only with a clear understanding of the role that interest groups p ay derstood 7 1 elections and in the legislative process CHAPTER 639 39lNTEREST GROUPS AND LOBBYING 0 Interest Groups in the Political Process It is probably true that all of us have po litical interests goals or objectives that can he achieved with governmental interven tion Many of us however will never act to achieve those goals A few of us may speak privately to a legislator or other of cial Some of us will join with others to try to convince the government to help us achieve our interests When we do that we have formed an interest group In Texas as elsewhere interest groups assume a variety of forms There are a wide range of interests active in national state and local politics that form into interest groups including those concerned with business labor agriculture the professions such as law medicine and accounting government affairs such as state employees cities and universities and public interest advocates such as the Sierra Club Interest groups can be set up to serve the interests of a small number of peo ple concerned with one particular interest such as getting a road built in a county They can also be established to serve the interests of a group of people with broader interests such as those interested in reforming the school system by promoting vouchers charter schools home schooling or better testing Some interests are established to represent the common interests of various business or Iabor groups in the state such as those of the real estate industry or chemical workers unions An interest group is a quotpeak association when it is an interest group organized as an umbrella organization that seeks to coordinate the various activities of member groups in a number of targeted areas Resources and Strategies of Interest Groups Political scientists have identi ed various resources that interest groups are able to mobilize in politics First interest groups have members Groups can become in uential because of whom they represent The Texas Medical Association and the Texas Bar Association are excellent examples of groups representing influential people across Texas Some people clearly are more important than others But numbers matter too Politicians who ignore the concerns of broadbased evangeli cal groups in discussions of abortion or marriage do so at their own peril Second and perhaps more important than the rst interest groups have the ability to raise money Clearly it is advantageous to have access to a few deeppocketed individuals when trying to raise money in support of a particular cause But in the age of the Internet it is also useful for there to be large numbers of members who are willing to give if only a little A third resource possessed by interest groups is information about their mem bership and about the problems that concern their membership In recent years interest groups have begun to mine large databases of people who might be in terested in particular policies or issues Such information can become a valuable resource for politicians seeking to raise money or to promote a particular policy objective Interest groups also offer advice on the best ways to address the concerns of their membership Interest groups clearly are motivated by their selfinterest and the positions they present to legislators reflect this interest The rst drafts of bills introduced into the House or Senate often come from interest groups seeking to promote their own particular perspective A fourth resource one closely related interest group an organization established to influence the government s programs and policies INTEREST GROUPS IN THE Potlriciit PROCESS 173 u to the third is credibility Providing information to a policy maker is important But I minority interests A second lesson is that it is veiy difficult even rare for interest I I I I th39 7 nust bh ood information if over the longer run an interest group or its rep I groups U3quot Ef erge 11113 Emma the broad mtETEStS D al39ge numb l s 39OfP39EOPIE UT 3113 ill 1S It ti 5 a to be taken seriOLSlyI Bad i fgrmatign about a problem or the con u vaguely defined public interest Signi cantly when such groups do emerge as with i l 1 if Zmu members can undercur an interest group s effectiveness quickly I the Grange or Prohibition movement in the nineteenth and early twentieth cen r ll 3 The resources that are available to interest groups are the foundation upon I tuiIiESi the Can coni i ItOIWEM COI sIlderableiIPOW 11 NEVEYthElESS m 1339 Sh and l l I il l hi hi 39rious strategies are developed by interest groups to promote their con i pull of everyday politics in Texas it is more liltely for narrowly targeted interests to I 39 II I I w c va III t I t IIIES that we WIIII explme iIIII this Chapter an e explicit organize effectively in defense of their interests than it is for the public as a whole l will 39Amg g E faheg l fonts 5 anizi g getaoutthevote and electioneer to organize Even the above mentioned quotpublic interest groups are not so much I it PDhmal StratEglescfu I as grgsgla dn legislative strategies such as lobbying advancing the public good as a whole whatever that may be than advocating for mg camPi gmjba calmfgff ve C mmij a s public awareness strategies such I the views that certain individuals have about the public good hldrhefstfhfggflic dpEoiiz writing editorials rind conducting educational campaigns 915mm IthIEQl39YIIPTQVidES 311 EXP13113 0110f Why ll llaE DEW ill been ClamEd that l l I I39 atth gammy and 4 Supporting litigation that challenges existing I businessuoriented interest groups dominate theTeiiasIlegislature Using campaign con 1 i in IIvaIrionS PuI t AN WE IIIIIIIIJIII see the Strategies that are adapted by various interest tributions political pressure and sometimes corruption the Lobby as provbusiness I I 1310 lgesimI Cluhe grid on the resources available to them at the time l groups were called wasIonce purported to run Texas government Some of the most gnawing gamed gay 50mg 633 i ETDUPS 3931 SE Y P i in uential busmess leaders of the state belonged to the SF Crowd At the Lamar quotAnnie s oldest profession is I i Hotel in Houston 8F was the number on a suite of rooms where George R Brown big bitSii iBSS iii FIEMS Mme I l lltEi39ESt Gilli and Democratic P Dlltlcs l i held court Brown was a founder of Brown and Root one of the world s largest con I felggStm ife if f 595550 quot The rights to associate with others and to petition government He at the heart I ELUEIeiijIEfEaS igulo7 ifairtIUfIIEIEE FIE large H ljlmur o C0 3I 3 s dotyiy igigiu giggd i of the rights guaranteed by the US and Texas constitutions Having aIcommon It I g E 39 EII T a 13011 W3 yfimns fll as I as D s 0 EMS insatiaiiii legislators Mom quot interest is one thing Organizing that common interest into an IeffectiIveIIgroup i jv39OmmEIE BEIEhQHVI ennecoa inquot in 0 hImE Can Selle Insufance an I the legislature is not in session that can act to promote that interest is quite something E136 111 111539 S mmal 13001 i armies d I 39 mi M be 39lInSCIl39In Im slI aw T 656 men SOCIahZEd ngther and 105534533 We Eff W53 With The Logic of Collective Action Mancur Olson analyzed a collective action problem I FED IEI FUSE 7 33 t0 Promo 11 139 lI EICHl interests For 40 years CWHPMEH icmii m that lies at the heart of interestsgroup politics people have an interest 111 IoIrgania Ivoi CEHSE39 I if EICl the king In T633 PO39lltl39CS WED lEtET ing into an interest group that effectively represents their interests in poliucs But I I 1111 0 t I 1mPOY393inl PCI39 CY 0 3539 iemmem I I people also have an interest in getting someone else to pay for that stoop S Orga39 I I I II I TOW A was 0 111159 311 111mm group tin elite o pal costs This is the free rider problem If everyone acts as a free rider some l wea t Y PQWETFUL PTD39bUSl EISb 111mlquot ES39t gITfJUP Alth ugh thE quot93 d PMle the 39quotcentwe mm PD d f t resent articular interests in politics Ironically i 8F Crowd is long gone from the Texas political scene much of to benefit from other IW UiIk I Qfga 39izetl fi DI not I 0 Tel Pdif I It t a bE to overcome the free I what it did is still done in Texas politics by other interest groups without making a contribution the larger the common interest the more cu 1 1 11 3quot II I I I I I I th u h no modemdaI u is ascribed the in uenc th t II which lead5 indiVldU IS l a rider problem and create effective interest groups According to Olsons Itjieoi lir a le in h M th g r Pd 39 7 v i e 3 W35 ooiiective action situation to Small gmup of insurance Companies are more likely to form a powerful interest i 1gII II ytheI I YTe I I ow I III h I I h d I refuse to work together group to affect health care policy than the millions of poor