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Ch 7 and 8 Notes


Ch 7 and 8 Notes CLAS 2205

Sports and Spectacles the Ancient World
Professor Lipp

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Detailed and organized notes on the book Ch 7 and 8.
Sports and Spectacles the Ancient World
Professor Lipp
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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CLAS 2205 at Ohio State University taught by Professor Lipp in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Sports and Spectacles the Ancient World in Classical Studies at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Ch 7 Panhellenic Sacred Crown Games and More Introduction Olympia and Nemea games most alike to Zeus earliest athletic programs other games arranged around Olympic games to avoid conflict still careful planning did not prevent tension and rivalry Pythian Games second greatest crown games to Apollo at Delphi every four years in the middle of each Olympiad location at an interstate sanctuary aided prestige and success here oracle of Apollo more important than oracle of Zeus maintained cult before competition foundation legend not associated with hero cult Apollo established musical contests after killing Pytho the great serpent early music festivals with material prizes here became stephanitic only in 6th c Delphi became object of First Sacred War and was taken by tyrant Kleisthenes of Sikyon in 586 program of athletics expanded oldest competition for lyre singing three footraces and the pentathlon for men and boys three men s combat events only boxing for boys one equestrian event 16 contests in total at second Pythia there was a shift to wreaths of laurel crowns as prizes proclaimed truce for its games continued to evolve adding 4 horse chariot hoplite race citharaplaying boys pankration chariot races for foals reflected Olympia s influence but established own identity attracter numerous votice dedications and treasuries Athens and Siphnos Temple of Apollo redone in stone with help from Athens originally events took place on the Krishna Plain but a stadium was added higher up the slope above the temple wine prohibited in the stadium stone seating monumental gateway with 3 arches extensive gymnasium running tracks palaistra dressing room and a large round pool attracted benefactors visitors and famous athletes as well as artists 0 Charioteer of Delphi bronze share group of a fourhorse chariot with a victor and driver aboard lsthmian Games festival of Poseidon at lsthmia Corinth supervised the games known for their wealth trade and varied entertainments accessible from east and west seas great place to publicize the latest news affecting Greece Two origin myths o Melikertes drowned at sea and his corpse ended up at the Isthmus Sisyphos founded funeral rites and games for him there and his named was changed to Palaimon o Theseus founded the games for Poseidon at the Isthmus because Herakles began games for Zeus at Olympia cult activity increasing participation from elites very extravagant program 3 age categories boys youth men equestrian events were especially prominent Poseidon was the god of horses prize wreath of dry celery small sanctuary and theatre but not much else remains triangular pavement experimental form of starting mechanism with strings and gates for a fair start a later stadium has been located but is still waiting to undergo excavation shifted to another stadium to provide larger space for athletes as games grew became object of contention because of location and notoriety Eleans boycotted the lsthmian games throughout antiquity not free of politics violence but suffered less disruption than Nemea Nemean Games latest and least known crown games complex athletic facilities the operation of games and Nemea s sadly episodic and stunted history revealed through excavation primacy of hero cult of Opheltes o as a baby killed by a snake funeral games exacted for him not a strategic or inviting location nor any local attractions remote parochial interstate cult sanctuary in a sheep herding area built a Temple of Zeus with long exterior altar to mimic Olypmia emphasized gymnic events three age categories no musical contests buildings for storerooms meeting halls no permanent residence truce east side location of early stadium running west side early hippodrome mound splitting these to sides held the spectators attracted fiercely competitive athletes fighters willing to die and kill free of military dedications battles and war still present taken by Argos and then Macedonians extensive and spectacular reorganization included new Temple of Zeus bath complex hotel for athletes and trainers sculptor s workshop kiln stadium tunnel and changing room little formal seating for the estimated 40000 spectators measurements of track lacked the exactitude of measurement characteristic of Greek stadiums 36m long entrance tunnel reflects Macedonian influence shifting the stadium away from the cult center at Nemean emphasizes spread of elaborate complexes shifted permanently back to Argos Aratos and the Achaeans broke truce by denying safe passage to games and selling travelers into slavery shared many Olympic elements politics exploitation violence and excited crowds especially at Nemea Variations Local or Civic Games hundreds of local games many sanctuaries gained athletic complexes Lykaion games were earliest games held local variations and adaptations of games variety and vitality of ancient Greek sports emphasized in study of local and civic games Ch 8 Athens City of Contests and Prizes Introduction Panathenaic Games gave material prizes wider range of events than Olympia three age classes some events financed by wealthy citizens 0 community based games surrounded by friends and family 0000 The Panathenaic Games Sacred and Civic Athletics annual festival to Athena lasts several days includes religious procession sacrifice presentation of special robe varied program of contests started in 566 olive oil was main prize aristocrats ran the games Burgon amphora of 560 earliest known prize amphoras inscribed one of the prizes from Athens ensured far and wide everyone would know about their games envoys sent out before games to invite participation complete Panathenaic prize oil amphora two panels and inscription 5 of the 9 days of festival devoted to athletics team as well as individual events chariot race for Athenians only on the Agora most valuable prize to horse races javelin throw from horseback tribal events open only to Athenians on last day each tribe chose representatives contest of ships most likely a boat race participation by outsiders increased the status of the games Delian League empire highlighted the building program on the Acropolis Pa henon famous frieze on the Parthenon depicts the procession and its many elements all ending with the receipt of a robe by Athena and the King Archonquot More Athletic Festivals and Athletic Facilities imperial prosperity of Athens helped finance and extend its athletic program had 144 days of festivalyear Oschophoria Choes Bendideia occasionally used the Agora for festival mixing athletics religion and civic life three major gymnasia Academy Lyceum and Kynosarges Classical gymnasium large rectangular facility with an open central court running tracks and colonnades on all four sides gymnasia developed as athletic social and educational centers private citizens funded the beautification and expansion of facilities Lycurgan contrstuction of the Panathenaic Stadium The Sociopolitical History of Athenian Sport Athenian victors at major games abroad were wealthy politicians who wanted to gain influence and status Solon wanted athletics to be a civic not private matter awarded monetary prizes and made wealth the basis to hold high office not birth tyrant introduced anticlan patriotic influence of civic atheltics to win favor tyrants held and funded festivals and games as Athens got wealthier non aristocratic wealthy men competed in the games aspiring statesman became benefactors rather than competitors Alcibiades used his wealth to gain fame and fortune through the olympics while also garnering political power which he used to incite the Sicilian expedition which ultimately lead to Athens defeat Contestation Critics and Popular Attitudes critics see sport as fraught with social dissent contestation and conflict others feel sport was a positive integrating factor promoting civic consciousness and social order even though athletics was restricted to the wealthy lower class citizens supported the athletics and respected the athletes criticisms of excessive training eating habits overspecialization lack of life skills and supposed decline of physical education comedians wrote plays and satyrs to criticize the athletes the people used the Assembly to keep the games alive even in hard times mass support for athletics much like today s sports scandals and outrageous salaries the people still support the athletic organizations Athen s sport at the Panathenaia was a positive unifying factor in Athenian society


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