KIN445-ChapterNotes.pdf KIN 445
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 445 at Michigan State University taught by Andy Driska in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Sociocult Anl Phys Activity(W) in PHIL-Philosophy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 1 What is Sport and Why do We Study It Sport Through the Ages 0 Sport desporto to carry away in Latin 0 Early Greek civilization used sport and games in celebration to honor the gods or as part of funeral ceremonies Show evidence of sport through paintings carvings and other historical documents De nition of Sport Sport pyramid four elements of human activity play games sport work 0 Play forms the base of the pyramid since its PA of childhood and continues throughout life in various forms 0 Exploration selfexpression dreaming pretending pleasure Games aspect of play that have structure and is competitive 0 Mental and physical informal or formal rules competition have outcomes determined by luck strategy or skill 0 Result in status or rank 0 New Games developed by Dale Le Fevre which emphasizes cooperation participation creativity and personal expression 0 Sport specialized or higher order of play or as games with certain special characteristics that set them apart competitive outcome is important 0 Physical component coordination strength speed balance exibility endurance o Institutionalized games governed by an outside grouporganization 0 Always requires specialized equipment and facilities 0 Amateurs play sport as a hobby participation rather than outcome 0 Work purposeful activity that may include physical or mental effort to perform a task overcome an obstacle or achieve a desired outcome 0 Professional level 0 Highperformance athletes athletes of any age who aspire to become pro Possible burnout and boredom Study of Sport 0 3 reasons to personal development scholarly study professional practice 0 Career options teaching coaching sport management sport research program directing sport promotion and publicity recreation and leisure therapeutic exercise sport business health and tness Sport Sciences Kinesiology Last 40 years base of knowledge has expanded Subdisciplines biophysical psychosocial sociocultural Biophysical Domain PA from the viewpoint of the sciences of biomechanics physiology and medicine Biomechanics study of the structure and function of biological systems through application of principles of physics to human motion to understand how the body uses gravity inertia balance force or motion to produce speed power or distance 0 Exercise physiology study of human systems to enhance strengthen systems and endurance in performance toward the Olympic ideal of higher faster stronger 0 Nutrition part of physiology to understand how food and drink affect performance 0 Sports medicine examines the prevention care and rehab of injuries caused by participation in PA and sport Psychosocial Domain PA from the standpoint of the science of psychology 0 Sport psychology study of human behavior in sport including enhancing performance and treating disorders that affect optimal performance 0 Motor learning and behavior study of relatively permanent change in motor behavior that result from practice or experience focuses on how people learn to perform motor skills and patterns efficiently and retain that ability even under pressure Pedagogy study of the art and science of teaching focuses on the teacher or coach who creates the learning environment and assists the learning of sports Sociocultural Domain focuses on PA from the perspectives of the sciences of history philosophy and sociology 0 Sport history study of the tradition and practice of PA and sport over time within different countries cultures and civilizations Philosophy of sport examines the de nition value and meaning of sport Sport sociology study of sport and PA within the context of the social conditions and culture in which people live Sociology study of society its institutions and its relationships 0 Relies on systematic study of the development structure interaction and collective behavior of a group of human beings Growth in Sport Sciences allow us to do the following Understand the historical precedents in sport and tness avoid mistakes of past and plan a healthier future so higher life expectancy Better motivation for people and understand value of PAits development Teach people new skills faster and more ef ciently better training methods Prevent injuries and also speed up the recovery process Understand in uence of sport on culture promote equality and fairness Dealing with stress and anxiety through sports high energy as well Strengthen ours body systems to deal with emergencies Chapter 2 How Do We Study Sport Research Methods Quanti able data studies producing data that can be counted and analyzed statistically Qualitative data data collected through interviews or observations of individuals or groups or through analysis of societal characteristics and trends Survey research research conducted through questionnaires Interviews face to face personal questioning to elicit info attitudes and opinions 0 Time consuming and expensive Focus Groups interviews with small groups of people Content research type of research in which info or pictures are collected from articles magazines and TV programs and the data are assigned to categories around a particular theme Ethnography study of data collected by researchers who immerse themselves in an environment and keep recorded conversations or notes 0 Time and costly 0 Historical