people who laclc quality I II FuIerer i e ess exas is as a state at I as Iong 3 pow health care Similarly business interests are more likely to form a common front in 1 er I iptieggsg groups During i Ellen Constitutional Conven politics than consumers because it is easier for the business interests to overcome HIGH 0 III i an l tEI ESF Swill 13 iii iiiIlp fi t TIDE That vh t of collective action that is the costs of acting together as an organized I I W35 the Gangeea POWeriFUl farmers Urge IIZHUDH 91C WthhI 39IC E COS 5 2 j of the constitutions framers were members As Chapter 2 indi lnt lem grog 5 en a e in a mumbgf 01 activities to overcome the free rider cated the Constitution of 1876 reflected many of the values of prdldlcefhffg ogd ljijdgrnes offer people particular incentives to join a group These GTE3118 m emb 13 It was a dU39Wm il 01quot WWI Texas th at W33 13m selective benefits often cover a wide range of activities from a subscn13quotl11Cin l0 3 Ema rmer Em Oppos d m a pDWET lf State govemmemquot same to access to special information on the Internet to i Vitations t0 SPEClid i 39 1th the development ma a stmng Oil and gas i39 dusftry in Texas mlfferendes to special discounts For example A AA the American Automobile 1n the first half of the twentieth century the oil industry began I I quot 39 l 139 39 r i39 I 39 39 Associationl organises for road and vehicle safety and provides members With 1 playing an important iole in state politics In one party states 111quot roadside assistance and travel discounts strong illCentiV ES t9 jf in39 tale gloups O ell become powerful peliltical 3Cyl P rhaps b6 lntei39est groups also can provide people With Swill130115 bene tg well 35 mung Clause Ev18131g Stale tieEd whale35111311number 0f important individuals names as sponsors of an organization or offering free buttons hats or CEOI S H1 lien eIItIZDnomiES and limited economicdevel 39me tv T shirts showing their support to the ongoing activities of the organization The DWEVEE T3335 35 t EI PaSE 20 liIE IaTS mCI VEd from 3 Danaquot purpose of such activities is to strengthen the commitment an l CllVlduEll has to an E1quot aniline party systeIrin to a cei pedtitivehtwoparty Iystem a interest group a dm ovgrmme the free rider problem I I I I can omiante I system n wit I bundling the interestgroup practice of combining campaign contributions from several sources into one larger contribution from the group so as to increase the group39s impact on the candidate Interest Groups and Policy Makers Interest groups want something from policy makers they want policy that113 bend e cial for their groups On the other hand policy makers bene t from developing relationships with interest groups Prom those groups the policy maker gains formation since the interest groups can provide substantial expertise in areagar are their special concern Additionally interest groups can provide cgmpaign run to the policy maker In a state as large as Texas with numerous media mar tets an with some party competition considerable campaign funds are necessary to rpn and win elections An interest group can help raise money from its membership or a candidate sympathetic to the interest group s goals hlso interest groups can sup1 ply votes to the policy maker They can assist in mobiligingtheuowndgroups ariC they can supply campaign workers to distribute campaign leaflets an to tcapers E phone banks to get out the vote Interest groups can also public1ze issues 7 Cgong 7 press conferences press releases publications conferences and hearings an even by ling lawsuits Finally interest groups can engage in research education pjrp grams It has become increasingly common for interest groups to engage in pu education programs by running advertisements in the Texas media exploiting I g their particular approaches to a public policy problem would be more enei c1a 39 in eneral to a Srivate citizen interested in and involved in politics larger or better funded interest groups have the advantages of time money expertise and continuity Although concerned citizens do have an impact on public policy in Texas orga nized and wellefunded interest groups have an advantage in affecting the po ipy process It is dif cult for a concerned citizen from Houston to spend time in Augtin developing relationships with policy makers and trying to convince thosp poipy makers to support public policies that are compatible With the individua s goa s On the other hand if that individual joins with like minded people to createlan organized interest group the group may have a greater likelihood 1slclfiieviigg Policy goals It might be possible to fund an office in Austin wrth a sta t at monitor events in state government on a daily basis and develop relationships wih key policy makers Additionally although some individuals in Texas dohhave tape money to provide substantial campaignsupport to policy makers even t pse 1p 17 viduals can get more quotbang for the buck if they join wrth others in bundling t on funds into a larger contribution from the interest group The creation of an orga nized interest group also aIIUWs for the development of a staff The gtaffi pian gain inedepth knowledge of an area of policy far greater than could be game y39mhost individuals working alone Also an individual may be intensely COi lCEllil iEdW an issue in one legislative session but may nd dif cult to sustain that interest oilrcei1 a period of many legislative sessions The larger betterfupded more sucpessu organized interest groups have continuity They are in Austin developing re39ationc1 ships with policy makers and presenting the views of the organizationll ay in in I day out year in and year out The result is that legislators and other po icy erg can develop longstanding relationships with the interest groups and the groups 39 r quot 39 s inAustin repg eg ifff iber IS 2010 Governor Perry received a briefing on tort reform at the Austin airport He then flew to Houston and was taken to the Petroleum Club where he dined with the political arm of an interest group Texans for Lav suit Reform He was then driven to Mach Industrial Group in Houston whered we held a press conference to discuss their endorsement l It was an important ay 176 CHAPTER 6 INTEREST GROUPS AND LOBBYING for Perry though not surprising because he had gotten the of cial support of a group described as arguably the most powerful interest group in Texas politics in large part because of the massive amounts of money it raises from the state s busis ness consmunity 5 Texans for Lawsuit Reform helped reshape the Texas Supreme Court into a more pronbusiness court and it has reshaped the legislature into a more pro business body With Texans for Lawsuit Reform on Perry s side he had an incredibly powerful and wealthy interest group backing him in the ZGlU elec tion Texans for Lawsuit Reform knew it could help relelect a probusiness candidate to the governorship Types of Interest Groups and Lobbyists Interest groups strive to influence public opinion to make their views known to policy makers and to elect and support policy makers who are friendly to their points of view To accomplish these goals interest groups usually maintain lobbyists in Austin who try to gain access to policy makers and communicate their objectives to them There are several different types of lobbyists Some interest groups have fulltime staffs in Austin whose members work as lobbyists One form of interest group is of course a corporation and companies often have government relations departments that lobby for the companiesquot interests Lobbyists may be employed by an interest group to deal with one issue or they may be employed by an inter est group on a regular basis Some lobbyists represent only one client others will represent large numbers of clients All lobbyists however must be able to reach and communicate with policy makers Corporate interest groups tend to use either government relations departments or law rms to represent their interests in Aus tin then industries have broad interests that need representation For example insurance company may have one speci c interest it wishes to have represented However the insurance industry as a whole also has a wide range of issues that need representation and thus it will form an industrywide interest group Interest groups may also represent professional groups One of the most in u ential professional groups in Austin is the Texas Medical Association which rep resents the interests of doctors in state government Other professional groups represent accountants chiropractors opticians dentists lawyers and teachers That teachers are an important interest group suggests still another type of in terest groupgpublicemployee interest groups Public school