KIN445-ClassNotes.pdf KIN 445
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to KIN 445 at Michigan State University taught by Andy Driska in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Sociocult Anl Phys Activity(W) in PHIL-Philosophy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
12714 DK Theory Martens 1987 Damn Kon dent scienti c method using the heuristic paradigm systematic observation single case study shared public experience introspection intuition Don t Know 2314 Trade UnionsLabor Unions organization of workers who have bonded together to try and achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of their trade achieving better pay better working conditions and safety 0 Began during the industrial revolution as the demand for unskilled and semiskilled increased to keep up with the manufacturing demand Needed Because 0 Conditions were not always safe Wages were not always commensurate with the work 0 Hiring and ring policies were at the whim of manufacturing owner How Do They Work Elected leadership bargain on behalf of rank and le union members to negotiate labor contracts known as collective bargaining 0 Rank and le members are ordinary members of the union 0 Other reasons for wanting a collective agreement 0 Trade for which workers are employed would not exist without them 0 While they are not management believe that they too deserve a seat at the table in deciding how a business or trade should run Who Bene ts VVorkers 0 Improve safety improve pay healthcare and other bene ts having a say in the direction of a trade or business Employers 0 Holding employees to the same standard to which they themselves are held 0 High quality workforce o Motivated and loyal workforce The NCPA Leaders Believe o Scholarships athletes contribute nancially to their institution as employees but have no say in how their trade IS run 0 Having a say in how college sport is run is important give the nancial education and physical sacri ces they make 0 What I Think Athletes Want 0 Increased nancial security 0 A say in how and where the money is spent 0 Improvement in educational chances 2514 Government control of sport in the UK Overall approach 0 Government provides funding for sport 0 For many sports only money they get vast proportion of the money they get 0 Therefore the government has high levels of control over sport 0 Implementation of rules 0 Where money is spent 0 Olympic funding 0 Obligation to grassroots sports The Premier League and other Pro Sports 0 Football clubs are af liated to the Football Association FA 0 The FA organizes leagues including the Premier League and this entry to the Champions League 0 The government has a large say in the running of the FA 0 Less a monopoly as each club is independent to license its own merchandise player development First Tee know for exam 1 Mission statement quotTo impact the lives of young people by providing educational programs that build character instill life enhancing values and promote healthy choices through the game of golfquot 2 What are the motives for using sportwhat are they using sport for Fun and adult mentors and safe places for young people 73 of the participants report high con dence in their ability to do well academically and 82 feel con dent in their social skills with peers Ages 517 through golf instruction and life skills lessons and core values 1 in 4 students drop out of public HS character education for HS college and life 3 Why do you think they do well Sports are fun and bonding after school programs keep children out of trouble keep children busy and active con dence booster 4 What concerns do you have Some children may not think golf is fun and may think golf is boring so they may not join it Overall Why does any of this matter Why even look at these organizations 21014 Race and Ethnicitv Selfidenti cation vs Societal identi cation Power and privilege Where you live lntersectionality race ethnicity or other characteristics intersect with other characteristics Black and Latino race intersects with low or lowermiddle income socioeconomic status Physical activity behaviors 0 Learning to move physical education 0 Opportunities for movement recreational spaces Cultural beliefs and gender roles lntersectionality Sport selection participation and persistence 0 Certain races doing certain sports 0 Make a Splash Program Hegemony means by which one social group asserts cultural dominance over other social groups the maintenance of quotsoft powerquot 0 Language 0 Mass media 0 Socioeconomic incentives 0 Social institution sport and exercise Resistance process of a minority cultural group maintaining cultural identity in the face of pressure from the dominant culture group 0 Language 0 Mass media 0 Socioeconomic incentives 0 Social institution sport and exercise 0 Sport as a Site of Cultural Resistance 0 Trobriand Cricket 0 Dominican Baseball Alan Klein 0 Negro League Baseball 0 Harlem Globetrotter And1 tour 0 Fab Five Michigan draft 0 Coopting resistance 0 Resistance can be resisted backlash 0 Opinions about basketball 0 Resistance can also be coopted o Acceptable boundaries 0 For resistance 0 Hip hop music in the mainstream o Acceptable behavior in the NBA 0 Portrayals what visions are portrayed here 0 Jackie Robinson 42 the movie 0 Remember the Titans blacks and whites on the same football team 0 Tommie Smith and John Carlos 1968 Olympics doing the black power symbol on the podium where