research research that looks at trends in sport over time o Societal analysis use of social theories to examine life from a social POV Social Theory theory about a society and social life based on systematic research and logic providing frameworks from which we can evaluate our present situation and perhaps discover a need for chance 0 As theories get accepted they may become the basis for predicting the future or for calling for change within sport Forces us to examine all aspects of the sport experience including seat of power within a sport the values that are embraced and the interaction of various groups involved Functionalist Theory theory that looks at sport as a social institution that reinforces the current value system in a society 0 Maintaining a status quo American views of hard work discipline and competition leads to stability 0 Winning at all costs 0 Sport builds character and values 0 Competition is value and high performance is a critical outcome Con ict Theory theory based on the work of Karl Marx that sees sport as being built on the foundation of money and economic power Rejects the status quo as it exists in capitalist societies 0 Those who have power exploit those who do not 0 Economic interests shape the world 0 Change is inevitable 0 Athletes should have more control over their sport destiny and quality of experience Critical Theory theory that looks critically at culture and determine the source of authority that one group has over another 0 Views life as complex and diverse Order is obtained through struggles over ideology and power 0 Better life for all citizens is the goal 0 Sports do not simply mirror society but provide change to society 0 Sports must change to be fair to everyone more democratic and sensitive to diversity 0 Sport can help us improve our outlook toward gender physical or mental disability sexual orientation and physical talent Hegemony Theory critical theory that focuses on dominance which is the power that one individuals or group has over others such as coaches 0 Political theorist Antonio Gamsci Feminist Theory social theory that investigates the effect of gender within society 0 Views social life as based on a patriarchal ideology and controlled by men in powerful positions Argues that feminine virtues are ignored or undervalued Females lack equal opportunity in sport 0 There is a lack of women in coaching and leadership positions 0 Traditional masculine traits of competitiveness and aggressiveness con ict with traditional feminine traits like sensitivity and nurturing lnteractionist Theory theories that view society from the bottom up rather than the top down they focus on the social interactions among people that are based on the reality people choose to accept People make conscious decisions on how to respond and act toward the outside world 0 People choose to participate in sport in various ways and the quality of the experience for the athlete is important 0 Sport organizations should be open and democratic Youth sport should t the needs and desires of kids Figurational Theory theories proposing that we are all connected by networks of people who are independent on one another by nature through education and through socialization 0 Views changes that occur over time 0 Sports exists as a part of society viewed historically and over the long term Sport tends to focus on masculinity and male power Developments in port are seen in the context of global processes Current Status of Sport Sociology 1964 international committee for Sport Sociology was created 0 1978 North American Society for the Sociology of Sport 0 Sport Sociology Academy Chapter 5 Media and Sport Media and Consumer Sport Create excitement describe action during the event analysis and criticism at the end Convey the signi cance of the game players history individual matchups Personal attachments to players or teams are developed Preoccupation with sport is a healthy form of escaping from everyday life Two types Print Media and Electronic Media TV radio internet Direct spectators people who attend live sporting events as a stadium etc Indirect spectators people who listen to or watch sports electronically by radio TV or the Internet or who read about sports in newspaper etc Evolution of Sport Media 19205 Radio transmissions of sport began Second half of 19th century rst sports section in the New York journal 19505 TV 1979 ESPN was born Social Media Internetbased communication such as FB YouTube blogs Fantasy football etc Interplay of Sport and Media Amateur sports get some media as well How TV Affects Sport Viewing can expand through better marketing presentation of the event outreach to new audiences expansion to include more female fans and general worldwide expansion US Baseball basketball football Olympics are watched in other countnes TV networks pay signi cant broadcast right fees to pro sports leagues organizations and franchises Advertisers pay for rights to advertise their products to viewers during sport Sport owners or leagues can afford to pay athletes huge salaries due to the guaranteed income from TV Ticket sales and other game day revenues pale in comparison with the income derived from TV rights Money is the biggest link as right fees increase pro sports rely more heavily on TV for their revenue stream How Media Affects Sport Affect the popularity of sport Provide free publicity for local teams Present player personalities and build fan allegiance to teams and individual players Expert commentators work hard to educate viewers who know little about the