teachers may be the largest and most effective of these groups but re ghters police officers and even justices of the peace and constables all are represented in Austin Some interest groups are formed with a single issue mind For example an interest group may be concerned about the regulation of abortion or school vouch ers or tort reform or the environment Other interest groups are concerned with multiple issues that affect the groups Public school teachers for example are con cerned about job security quali cations of teachers health insurance pensions salaries and other matters that affect the lives of their members Civil rights groups such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People the League of United Latin American Citizens and the Mexican American Legal Defense Fund are concerned about civil rights issues affecting the lives primarily of African Americans and Latinos Interestingly not only do these groups often try to in uence pu Other public interest groups try to promote consumer environmental and gen eral public issues Examples of these groups are Public Citizen the Sierra Club and Common Cause Groups such as the Sierra Club worlc to promote environmen tal interests whereas groups such as Public Citizen and Common Cause tend to have broader interests and work to promote more open government These groups rarely have much funding but they often can provide policy makers with informa tion and expertise In addition they can mobilize their membership to support or oppose bills and they can publicize matters that are important to their goals s In order to communicate the goals of their interest groups to policy makers lobby ists must rst gain access to those policy malters Gaining access to policy makers of Course imposes on the time of legislators so lobbyists will often spend signi cant sums entertaining them That entertainment is one of quot he most criticized aspects of 39 lobbying But from the lobbyists perspective entertainment is important tool 39 for reaching policy makers and putting them in a congenial frame of mind Enter i tainment by lobbyists can involve expensive dinners golf and other activities For V 39 example lobbyists for Texas Utilities XU bought a 300 saddle for one state H 9 3 V I IV representative and a 200 bench for another TXU lobbyists also treated a state V V I 739 V I 39 senator to a trip to the Masters golf mufnament and pickedi up thE dinner tab as I 1 Andrea Mcldfillioms 1539 one of Texas 5 highest Paid and most succeSSful lobbyists well One House member received a gun as a gift another received a jacket and V 1 several got deerprocessing costs paid for by these lobbyistsf3 I a Y A V 7 7 m When Representative Lon Burnam proposed legislation to regulate consumer 515 Igo gflfaTrwilitgfew Tfozbylsm were p 31d Tit it was a much as 328 milquot 1quot version of quotstun guns the lobbyist for TASER lnternatlilonal as a jolte gave Burnam yeast M5 mi iDn I y 0quot mm rEPOTtEd m mmum IUleY39l g illCOmES 0f at Tl a gift 039 apinlt stun gun valued at more than 150T e stun gun was of course i v V V V I a minor expenditure Others are much more lavishWhen Governor Perry wanted thC2123ibliggfiia llgi PTlOlT tiles Tl pdi cym3kem and to go to the Rose Bowl game the trucking lobby picked up the costs of a private i liams celabr md shim 40th b 0 V YIS ESII VCllE llt S When lobbyist Andrea 507 WWW gmupS TOMS jet for 14580 The former Texas Motor Transportation Association president who jawm kefs traveled tgcglaf fl Trill ay Ca lfolma 8 Wine CDu tW Six Texas 3 quot 3 lligl mbifuCh 13 d arranged the trip said Let s face it if you have a way to help the sitting governor l pmmiatiom Committee al zril GEAEESZFEWSTCECTEESEchar Of the House Al ElmLZZ39iTi gi jiggififfj Eat S fe hefe he VVWEMS Elbe ind tquot h lPV Vol1T l 39dBSUVY Ba Where it 1133545 to 13E V 1n McWilliams s case the personal ties to chseillfvfntillervEelilblClideanqulttTi a mmgmm 24 km 53be to me becomes a noebiainer 1n the first two months of 2011 lobbyists spent ened by the fact that Ska and her Chants had CO t lb t d V 13th a Sff gt havi g m ab mom ammbm m more than 12 million with much of that money going toward events goods and thE campaigns of the Six lawm akar s O V th V11 fVl u e morelVV an 206000 to groups applauded the megsum gifts for lawmakers and others in state governmentFa l the liigh 5tcpaid lobbyist with Tel he p1 ST SEVETT yeflm J MCWl lamS was but some women s groups Texas lawmakers receive only 600 per month plus 150 a day sessio 39rs I Trth mum er of Chems 1 the 2013 legiSIatiVE WOW5366i againSHE when on legislative business but lawmakers are permitted to use i I V VV V 7 campaign contributions for expenses associated with holding of a at iiiiui jl gg tVTtE Tid by buj ldiggf iPport fQ39f 311 issue l lCE This allows interest groups to fund significant lavish benefits for 1 01 can legislamm album a bin and 0 their 1153 age ff n exalnplei 3930 Write 39 lawmakers For example about onethird of the spending of North 1 tries to mobilize interested voters to Vent my V1515 hSScnpa y the Interest group V Texas lavvmalcers about 34 million of roughly 10 million in i of thg gr 0111335 goals g 39 D Vc 1 t E P0 1t1C31PI 0CESS Dnbehalf V 2007 09 has gone to fund things other than campaign expendie I g tures Senator Florence Shapiro has used her contributions to fund a La v V V V V V l car lease for a Mercedes Benz and to pay for conference stays at the l 362 1238 inggxgj i Rfvomqg Dfoor one lmpmtam way T gaining RitzCarlton in Palm Beach the Venetian in Las Vegas and the Hay 1 y39 131 l l V l 13 D ETP fly TOTTET Of cmlg 35 IObbyiSE A lDb bY39 l I Ad VV V V V V V I V V V V V V V V I W o 13 a former legislatm often has friends in the legislature and quot 4h I ams in Washington Thil tY lX North Texas lawmakers spent friendship to gain access Additionally a former IE i512 t 1 ft can use at 139 nearly 560000 on travel and entertairgment 470000 on Austin any good position t0 understa drghrer personal kiwi E1311 Jfan exclieption hwngVEXPEBSmr and 552903000 001953001 V a E V VV V centers that must be contacted to accomplish a le39 islet ps i karma 1 Fowl In May 2013 there were 1663 registered lobbyists in TexasH This some of the bestpaid lobbyists in Austin l 39 f I gT I39VE O JECJFVIVVga AS a result E is a decrease from the 1836 registered lobbyists in 201 391 analysis are former legislators l l r l l l ale llmar was Slam DTCTTS and Often 1 l that was done of the lobbying reports in 2013 found these lobbyists I 23m 55 registemd lobbyists were Fm 1 1 V V i had 2820 clientsllz Because of the loose nature of the Texas reporting Gammon 15 knowl cgge of haw to pass bins 1311 E gs gtggi ngatttl eyc hav 1i p 1 om39o altowic39 3 irs CHAPTER 6 INTEREST ensues AND Lossvma l NTEREST GROUPS 1N THE POLITICAL PROCESS 179 clerlcs are friendly whose birthdays are coming uprall inside stuff that makes the government machine Whir Other especially valuable lobbyists have been former committee clerks for major committees and chiefs of staff of members who were on major committeesdii Ten recently retired lawmakers were lobbyists in the 2009 legislative session The 10 had a total of 68 lobbying contracts allow ing them to generate between 2025000 and389000i in fees One gets a sense of the value of these exalegislatorsturned lobbyists from the explanation Representative Jim Pitts gave for sponsoring an amendment that was pushed an ATampT lobbyist and former legislator Pat Heggerty The amendment won I have forced the state to pay for rerouting phone lines for road pr ojectsg Sold Representative Pitts of the amendment i was just trying to help Pat out The amendment later failed to pass in 20B 12 additional defeated or recently re tired legislators became lobbyists They reported up to 2130000 in income from 49 clients2U I V it is not only former legislators who can move on to successfullobby1ng careers Forty Perry aides either have left the administration to become lobbyrsts or have joined the administration after having been lobbyists Some have moyed back and forth from administration to lobbying in a revolving door fashion Five of Perry s closest campaign aides have been lobbyists Two of his exaides became lobbyists who headed proPerryf 15rCs21 n One formerlegislator turnedlobbyist who reversed course and went baclc into the legislature is Todd Hunter Hunter had served in the leglslature from 1939 to 1997 An active lobbyist as late as 2007 he was elected to the Texas House in 200822 Jerry Patterson Texas land commissioner was a state senator became a lob byist and was able to move to his statewide office with little cr1t1cism of his role as a lobbyist However David Sibley a state senator who became a lobbyist and then tried to regain his old position caught