medals are given out 0 Miami Heat Players wearing hoodies in a showing of solidarity with the family of Trayvon Martin 21214 Jamie Appalachian comes to Appalachia o A British chef o Oliver s Food Revolution TV show highlights his efforts to persuade school districts to provide healthy eating options for children 0 In the rst season Oliver came to Huntington WV rated as America s unhealthiest city 0 Oliver attempts to bring healthy eating options to the schools but encounters much resistance 0 White Appalachian mountain culture is a distinct culture 0 Central feature is resistance to outsiders and living life in the moment Midterm 3 questions will be given the day of the exam will be given about 18 questions to study and it will be posted Feb 16th at noon Clear and concise writing will be graded harder 21714 Racial attitudes and racial stacking First described in the 1970s and 19805 How certain positions black people play and how certain positions are played by white people Role modeling white child sees a white quarterback and believes oh I can do that black child sees basketball players and wants to do that Leadership quarterbacks are seen as the leader so white people are leaders black people play other positions because they require more athletic ability based on stereotype Coaches and parents in uence the long term impact on what a player plays and also which physical skills they develop 0 Certain races play certain sports and positions and coaches do that o Cornerbacks are 97 black also kickers Racial stereotypes 0 Black players are more aggressive White people can t jump Black players are fast Black people can t swim Hispanic people are better at baseball 0000 Racial ideologies 0 To put people into racial categories 0 Interpret actions and relationships 0 Construct social practices that impact lives Racial attitudes among NFL scouts 0 Can the language used by NFL scouts predict a player s race Yes 0 Black players are more likely to be described with physical terms Best pure athlete on his college team Quick feet Very uid movements 0 White players more likely to be described for their mental attributes Do they bite on playfakes Lateearly reactor to plays Goodbad student 0 What positions are most stereotyped Quarterback white Tight end black Center white lnside linebacker unable to predict big and tough person The Experiences of Collegiate Athletes Functionalist and Critical Perspective There is a commonly held belief that sport offers opportunity for black athletes Central to this opportunity is the ability to attend college on an athletic scholarship These scholarships are almost all in the sports of football and basketball Functionalist theory looks at sports as a social institution that reinforces the current value system in a society 0 Sports are seen as maintaining the status quo by positively bene tting a community or nation striving to work and play together 0 MSU athletic director Mark Hollis gives Kirk Cousins as an example because he excelled in academics and football and went professional 0 The three year requirement before going pro and 2 years for basketball before going to the draft Critical theory examine how a culture operates and its struggles in the search for a better life for all citizens o A critical theories is especially attuned to combating structural conditions in a society that lead to exploitation oppression or social injustice o Punishments are more harsh if you are a student athlete 0 Everyone knows who the athletes are on campus 0 Social media is more monitored if you are a student athlete 21914 Racial attitudes in sport What were some of the things that the Fab Five did to challenge the status quo in college basketball in the early 19905 The fashion black socks longer shorts Style of play dunking trash talking Own swag the hiphop music and big headphones Starting 5 freshman was huge They were not able to make money off of their style and jerseys that were sold by Nike and were mad about that What might explain the signi cant amount of racially motivated backlash evidenced by the large amount of hate mail received by the Michigan staff Stereotyped Freshman and black 0 Changing of social norm and found something wrong with them no matter what they did Major points of Fab Five 0 Racism may never go away in sport Hegemony It is not what you do or how you do it o Sportsmanship trash talking may still be looked down on even if a white player did it 0 Sport is a re ection of culture what we live in 0 Good sign of the times Problems with Native American Mascots Davis 2002 quotBloodthirsty savagequot o ignores historical reality sma pox blankets and Columbus s soldiers bringing diseases and killing them Trail of Tears and Indian Removal Act Extermination of the North American bison quotNoble savagequot 0 even a good stereotype is problematic 0 example of distorted positive stereotypes and can be turned negative fast 0 picture the outrage if a soccer team in a predominantly Muslim country has a mascot called the Christians 0 States that symbols do matter 0 Stereotypes 0 Think about how symbols are in history like the Spartans but Native Americans are still alive 22614 Term Paper Integrate sources 1 Examine your sources What ndings do they have in common 2 Bulleted list 3 Paragraph form 0 If there is contraction and divergence then report on it It is normal and a good part of science and explain both sides 31014 Forms of Capital 0 Economic