sport while not insulting die hard fans Players depend on media for publicity and should visit local schools and support local charities 0 Need to be related to by fans to buy jerseys imitate style of play etc Media can negatively affect sport too by changing the way sports are presented to the audience Rule Changes Sport events that are unpredictable in length mess with station schedules TV has pressured sports to revise their format to ensure that contest nish in a predictable amount of time 0 Football instant reply limited challenges 0 Tennis used to have to win by two games so then implemented tie break rule rst to 7 at 6 all 0 Golf medal play person with the lowest score 0 Basketball 3 point was adopted so everything wasn t in the paint shot clock 0 MLB strike zone Attendance Declines Due to Televised Sport Blackout rule game cannot be broadcast within a range of 150 miles of the stadium unless all tickets are sold At one point in small cities and places minor leagues were watched more than major but that changed Now major leagues are watched the most and minor college and high school sports sometimes suffer Con icts with Scheduling The different time zones can cause con ict for things like the world series and the super bowl east coast is getting read for bed while the west coast has to stay up late US Open schedules as well better players get better times and center court Olympics certain events get more coverage Gambling 0 Local betting Serious betting is aided by the media reports on odds set in Las Vegas by bookmakers picks by experts on TV injury and status reports of players in daily papers and articles online predicting outcomes Free Publicity for Some Universities 0 Which means more students apps each year which allows them to be more selective for the next year 0 Football mostly There has been realignment of leagues in an effort to generate max pro t from TV rights for each school league 0 the realignment of the Big Ten Paci c Ten and Big Twelve in 2010 How Sport Affects the Media 0 the revenue from sport coverage has been a major source of income for various media but particularly newspapers TV and specialty magazines newspapers are more indepth analysis of games 0 social issues are debated in the newspaper magazines ldeology of Sport Through the Media certain values attitudes and beliefs maintain the status quo sports media are owned by big companies such as Disney who owns ABC and ESPN 0 winning is worshiped in sport media athletes who are cooperative team players receive reinforcement from the media and are praised as leaders and role models coaches emphasize hard work and discipline which is shown in media 0 players who play during an injury are labeled as courageous and team players 0 people don t like cocky athletes Participation in Sport and PA watching a sport on TV does not affect participation 0 many people who are already active report that their interest is heightened by watching great athletes and many young people want to emulate their sport heroes on the playground or eld 0 TV is the primary reason for inactivity Traditional Values lndividualism one person can make a difference 0 Team chemistry working as a unit cooperative Harry Edwards sport sociologist in the 19705 stated key values character building religiosity nationalism discipline mental tness competition physical tness Winners and Losers You need to win a big game as a coach or athlete Fans want a wellplayed or exciting game 0 TV producers look for ways to minimize the changes for such disappointment by emphasizing possible upsets rallies by the losing player or team and contests that will end in tiebreakers 0 Even athletes who deliver an illegal hit are lionized for their competitive spirit as long as they are not caught or the penalty is small 0 Athletes who reenter a game after an injury are lauded for their courage Young people might think that winning Gender Hegemonic masculinity power dominance violence 0 Male athletics predated the rise of female athletics Men s sports have ore media coverage Race and Ethnicity 0 Black athlete stories about coming from poverty and now rich 0 Black athletes feel belittled by the media s constant portrayal of them as physically talented while their white teammates are praised for their cool strategic play Stereotypes Cultural destiny of young black boys playing NFL or NBA 0 African Americans are violent stereotype and stories about arrests etc Careers in Sport Media 0 Sports writers journalists in the print media who specialize in sports 0 Sports announcers on radio or TV excite the fans 0 Female reporters were banned from male locker rooms for a while Chapter 4 Business of Sport 0 Sport and the Economy 0 O 0 Entertaining people during their time off work has been a primary role of participation and spectator sport Today sport is organized mechanized marketed and administered as a business Events are related by television audience share ticket sales website hits concession sales sponsor revenue media coverage and wins and loses of the team 0 Ownership of Professional Sports 0 0 Used to be rich males who loved the game but today it is rich people who buy sport franchises to promote and market their own business products Packers owned by general public shareholders Some owners stick on the business side and some are involved on and off the eld 0 Making Money from Professional Sports 0 Investment Appreciate growing in value every year No owner has ever lost money on the initial capital investment If an owner can construct a new stadium with sources of income