tremendous political flair for this decision and to a considerable degree lost the Republican primary because of that career choice 39 The issue of lobbying by former of cials and their staffs is a significant one as there is concern that policy decisions may be made with an eye toward future lucrative lobbying jobs F Texas has only weak laws dealing with lobbying by former government of c1als A former member of the governing body or a former executive head of a regulatory agency cannot lobby the agency for two years after leaving office Senior employees or former officers of Texas regulatory agencies cannot ever lobby a governmental entity on matters they were involved in when employed by the government How ever there are no legal restrictions on lobbying by a former governor fojrmer lieu tenant governor former legislator or any former aides to these officialsri What Lobbyists Do with Access Once lobbyists obtain access to policymakers they provide information that maybe useful For example they may explain how 3 bill benefits a legislator s district or how it benefits the state or how Ibis perceive as being unfair Since the staffs of Texas legislators are small lobbyists perform useful functions by explaining what numerous bills are intended to do They may even write bills to be introduced by friendly legislators or write amendments to bills Almost certainly if a bill affects the interests of lobbyist s client and reaches a point in the process where hearings are held on the bill the lobbyistlw l arrange for testimony to be given at the hearing explaining the interest group s viewpomt on the proposed legislation V Lobbyists do not limit their activities to the legislative process of courseRules proposed by the bureaucracy or the courts can affect the interests of lobbyists CHAPTER a INTEREST GROUPS AND LOBBYlNG Lobbyists are individuals hired by interest groups to advocate on their behalf to state lawmakers Organiza tions ranging from business groups to environmental groups to teachers groups all employ lobbyists to advance their agendas Not all groups technically lobby legislators Some groups and lob byists might occasionally interact with a legislator but their primary goal is to advocate on behalf of their agenda in general terms Sometimes the actions of interest groups can blur the line between lobby ing and general advocacy This distinc tion is crucial because in Texas as in many other states laws require lobbyists to report their activities in the spirit of full disclosure so that the public can see how much money is being spent to influ ence legislators Lobbyists must register with the Texas Ethics Commission TEE reveal their list of clients and disclose how much they are compensated for their services Consider the case of the interest group Empower Texans and its subsidiary known as Texans for Fiscal Responsibility The organization is committed to promoting conservative ideals and increasing the number of conservative legislators in Texas It has aligned with the Tea Party wing of the Republican Party in calling for reduced taxes and cuts to balance the state budget Not surprisingly Empower Texans and Texans for Fiscal RESDOTTE slbllity have refused to endorse some Republican incumbents in the state legislature instead supporting challeng ers in the Republican primary who are more conservative In 2012 two Republicans who were not endorsed by Empower Texans and Texans for Fiscal Responsibility filed a complaint with the TEC claiming that the head of these groups Michael Quinn Sullivan had lobbied during the most recent legislative session despite the fact that he was not registered The two state representatives Jim Keffer and Vicki Trultt allege that Sullivan com municated with state representatives and their staff about their priorities for Michael Quinn Su lllliva 39 li T 39 n i N president Texans for FisclFiesorT ibility the legislative session ln particular they claim that the group opposed the re election of Speaker Joe Straus within the Texas House in favor of a more com servative legislator and they say that the group tried to influence representa tives to oppose the use of the state s 96 billion Rainy Day Fund to balance the state budget The complaint alleges that Empower Texans39s activities went beyond merely taking public positions on these issues and crossed into the territory of active lobbying Keffer and Truitt also allege that Texans for Fiscal Responsibility failed to file campaign finance disclosure forms for the last quarter of 2011 as required by state law They insist that it is hard to believe that the organization did not make contributions to politi cians during this period Because Sul livan did not register he did not reveal who was funding his organization On the other side of the issue Sullivan claims that the two legislators were simply upset that they were not endorsed by Texans for Fiscal Responsibility and did not receive campaign contributions In particular the organization endorsed Tr39uitt s Republican Opponent in the 2012 primary and Sullivan actively campaigned against Truitt in the past He argues that the timing of the complaint is suspect coming soon before an election and that discussions with legislators are not the primary purpose of the organization The TEC investigated the allegations and decided that there was insufficient evidence of lobbying Nevertheless they decided to pursue a hearing which would have required Sullivan s organization to release the names of donors In response Sullivan sued the TEC in fed eral court claiming that his organiza tion s free speech rights were viola clients Lobbyists will testify at hearings on rules and try to provide information to administrators in faceto face meetings as well Corruption There is always a concern that lobbyists may corrupt policy makers by bribing them in order to accomplish the interest groupsquot policy objectives Early in the twentieth century Sam Rayburn later a famed US congressperson and Speaker of the House served in the Texas House of Representatives for six years At that time he was especially concerned with corruption and refused to accept free meals and entertainment from lobbyists He called some of his fellow legislators quotsteak men By that he meant that the legislators would sell their votes on a bill for a steak dinner at the Driskill Hotel in Austin Steak men and women may still ex ist in Texas politics but for the most part lobbyists provide information campaign contributions and political support or opposition rather than bribes Still from time to time lobbying does stoop to very low levels In 1989 Bo Pilgrim a large poultry producer distributed l0000 checks tp state senators in the capitol while he was lobbying them on workers compensatidn reform Perhaps even more troubling some senators accepted the checks until media attention forced them to reconsider Yet this practice of offering 10000 while asking for a senator to vote on a speci c bill was not illegal under state law A year later the Speaker of the Texas House of Representatives Gib Lewis got in trouble for his close relationship with a law rm that specialised in collecting delinquent taxes for local governments In l99 l Speaker Lewis was indicted for receipt of an illegal gift from the law firm Ultimately Lewis pleabargained and received a minor penalty The result of these scandals however was legislation that created a state ethics commission The legislation imposed additional lobbying reporting requirements and restrictions on speaking fees that interest groups paid legislators and pleasure trips that lobbyists provided By no means was the law a major regulation of or restriction on lobbying practices but it did put some limits on lobbying behavior Who Represents Ordinary Texans Another problem with lobbying was well described by the director of a public interest lobby Craig McDonald Legislators are rubbing shoulders with loba byists almost all of whom hustle for business interests While corporate interests dominate our legislative process there is virtually no counterbalancing lobby to represent ordinary Texans Nowhere on the list of Texas s biggest lobby spenders will you nd a single group dedicated to the interests of consumers the environ ment or human services No wonder these citizen interESts repeatedly get steam rolled Austin 25 Figure 61 classi es the interests represented by the registered lobbyists and es timates the value of those lobbying expenditures The TWho Are Texans graphic looks at campaign contributions to Texas legislators lthough the categories in both are very broad it is clear that business interests dominate in Texas govern ment Of course many issues considered by Texas government may pit one busi i ness interest