capital 0 Social capital 0 Cultural capital Individualism vs Collectivism American speci cally the hegemonic culture is a strongly individualist culture 0 In America we generally attribute success to individual factors goes back to quotselfmade manquot concept 0 Other societies and cultures are much more collectivist where attributions for success are given to family and supporting environments Forms of capital applied to health behaviors Healthy behaviors eating healthy foods exercising 150 minutes per week eliminating bad health habits etc 31214 Pierre de Coubertin Founder of modern Olympics Rugby School vs Regular School 0 Rugby 0 A public school means private high SES 0 Long history large tuition costs 0 PE lessons included games and competition to develop life skills similar to ideals of muscular religion 0 Regular 0 State school for general public low SES 0 New phenomena for British public 0 PE was a military drill used to improve war performance Amateur Athletics 0 Based on his ideals Pierre de Coubertin made the Olympics an quotamateur gamesquot o This was to protect sport as a wholly developmental experience for enjoyment and personal growth 0 This also had social class effects 0 Prevention of competition by lower SES 0 Inclusion of sports that were popular and predominate in the upper classes 0 Olympic games abandoned amateur requirement in 1988 and allowed professional athletes 31914 Gender and Sexuality social constructions rather than rigid biological categories What counts as a gender or sexuality issue For instance is Title IX a women s issue Or is a sport issue Or an education issue Who should be studying its impact and making decisions about it Social construction quotOne is not born a womanquot Simone de Beauvoir Monique Wittig ls gender based on 0 Rigid biological truths vs genderacceptable conventions and learned behaviors o For example is male oppression of women a biological behavior or a learned behavior You learn from your father rst male model and see how they treat your mother and other women How does one learn to become a woman 0 During infancy and toddler stages Toys you are given colors worn how the parentspeople talk to the baby sweet vs roughing up the boy 0 During childhood TV shows sports how you are dressed what toys you are given if you have a brother or not how your mother and father treat you and what they expose youtoo 0 During adolescence Friends peer pressure start impressing boys make up magazines movies role models older sisters 0 During emerging adulthood college Dating cultural customs thinking about career vs family 0 During adulthood Marriage kids settling down Growth and maturation o How does the biological trajectory of development intersect with sociological realities 0 Sport participation Adolescence is a major point of decision Differences along lines of ethnicity and socialclass o How do we encourage adolescent girls to play sports andor quotbe athletic good in gym classquot Good to be active fun to beat the boys 0 How do we discourage adolescent girls to play sports andor quotbe athletic good in gym classquot Being a tomboy bruises 33114 Sport PA Gender Sexuality Socialization Effects Body Image and Ideal Womanhood Little Girls in Pretty Boxes Joan Ryan 1995 book 0 Expectation of tness for female athletes even in nonaesthetic sports 0 She doesn t look very t Heterosexy images on Google of female athletes are not really action shots and just swimsuit shots or red carpet Body Image and Ideal Manhood Ideal body type quotthe physique of a pro athletequot o Assumption that a fitlooking body yields better athletic performance Disordered eating amongst men and boys has increased not a female issue 0 15 of disordered eating cases are men or boys Male Body Image Just like the Heterosexy image for women what does the ideal male body type image communicate To men and boys 0 Have to be in the gym being an athlete being stronger To women and girls 0 Being skinny pretty Sexual Orientation Rene Portland former Penn State women s basketball coach not wanting lesbians on the team 1986 Workplace Discrimination Sport is one of the few work domains where discrimination based on sexual orientation is tolerated Studied most vigorously with female lesbian coaches Issues for Coaches Negative recruiting Assumption of heterosexuality Family pressures Outright discrimination by colleagues and superiors Michael Sam first gay football player to declare himself eligible for NFL draft Jan 2014 U of Missouri standout SEC CoDefensive Player of the year 20132014 Issues 0 Owners fear that he will not be accepted by the team 0 The locker room issue what s at stake here What are players really saying Being objecti ed orjudged 4214 TUrkey Very active but not a big sport sector industry like US 0 Beach go for a run swimming Many different religions in Turkey so some are Muslim and cannot expose their body very much like in swimming Soccer national level Basketball Volleyball Height and wind surfing by water so popular expensive high educann Golf expensive high education Tennis expensive high education Marathons 5k 10k Trinidad amp Tobago Twin island state in the Caribbean 12 million people Economy oil and gas Main Cricket swimming track and eld soccer Not as popular basketball tennis karate table tennis When popular do well in sports in this country they become national heroes 0 Any kind of success is celebrated 0 They get holidays parades money houses