other than his own he can increase the value of the franchise by 3040 million Taxes Some owners may show a loss in their franchise s bottom line at the end of the year they usually go into the year expecting that outcome They may balance those losses against signi cant pro ts made in their other business therefore saving money by reducing their overall tax liability If they really see the team as a loss they will sell it Depreciation Decreasing value of items that have a life expectancy such as tools equipment and athletes Capital assets tangible property that cannot be easily converted into cash Revenue Sharing More than 80 of the NFL revenue is divided between 32 teams evenly MLB shares less than 25 of their quarter revenue Pays players better Ticket Sales Money from tickets is split between the home and visiting team 6040 Affected by the seating capacity of the stadium prices set for each level of seating and attendance of each game MLB has 162 games a year doesn t really sell out NFL has 16 o Stadium Revenues Income from luxury boxes concessions and parking Food and souvenirs banning outside food and drink 0 Media Revenues Radio TV cable payperview 0 Licensing Fees on Team Merchandise Team jerseys caps Tshirts etc o Naming Rights Rights to name an athletic stadium or facility purchased by corporations as a meaning of advertisement Stadium Financing 0 Private funds monies raised from owner contributions league contributions bank loans loans from local businesses and personal seat licenses 0 Public funds monies raised from public sources such as sales taxes proximity and bene ciary taxes and general obligation and revenue bonds and tax increment nancing 0 Personal seat licenses license that gives fans the right to buy season tickets for speci c seats in a stadium 0 Public tax funds tax funds collected by local or state governments that provide services to citizens 0 Reasons to build stadiums and areas for the cities or states Real estate goes up major league area residents will take pride in the team and recreational value Tourists restaurants hotels more money Priceless publicity and media attention for restaurants and just the city or state in general Special events like play offs and championships are great Create jobs for people 0 quotSpin doctorsquot present the idea to the public Organization as Owners 0 Like the Green Bay Packers o The USTA so successful paying for memberships US Open Sport as a Monopoly o Sherman Antitrust legislation 0 TV revenue Management vs Labor O 0 Talking about how players have no choice over who they play for and how much they will get paid Drafting and Free Agents 0 Player Compensation 0 There are about 21000 jobs in total for all levels of professional sport athletes in the US including minor leagues High paying athletes are required to pay taxes in the state where their team is based and in states where their team competes even if their residence is in a different state Average career length isn t that long for example tennis is about 7 years Professional athletes need to invest their money in other places to have money for a life time because they most likely wont go jobs after they are done Some of the most successful athletes move into TV reporting and broadcast work but this requires intense skill Tennis and golf is tournament based each tournament you win you make more money so if there is an injury it is detrimental Athletes work so hard and get so many criticism and need do deal with constant criticism and scrutiny and have tough skin Think of athletes are entertainers and that is why the get paid so much money and can also get endorsements and appearances 0 Limits on Athlete Earnings 0 Total salary cap total nancial commitment a team is allowed to make to all players on the roster in combined salary and bene ts MLB has wiggle room and can pay a luxury tax on the amount of money they went over the cap Every team employs experts who gure out the implications of every player contract and how it will affect the team cap in the years ahead Collegiate Sports as Moneymakers o Revenueproducing sports intercollegiate sports such as football or basketball that typically produce more revenue than expense for the university 0 Reasons Student body enjoys having a good team on campus Power of free publicity Publicity helps recruit applicants and more apps raises the competition for admission which improves quality of students O O Alumni events and support with funding Revenue like football is good for men and women Big colleges sell tickets to students and public and have souvenirs parking food alcohol luxury boxes some big colleges get their games televised as well and playoffs and championships are more money Most colleges charge every student an athletic fee that support the sport program Corporate sponsors donate with cash or equipment or clothing Licensing fees on merchandise also bring in income bookstores Athletic scholarships given away to produce winning teams to please students fans alumni and the administration 0 Recreational Sport as a Business 0 0 Measures its economics effects through sales of sport equipment like golf clubs tennis rackets balls boats shing rods athletic footwear clothing Also tally the amount of land in natural settings for boating and shing sports elds public parks and private sport facilities Youth activities Clubs and facilities charge fees to get in each time membership fees court time fees equipment fees Chapter 7 Interscholastic and Intercollegiate Sport Chapter 11
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