against another and sometimes a business or professional organization may nd itself aligned with consumer interests For example the Texas Trial Law 39yers Association an organisation of plaintiffsquot lawyers in Texas frequently allies with consumer interests Many of the clients of these lawyers are consumers who sue large businesses The interests of these lawyers and their clients are especially close since the lawyers are paid on a contingent fee basis which means they don t receive payment unless their clients receive payment It is also the case that lob INTEHE39ST GROUPS iND LOBBYlNG Labor l 0mg 68 million 64 million quot Re I t t griculture UNKNOWH 7 a es s e 59 mzimo 8 million l i04 million 39 Enerevmaiuel resources Construction 641 million 12 million Transportation l31 million insurance 141 million Computers and electronics V 145 million Health stvers and 532 million lobbyists 112 million Finance is4 million Communications 39 23 mama Ideologicalfsingle issue 43 million Miscellaneous business 408 million Ll Lobbying Expenditures 2013 NDTE Expenditures are the maximum values on this blood range amounts in the lobbying report forms Amounts are only forquot direct lobbying oiquot goven39lmenl of cials and do not include l39noney for grassroots lobbying on illedla campaigns The al39rloul lts in tile ligul39e are rounded SOURCE T s for Publi Justice quotfibrosis ll ltei39ests Paid Lobbyists Up to sass iviillion in 22 rsessionquot39 p 1 b39ying is not all there is to the representation of interests in Austin interest groups without money may still mobilize their members in order to accomplish their objectives or they may influence public opinion i i V Still there is no question that money does help in politics Figure 51 and the l data in the quotWho Are Texans graphic provide support for concern that in this battle of mostly business interests there may not be an objective voice or at least a voice for the public interest that reaches the ears of legislators r V 0 Another Side to Lobbying l Lobbyists in Texas represent mostly busi ness interests and they are active in trying to gain access to government of cials and in form them of the legislative desires of their ANOTHER SIDE T0 LO39BElYlN Ci 183 political action committee FAB a private group that raises and distributes funds for use in election campaigns issue advocacy independent spending by individuals or interest groups on a campaign issue but not directly tied to a particular candidate clients But interest groups are not simply information channels betiveen business and government They also promote the political interests of elected of cials w 10 support their viewpoints and oppose the interests of those who do not One major way that interest groups engage in this activity is by making campaign contribu tions interest groups may encourage individual members to malice contributions quotto candidates or they may collect funds From their members bundling those funds as a donation From the interest group W hen this is done the interest group creates E political action committee MB to make the contribution There are numerous reasons tor tormin a PAC A candidate is more likely to notice a substantial contribution from a PAC than many small contributirms from individual members of an interest group Additionally the lobbyist who delivers a substantial PAC check to a candidate can more likely gain political access than can a lobbyist who simply aslcs interestgroup members to mail individual checks The PAC becomes a way for the interest group to send message to the candidate that its members care strongly enough about their agenda that they are prepared to back those goals with money in some cases a PAC can even serve as an inter mediary to provride money to candidates that the PAC S members might not iivant to support publicly PACs may give money directly to the candidate or they may engage in issue advocacy that supports the candidate but is independent oi the candidate s control The candidate does not report these independent expenditures on contribution disclosure statements PACs may also spend money to support an issue rather than a speci c candidate or to support such activities as iquotgetwoutthevote campaigns In 2008 about 55 percent of the money given to Democratic and Republican leg islative candidates was given by PACs About 45 percent of the money was given by individuals in 201i about iii percent of the money given to Democratic and Republican legislative candidates was PAC money interestingly however in 2010 individuals c more than FACES to candidates tor statewide nonjudicial of cesd Campaign contributions can b e to a considerable degree divided in terms of the economic interests represented by the contrilmtors The Who Are Texans graphic in this chapter shows that the largest contributor was the nance insur ance and real estate sector This sector is a major p art of the Texas economy and is subject to significant state regulation That is also true of general business energy and natural resources construction and health in contrast to business political parties agriculture and even candidates providing Funds to their own campaigns labor represents a small amount of campaign spending Getting Out the Vote Getting out the vote on Election Day is an important and dif cult task Both the Republican and Demc itic parties spend much time and money melons sure that their voters get to the polls and vote for their candidates in recent years gets outthevote efforts by both parties have involved mining soca lled big databases to identify people who are lilter to vote for their candidates calling them on the phone and visiting them at home Battleground Texas is the latest attempt by the Democratic Party to identify potential Democratic voters to make them familiar with Democratic positions and candidates and to get them to vote Similar efforts have been made by the Republican Party in recent years particularly those identi tying with the Tea Party movement Getoutthevote initiatives also can be an irnpcnftan t part of interestgroup ac tivity The most successful getouttheevote campaign run by an interest group was CHAPTER 6 ii iiTEREST GROUPS AND LOBBYiNG WHO ARE TEXANS Contribute the Most Which lntereSt Groups Latergst groups try to achieve favorable poIiCies not only by lobbying members of the Texas legislature directly but also y in uencing who becomes members of the legislature in the first place by donating to the election campaigns of favored candidates The chart below breaks clown contributions from employees of different industries by party in 2012 Contributions to Texas Legislature Candidates in 2012 quot 39 7 Contributions 7 g v 250000 I quot to Democrats y 3 i Finance insurance and real estate Lawyers and lobbyists eruptive If mass lbi 234 to Energy and natural resources Health fgtiii395iirs rev we r J use i 39U39 1 Ill quot Lf i ii 17 pi ass oi Agriculture heldquot5132quot quotis Y 7 V l 7 x l I J2T ioi ht 39 21 Di Tr I i l I Eli39iisportatmn Defense SID i A r 7 WINE iiiational Institution on State Money in Politics industry Influence r Di DwthemoheyorgdatabasefiodustryTotalsphtmisTXampy2Ui lapsessed 1313 innitiii i 125 D General business 39r rm 1 Construction Communications 55 r 5 and electronics U lI critical 2 3939 39 l zifi I quot39j i 1 i 1 1 I r 2quot iii 39x l rams AND the NATION that conducted by the Texas Medical Association in 1088 which sought to elect its slate of candidates to the Texas Supreme Court Physicians were encouraged to give to TEXP C the medical association PAC They were also encouraged to make individual contributions to certain candidates Additionally physicians were Gs e e C I t gsaom given slate cards with recommended candidates literature endorsing candidates and even expensively produce 391 videotapes They were asked not only to encourage H 7 families and friends to vote for the candidates endorsed by the medical association 39 o I G o 39 r l I but also to encourage their patients to vote for them The effort by the medical association was remarkable for its fundraising success and for its reaching and mobilizing the grass roots Most efforts by interest groups however are far less sophisticated Generally Contributions to State House g interest groupsquot PACs simply provide resources for the candidates to get out the r 1 es per Vatlng Eligible P EFSOH vote Unfortunately for the interest groups sometimes they misjudge the political viability of the candidates they support Backing an unsuccessful candidate results I I I in waste of the interest group s funds and the likely alienation of the winning 6942 T3355 Arkansas candidate In the 2010 primary campaign Texans for Lawsuit Ffeform the pros California business and pro tort reform interest