Most sport is played in schools 0 Primary school mandatory PE school teams interhouse sports primary school championships Few coaching schools opening these kids to develop basic skills 0 Golf and swimming high SES memberships Few sport clubs 0 Pro football pro cricket hockey semi pro basketball semi pro golf athletics If you are goof enough they can join a club team They usually compete against adults in sports like football basketball and hockey Golf athletics and swimming are different usually have various age groups and persons can compete in their divisions QRC club team Sport Governance 0 Ministry of sport controls everything then SPOR39IT company and 39ITOC o SPORTI39 and TTOC look over 39ITFF NAAA 39ITCB 39ITBA 0 Politics can in uence sport 0 Have nutritionists and weight trainers Golf swimming tennis cricket expensive Play a lot of basketball just nobody makes it to Pros Pro soccer league Trinidad is very green so good places for sports on grass like soccer Colleges between islands would compete not very many coHeges 0 Some intercollege sport New Zealand 44 million people Rugby Three Similarities with US 0 quotSport Crazyquot Nation oThe power of the oval ball 0 We both think we re the best in the world Three differences with US o The role of government has a lot of power 0 No college sport only 6 or 7 universities in NZ o No professionalization of youth sport All Blacks national rugby team oThe Haka intimidation tribal war dance cool and funny Rugby had hazing and macho High SES golf tennis Extreme sports are big snowboarding skiing rafting Cricket Rugby was really played by everyone oTouch rugby played by kids during recess and after school Women s rugby Some use of steroids Not very highly paid like 1 million a year at the most Britain Women s soccer used to seen as lesbians 2 or 3 athletes have come out about being gay or lesbian in the last year Diving Gay marriage has been legalized in the last year Female athletes are still sexualized Women are sportscaster have more than US 0 More referees and of cials than US 0 Even lead the casts of games and matches 41614 Future of Exercise and Fitness in Children 012 Technology exercise with technology Wii and less outside play video games that make people sedentary but encourage tness Fitness requirements less fun in school because more requirements Obesity won t change and will continue to get worse even though knowledge is still advancing Generation Gap more research on concussions so then parents may be more scared to let their kids play contact sports Parental In uence the sports are different that parents played they were used to being out all the time playing until dinner Adolescent Exercise and Fitness Technology quick xes video games online gym class virtual trainers don t want to put the work to be t Lifestyle diet PE not in schools healthier lunches in school obesity would go up decline in exercise Changes in sport more safety rules more parental involvement increase in female sport increase in competitive tness like cross t not gym class cry babies no dodgeball more education based Adulthood Exercise and Fitness Gym facilities money theater gym Money more money being spent on working out and being t Increase in health profession jobs Big gap between people who work out a lot and people that don t Community tness Diversi cation of sports Exercise is medicine US gyms more in business places so corporate tness so then health care costs go down for their employees Electronic personal trainers or apps Increase in parks obstacle courses and trails How should money be spent Creating new facilities or hiring community tness leaders to help people become more active in the environment that is already established Late adulthood Affects of aging health complications lower tness levels Types of rehab physical and occupational therapy Exercise programs with equipment tennis golf low impact treadmills Wii t active games Exercise programs without equipment dancing swimming walking Future of youth sport Health more mandatory sports rules Participation would increase would decrease because of technology maybe Money more exploitation of them more government funding Competition kids playing at a younger age elite leagues at younger age girls and boys in sports together Facilities more facilities created Future of adolescenthigh school sport Social in uence making sports more public media of high school sports will become a norm to play a sport sense of pride Financial adaptations better equipment Women in sport more respected less Title IX problems Popularity goes up rugby soccer Competition more about winning than participation Future of college sport Athlete bene ts more televised rights more bene ts start status long term health bene ts more elite more professional athlete Money coaching increases athletes might get paid or merchandising deals more incentives go straight to pro nicer like a pro league Female female coaches may start decreasing less money or more money teams of football and hockey Safety more advanced equipment Education would decrease leave school sooner go pro because more elite Maybe traveling more internationally like soccer and rugby Future of pro sports lnjuries more research about it Nature of sport more elite less popular Typesmake up of sport coed sports sports combining women s sport Money overpaid even more Rules and regulation more strict
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