group that has had spectacular successes 394999quot earth Gamma in fortvarding its agenda over the past l5 years suffered a remarkable failure Al quot 865228t 3t 232 New York though it had contributed 602290 to 28 candidates 53 percent of this money 3318937 F BOii 196 W35 spent on 4 incumbent candidates tvho lost their primaries and another 28 per E 1803T780t cent of their money was spent on 3 candidates2 of them incumb ants who were forced into a runoff election Obviously Texans for Lawsuit Reform thought these candidates were important for achieving its agenda but it is questionable how desirable it is for an interest group to pump huge amounts of money into the campaigns of incumbent candidates who do not have the political strength even to win in their own party primary elections And the high degree of financial supp art for candidates can be hurtful to the candidate In one of these races the winning candidatejs main issue was that the cleft ated incumbent had received money from an organization luiown for giving huge sums to Republican candidates This cone tended the winner was proof that the incumbent Democrat was not a real Demo crat but a Republican with a Democratic labeldg39 flajzfijf 9 r in 303 0 EELEE 3 Arizona to 5541575391 Nevertheless Texans for Lsnvsuit Reform scored impressive victories in the lg ll T l2 1100 l0 ll 09d llllllEl illTl 2010 general election it gave more than 550000 to Republican hilarva Beck to rkallsass Oklahoma 390 Dalaware 20er New York W defeat Democratic representative Jim Dunnam and 300000 to Republican Larry wleggnllllng alumni 3157 Canne ilvut 1279 Shuth Dakota k Gonzales to defeat Democrat Diana lvlaldonado39ni I I ll l blhljwrl North Carolina South Carolina llama Ola WWW to same one came W Alaska i West virginia taro Massachusetts 2612 CUlGl dOa Ne39lw llalnp hlre lgjllg g I V r r I V I I I I Inf Lilli Pennsylvania 315 Michigan 241 Maine l MISSISSlpDI illwag Generalist incumbents have a huge advantage over challengers in an election Since 0 T39gl New Mexico 338 Idah lg 40 ME l d they are of ceholders ther usually have greater name recognition than challengers fllnfls 71 Washington 32 Florida vetmltlrll and it is easflF for incumbents to get publici39133r bit holding TlDW hall l EEtlngsl by 4313 hldia39na 323 Secrgia TED Ill TE announcing the relocation of new businesses to the district or simplY 10 attend l EZEEUZEIEM Norllama 206 3 x l Utah 203 in g community events Additionally they usually ha an established network of supporters w 1o helped them get into of ce at least once previously There are two great exceptions to incumbency advantage l scandal can destroy incumbency advantage and redistricting can ruin the political base of incumbents restrictwe in terms f h p i Except in cases of scandal or redistricting however it is far safer for interest year The chaftpm degg mtuih Sonya any one inleldUal 03 Ewe 397 any Eli Eli groups to try to work with incumbents Campaign money for example oven given m stat uegmmtum C Ziggy Slate Compar39m 0f limal Humber of dollars quot 5 quot393 7quot whelmingly goes to incumbents In the 2012 campaign for the Texas House of l n l ales m 201239 quot 7 393 Representatives incumbents raised 49 times the amount raised by challengers and I l quot 39 in theTexas Senate incumbents raised 107 times the amount raised by challengers I quot I quot39 rotsashes few regulations regarding how much money can be given to state eglslators and candidates for the state legislature Other states are far more Total amount given to candidates per state Data not available for Louisiana Nebraska and Virginia 1300 39 39 quot 39 I quot 39 unitetijSEt ifontrloutton data from 2012 Gallup Organization voting eligible population data from a as Election Project wwtvela otionsgmuaduturnoutj izahtml accessed Emmi1 oHaptea a INTEREST ssouns also LDBEit lhlG l i ll I l J l Average Dollar s Raised by Inciimhents and Challengers ior the Texas Legislature 2012 CHALLENGERS 3 OFFICE INCUMBENTS is a 53 House 388719 7932 7 39 1 823 Senate 1113440 103 SOURICE National institute on Money in State Politics see Table 61 Incumbents win elections to an overwhelming liegrggi 5111 of the campaign contributions to incumbent legislators are Elgar acu y do bg Speaker Joe Strauss for example received 6553 013 in cintri utioigsig f mu39Ch in recognition that as Speaker he was me position to a vaglice2 94 365111 0m legislation Another in uential legZiEl g gorI Dan Ef iejfgjlgiwjis lmed tough Re H 39 the Texas Senate in incum en V g r u V m I 1111deer 5liltdlleifiger but outraised the ch aggntfg gig43 10971 in contributions 39 39 1 her Re ublican opponv39enjt s 39T A I conthlfagdfifs SOIIIE iZmees an interest group does not want to hip a caiigdidlatrgspr even pressure a candidate it wants to defeat that candidate T Sfaea Wig strategy because if the C cllflat fi il si tbhecn ghe l tfpg1darith the erest 39 139 an unfriendl pubfir o cia 39u a so on r p a I g ngfdui fhr its oppositidn When that happens the interest group vgflilngit e 8 well or quotget on the late train This means that interest group a 11 on QSEd stantial political contribution to the winning candidate W110i it VDflf chi T Often winning candidates have signi cant campaigndebts a era Egrue hagh are Of battle and they appreciate the late contributions of former enemies w ic 39 ta39ofmakin amends r i a V Vquot C fenl39fdlf1lisoaiilgfh1J1atetrain fcontributions may improve the relatiopslhip 1betgvgeglgi cials and interest groups usually candidates reserve a siecia oy aty gn bf a supporters who backed them early Without supportwatt e eggthe Stgppm E campaign it is hard for a candidate to build an organization 1an g Ofter are SO necessary to make a decent campaign start That is why earlquot yinsupp S with tan valuable The best lobbyists start early in trying gageng Stands 39 l v with new 1e aislators One nations 39 39 39 I r i fdfgldlzfg gnev is Like gfeast is fundedby women provides earli aglilipgg contributions to female candidates Legislators remember who wag vi E d l 0 the beginning of their political C1 EEES a 11 can be immense y r en i 39 1 quot 39ultivated that ear y reations ip I V theSlerfiilJihll RACS give to both candidates as away to39avoid alienating 1 though the possibility remains that such dual giving will wiindup a 2 The At other times interest groups simply don t care if they alienate acrian Ygarm 2010 Democratic primary election between state representatives Tara 135 t mst and Jose Manuel Lozano highlightgd the lines can cfgggugggagaztg gl 0 1 I l a cam 39ai n Texans or Lawsuit ie ormco v s k TEST was SdeErcent of her campaign funds Ybarra lost39to Lplganccigaiglgg was backed by trial lawyers who were not the least bit symp athetic to e g E 33 Texans for Lawsuit Reform 188 CHAPTER 6 INTEREST GROUPS i quotiND LOBBYING i i ll i 39 An extraordinary battle occurred in the 2012 Republican primary where Texans for Lawsuit Reform backed railroad commissioner Elizabeth Ames Jones in her challenge to Republican state senator Jeff Wentworth Wentworth served nearly ve years in the Texas House before being elected to the state senate in 1992 He appeared to be well established and unbeatable An early poll showed him with a large lead But although Wentworth supported 21 of 23 bills considered by Texans for Lawsuit Reform to be major legislation he angered the interest group by criticizing a 2003 constitutional amendment that limited the amounts patients could receive in medical malpractice suits He also voted against a bill that reduced the amount of money coastal homeowners could receive after hurricanes While Wentworth was defeated it was not by Jones but by Donna Campbell who had Tea Party backing Neverthelesa Wentworth blamed his defeat on the mammoth 2 millionplus negative campaign launched against me by Texans for Lawsuit Reform 34 The defeat no doubt sent a message to Republican lawmakers that they had better not cross Texans for Lawsuit Reform When an interest group is convinced that it cannot work with a public Ef e cial the interest group mayquot undertake an allout effort to defeat that of cial But spending money by no means guarantees success Dr James Leininger is one of the biggest contributors to Republican candidates In the 2005 election cycle he gave over 5 million to Republican candidates in Texas either through individual con tributions or by giving to PACs that then made contributions Leininger and some of the FAQs he supports are strong supporters of school vouchers Much of this money backed challengers to Republican incumbents who were unfavorable to vouchers The effort was unsuccessful and the result according to Texans for Piin lic Justicer was a legislature quoteven less receptive to vouchers than its predecessor 35 A US Supreme Court decision in 2009 Citizens United ii Federal Election Com mission created the opportunity to create an organization that opposed powerful incumbents without having to disclose the donors Few wealthy Texans proved willing to openly fund political attacks on Speaker Joe Strauss and his allies but in the 2012 election cycle Empower Texans moved several hundred thousand dollars through its nonprofit organization and thus avoided having to disclose its political contributors Most of this money was spent on a number of House races with the EMPOWERTEXANS a 3391 News Who ReprmentsMe Scorecard Endorsements Opportunities About snort DONATE HE 39 Inks quoti 1 W e False harassingM Fulani Fitrid nnn i39f F Siyt Fnit e l39Stn Eo39IriEmW ICnsU IJ i assume an m da fi mud traumaLem rm 7 a 39 W J 391 rquot In nite The 2014 FroTaxpayer Team 39 and my 39ili39ll lrf n lln l city Comm mtg Mam tnr Haul seawater Li giemd ldnbiinl39t ulld intimnzundmelwm in Tom Heine LwPMJ39ImFI E a the id elmm tyne 39 39I i J J um may FEET 239 m a Endorsement F39rocms 1 Mm en liaiserests MHbem l Iii advancesi rhuIUH winery strainers starts REPRESENTS ME mayo mgiul rtdr ri39a slum Fl rid quoti39our EG i ERHIJH LI soy5mm LEELSLM39DE Greg Milieu Bu Fan 1 antmet communism lfan Pam manila Heir Manama cameraman 7 NW ilppurl the ins Ta malaria Empower Texans is a powerful political action coriimittss that provides money to candidate sometimes from undisclosed donors ANOTHER SIDE T0 LOBBYING dark money political money where the donors of the money do not have to be disclosed interest group capture government agency that serves the objectives oi the interests that the agency is supposed to regulate biggest expenditures going to failed challenges to Speaker Strauss and to Repre sentative Lance Gooden The nonpro ts spent about 290000 on mailers about 40000 on internet ads and about 18000 on robe calls Another nonpro t that does not have to report donors is the Texas Organizing Project which spent a bit more than 234000 mostly supporting Harris County sheriff Adrian Garcia and 14 other local candidates along with the Texas House campaign of Mary Ann Perez These new handing structures where donors do not have to be reported are known as sources of dark manner3G Interest Group Capture Interest groups can sometimes have such in uence over an agency of government that it is said that the interest group has captured that agencj rrmeaning that the agency primarily serves the objectives of the interest group Interest groups can develop longterm relationships with the agencies that regulate the industries that they represent in a number of ways For example interest grbups can donate money to the election or reelection of agency of cials who must seek election to their of ce Subject to certain ethics rules industries can also hire former agency of cials to work for them as lobbyists The closer the connection between the agency and the industry the more complete is the capture Such Interestgratin capture may have occurred with the Texas Railroad Com mission The Railroad Commission has the primary responsibility for regulating the oil and natural gas industry pipelines and coal and uranium surfacemining operations The commission is run by three statewide elected of cials who serve staggered sixayear terms Although one unsuccessful candidate for the commis sion included railroad safety in his campaign platform the Railroad Commission s name is long outdated and has nothing to do with railroads in 2010 Public Citizen a consumer advocacy group published a highly critical report on the commission which pointed out that at the Railroad Commission quotpolitical spending is out of control well over half of campaign donations coming from the very industries the commission is supposed to regulate Real or perceived this creates a conflict of interest Railroad commissioner is seen as a springboard to higher elected of ce in the state giving influenceepeddlers more incentive to curry favor and sitting commissioners to amass campaign war chests Campaign donations coming from regulated industries present a very real problem inserting the probability that regulatory decisions are made in favor of large donors rather than the public s interestn38 The Public Citizen report pointed out that by 2010 80 percent of donations to incumbent commissioners were from the industries they regulated which was up from 45 percent of donations to incumbents in 2001 and there had been nearly a tenfold increase in donations Additionally the size of individual donations had 111 creased fin 2000 80 percent of donations were 1000 or more in 2010 92 per cent of donations were 1000 or more39 in the 2012 election an incumbent Barry Smitherman received 5144683 in campaign contributions with the oil and gas industry being the largest group to make contributions in a race for an open seat Christi Craddiclt won with 2850158 in contributions again with the oil and gas industry being the largest businessi industrial group to make Icontributions m Of course that so many contributions should be from the oil and gas industry should not be surprising since the commission is the main regulatory agency for oil and gas and other industries do not have the concerns about the commission s work that would cause those industries to malte major contributions And groups such 190 CHAPTER 6 l39NTEFi EST GROUPS AND LOBBYING as environmental groups do not have the resources to compete with the oil d 39v industry in backing environmental candidates r l an gas The staff of the Sunset Advisory Commission prepared a report in 2012 th t attempted to deal with some of the concerns that the Texas Railroad Commissi a had been captured by the oil and gas industry Among other things the re ort reml ommended that the commission s name be changed to realistically reflecfitsco temporary duties the Texas Energy Resources Commission it also recommended that solicitation and receipt of campaign contributions by commissioners or cal d39r dates sealing the of ce be limited to the on e and onehalfyear time frame aro nld the election rather than having fulltime fundraisin g throughout the ear term pf of ce It recommended that commissioners be banned from knowing acce t mg contributions from those with contested cases before the commissioyn andjii recommended that commissioners must resign their of ce if they become candi dates for another elected of ce There was also a recommendation that inde I la dent hearing eitaminers be used in contested cases involving oil and gaslt I p n House Speaker Pro Tem Dennis Bonnen was especially concerned that two sit ting railroad commissioners had recently run for the Li S Senate while retainin their of ces and raising money from the oil and gas industry While the effort to reform the commission were publicly endorsed by the railroad commissioners Bonnen claimed the commissioners were privately lobbying to weaken the r I It 39 als The reform proposals failed in the 2013 legislature42 I I I I P OPUS Individuals as Lobbyists Sometimes ordinary individuals can have a remarkable impact on public policy ale though interest groups clearly have an ad vantage in in uencing the legislative process Nevertheless a persistent individual with a INDWIDUALS A8 LOBBYISTS 191 The Texas Rniimnd Cciiimissioii regulates Texas s cii and gas industries Some say i that this commission has been i captured by those special interests which sometimes arduocntes controversial procedures like ocking MB SHIES 0f Texas CIVIC i l I f hear the audible smolte alarm Texas s state sweaty CQde 8qu t e Insta ll H N 7 Iquot l l leaen of audible smoke alarms but not visual alarms In 2009 Burks bsc m PERCENTAGE or nannino or mass li quot 39 39 393 its I TEXANS aanEins a iCTID39 L 39 E a i 7 iquot ii 39I an advocate for a blll that would require property managetrIs1 to bug End irgsthe I l 3 NA NA AVERdG 7 AMONG THE STATES quot l 39 39 d tenants requeste em an D Puquot I quot i I i i v i e alarms 1f hearrn impaire 1 I s l l visual SWDVIZSIIIDIE locations 311C311 as bedm ms Supported by State senator Royce I Contested or waited public ofiioial 9 12 49 f K 3 arms in 39 I I I l 7 I E I ll l West the Sephra Burks Law named for Tyrus39s Wife who was also deaf went mto I I DIECUSS pulltlcs w h friends 0 I ii J 39 i I r i 39i 39l 39 r 39 I effect at the start of 2010 Tyrus Burlts was an active lobbyl t f f thIE blll and Save l I Ii amiir a few times a weak Dr 28 2g IIIIIIII l I i ll legislative testimony in support of it with the aid of a sign language littepr 1131 l i more 4 i i 1 I x r 39 i I I39 v I l I Brurlcsj s efforts bene ted rom the support Of the TEES Aparmfi t ASSOCMUOI Communicate with friends and 1 I i l 39i a major interest group representing apa mem PTDPETW l IteIestsi WhObHCkeif e I famin frequently 78 39 41 3 bill Burltgis story was tragic and his argument was compelling IItI wouffld Elev 1113 TIIIIIEIII a IIIII IIIIIIISII IIIIEIIIIIIIEI III the I i II I dif cult for opposition to emerge against such a proposal i lli e or a re I II I I neighborhood 50 57 47 i I l v v 39 I wre uirin vlsua i i g I in a mayor victory for the deaf who are proglceIpredDbIYtSo DIE SOIum lIrIIIII IIBI gBIIIIIksIS I i Emma 25 or more to charitame I l i smoke alarms m only three other states an e is I I I I I b I Iessful I H or religious organizations 4 52 43 l l achievement demonstrates that individuals can at 1amp3ch SUITlemmas e SUCC 39 39 39 II iII 39 1 i t l Group involvement 38 39 3 o yrss I I I I I I I I i III E The problem is that relativer few Texans are engagedl gtthe nagllboglloid 1 Volunteer activity 25 239 42 i l 39 7 d i h lobbgm is e to organize 1n ere I 7 i it cs an so muc Y E I groups with professional lobbylstS Table 6 2 Pm 3983 a i quot 1 r civic engagement and all show Texas is considerably lower than the natIrIona aver thg 36 45 50 I II I I I 39 r i ngeasures I i l E age on these measures Texas is near the Ijottortl IOf I Elle TagID 11 far as iscussing i soLinoE Regina Lawrence Deborah Wise and Emily Eiosohni Texas oivie liealth inees Austin Annette Strauss institute for39Civic Life 2013 ill I U of social connectedness that would lea to Civic lllvo YERlam 5w I i ll lll lll politics with friends or family gmup involvememi frequent C m mnicatm hmf 39 39H II I39ll friends and family and even trust in all or most of the 1133013131 the gelghbfir 0 39 pl I Nor in Cgmpa ggn with the rest of the B3110 ale Texans mvfjlveh ill V013 e f ficials register to vote or vote With such low levels of cone engagement individual I II i l activity or Charitable donations Texans tend 11m to contact or V1511 f Elf PM 1C 0 l Effects on the Texas political process are likely to be low 44 I i E A Interestingly while 52 percent of Texans in one survey claimed they were very ill I I interested in politics and public affairs and 37 percent said they were somewhat ll II i ll I l interested Texas has the lowest proportion of actual voters of any state Texans i ll ii OEC Si l muyi Ordinary dI give all sorts of reasons for not voting the most common reason being that Texans l i 39 mdfmdm39l f call wga Email I claim they are too busy or that work conflicts with voting and the next most com i was j V v ram 7 39 i II I iI Ii ritfluti lCE 011 1539 163 I if I mon reason that they either are not interested or believe then vote does not mat Bermun off lano lobbied I 43 I I I lquot i I I I v ter Figure 62 provides the reasons given in 2012 when Texans were aslsed why all local govermnsntnnsl tie state r II I I legislature m gel gem bicycle they didnot vote Qf course Texas s low levels of voting part1crpat1onthe lowest III II i Safety aws med programs passed level in the country means that organized interest groups ll the void in political Ii l i l Brown s 50 was killed 7quot an activity and can wield vast in uence in the state s political process iil I ll39 accident while riding his bicycle l I i II if I l l ill I 39 l 39 39439 m 7 I l A 0 Thinking Critically about Interest Groups I i l il Interest groups play an important role in Texas politics even though Texas is no I i l Fl longer a oneparty state with limited economic development Even with two ma I I if 1 I W i Jor political parties and a diverse economy Texas politics cannot be understood l i i I p i i without also examining the role of interest groups Interest groups in Texas have quot 7 i I I ll a notable probusiness avor Labor is weak in Texas and its role in the politi quoti l cal process is quite limited Trial lawyers are an especially wealthy and important j 39 39ii ll 39 interest group that promotes liberal policies in Texas but with the growth of the I i 1 39 I E Ill l i I I l I I I I I I THINKING CRITICALLY asoLIT INTEREST GROUPS 193 i in 192 CHIi iPT39EH s iNTEaEST GROUPS AND Lossviivs W w I study l 39 i i 39 I Bus oonilicting I w g 7 a 39 i V i V i i wait Interest Groups 111 the Pollttcal Process 3 i I 1 E i 39 I Not Interested vote l i it it i r v 39 does NOT matter I V V i in uenCn US V V V V a I i r 7 i l H illness disability i i Dame 39quotterest gmm s39 and describe the major cl educatiriggtn iSpillEdnmrgini embjenttis i f I a 39 i i D O t H W 3W3 ways they try to influence Texas government pf quot 39 5 aquot 039 SUBS D Vquot V VV VVV i i i i i oonrt iiiiite i I 39 d providing campaign funds forfavored candidates r V V V V E V i candi BBS V V V e maintaining a heterogeneous membership V I i o Forgot to vote i l interest groups in Texas are organizations of interested 4 I it t h i i J ii i Registration citizens who band together to influence public policy Lobby 39 n eres grow ab an Vantage Wequot md39wdualsgm 39 V i i emblem VV V i ists are hired to cultivate relationships with legislators and in 99 llet fecause 39 i iieifi grows usually have i i i j 39 Eggf jrgnaim convince them of their clients interests The goal of lobby E mm rm to 3993 DEIFEIS39 v V i l m oweniem hours 1 ists is to gai n access to policy matters to persuade them to grea er Emails an in WI Fla39s39 quot l i E I i quot minding 39 39a support the positions of the interest group c more mote U Nuance Blecmns 7 l i B d weather l d more Staff ii a i i 1 N i i V V V i k 1 Key Terms a all of the above V iV V interest group FL 173 5 When interest groups combine small contributions i V I V free rider problem p 174 r oirligdmany sources to form one large contribution it is i quot i l 1 t V 39 39 i i i 39 i bundl39 g iiquot 175 a bundling i h i i l i i lobbyist in mi a con39ipacting i 39 V V l V c cracking i o s in 15 20 25 30 i Practice Quiz a polling i PERCENTAGE i 1 The quot8iC Crowdquot 6 stickine I 3 W83 8 EFUUP 0i l egiSlETOFS Wm faile j the Eighth 6 The most important thing interest groups need to be L V V grada V effective is 39 7V V V 1V V b was a group of extremely wealthy Tettans who met a the support of a majority of Texans Fltitliith i iin Suite SF of the Lamar Hotel in Houston and can b office space in Austin Reasons Texans Give f0 Not Votan trolled Texas politics for 40 years c a variety of issues on which to lobby 39 i c were 25 legislators who boycotted the eighth d a large paid staff SDURC E are reported in Regina Lawrence Deborah Wise andVEn39iilVlyV 5955mm 0f the legiSIEIUre in Urder t0 DFEVent the e access to DOlillDial iSt Em r nitric Health indet ii tustiri Annette Straits institute tor Civic Lite Vlegisfators from taking any action because it lacked V V V V VV V V V V a quorum 7 Trial lawyers are which type of interest group 39 i d was made up of eight lobbyists who were close 3 militia gm V friends of the governor quot 6 90399 Erwin a were the eight most powerful officials in the state 3 mg efls ue gmUp who met in Suite F of the Austin State Office WWW ghoul 39 f h quot ll l BU i lding ex busmess group 39 C quot 39 39 tort reform interest roups the in uence 0 t e trta aWYEi s V i y l V V V V 7 V Republican Party and g i 2V nterest gmupg mede 3 me Of cials with a the 8 interest groups often hire former legislators as lobby has wanedquot d 392 1 following except ms to Though no single interest group or Goali Oi l 01C imam g1 Gaps In ll EV a information a gain greater access to current legislators Texas politich by far most lobbyists represent business 1nterestsV the bu b money b revert from the policy expertise of former PAC money comes from b USi ess interests Ofteni 0f Emmet bu smess cfsiar P1 3 media coverage bets m ted against one another in the political process Also puth interest C1Vll I lgatsi d meg G tfe iolfmgnli gel DtBFSOFlal ll lSide l RHOWlEdge 0f 397 I t v w 2 f i t if quot i Jilizin u it 39 a e ISEl Dl consumer and environmental groups may still be successfpl by moti g Emu S V a committee assignments on a of the aboveV opinion and in uencing the media However there areonyr a cw l eres g V p 3 The goals of interest groups include 3 except a none m the aboveV that offer alternatives to businesS pEfSIJECtiVES 0 pD IiCZi 1551 193 LESS 39equen yi I a electing people to office in orderto support the ordinary individuals are able to in uence public policy Although they tend to be at groups EDHISV V a disadvantage in terms of moneyr and other resourcesr dedicated 1nd1vtduals With a i i l compelling argument sometimes succeed tn lobbytng for speci c legislatiollrli final especially true when they are pursuing goals that do not put t em in con tc W1quot V wellorganized and wellfunded interest at UUP 5 i i i ti i STUDY GLliDE tss quot ill 1 Iquot 194 CHAPTER 6 lNTEREST GROUPS silo LOBBYliiG VV no L39 4 A
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