9/21-925 notes Psych 265
Popular in Biopsychological Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Karlee Barcellos on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Psych 265 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Craft in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Biopsychological Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 4 Basic Pharmacology 921 Pharmacokinetics drug movement a Absorption 0 Absorption drug movement from site of entry to site of action for psychoactive drugs Brainspinal cord is a primary site of action 0 Distribution drug movement among different body compartments 0 Excitation drug elimination from body 0 These three processes in uence how fast drug has effect onset how long it has effect duration and how much effect it has magnitude b Absorption depends on 0 Route of drug administration affects onset and how much drug gets to brain bioavailability gt What is drug s access to blood circulation from each point of entry Nose mouth skin muscle lungs o Solubility of Drug the mOre fat soluble lipophilic a drug is the more readily it crosses cell membranes because cell membranes are made of phospholipids gt To get from injection site to bloodstream then from bloodstream to brain tissue drug must be able to cross many cell membranes c Rout of administration 0 Oral po drug subject to quotfirstpass metabolismquot by liver because GI blood circulates to liver before entering main circulation gt May signi cantly lower drug bioavailability gt Drugs commonly taken po ecstasy most pills special brownies alcohol gt NEED copy of gure on blackboard 0 Injection gt intravenous iv fastest absorption 0 Ketamine heroine 0 Only has to pass through the heart circulation to reach brain gt Intramuscular im subcutaneous sc slower absorption because must cross cell membrane to enter bloodstream f 0 Has to pass through more membranes 0 EX DepoProvera insulin Topical application to mucous membranes or skin gt Inhalation very fast absorption into bloodstream via lungs gt Intranasal fast absorption via nasal mucosa snorting gt Transdermal drug patches d Distribution of drug to body compartments 0 Drug ows DOWN its concentration gradient from areas of HI to L0 concentration 0 Blood Compartment route to brain gt Blood brain barrier keeps most fatinsoluble Iipophobic highly charged polar and very large molecule out of brain these stay in blood and other compartments until eliminated Fat compartment gt Very lipophilic heroin drugs sequester in body fat blunting initial effect and lengthening duration as drug is rereleased from fat to blood gt drug concentration initially high in blood and low in fat after some metabolism of drug high in fat and low in blood gt some individualgender differences in drug effect are due to relative size of fat compartment Drawing gt indv w higher body fat will experience longer drug effect than person w lower body fat with the same dose because drug will initially sequester in body fat and then slowly rerequester into bloodstream 0 lower body fat will have better peak effect Organs bone compartment brain is primary target organ but other organs and bond can sequester drugs Tlle i g t 5 3 k m 5 I f QENTHATION OF O IN BI 00 DFlugt g j quot 923 e Excitation of drug 0 Mainly via liver and kidneys lungs intestines sweat milk in small amounts gt Sweetness of breath metabolized alcohol 0 Half life t12 length of time usu Hrs it takes for blood level of drug to lower by half to 50 of original dose gt Sample half lives Ethanol 025 hrs Cocaine 08 hr Morphine nicotine 2 hr Caffeine 5 hr THC 32 hr 0 Prozac 53 hr 0 However considerable indv Variability and detection limits often vary long metabolites may persist far longer than drug drug or metabolites may be slowly eliminated ampor incorporated into hair gt Mj may be detected 23 months after last use ll Pharmacodynamics drug action how are drug effects described graphically a DoseEffect Curve drug effect y plotted as a function of drug dose X 0 Graph 1 ED50 Dose that produces 50 of maximal effect in quotaveragequot subject or dose that produces X effect in 50 of subjects gt 7mg on graph LD50 dose that s lethal in 50 of subjects 0 Therapeutic index quotmargin of safetyquot LD50ED50 If dose at which drug produces desired effect is nearly the same as the dose that kills you 10mg9mg its not safe gt In general if slope is gradual drug is safer b Drug comparisons Potency how much drug what dose is necessary to produce X effect gt Less drug for more potency Efficacy maximal effect greatest effect a drug produces gt More efficacy which graph is able to get higher line c Drug interactions Synergy 2 drugs have additive or multiplicative effect combing them causes doseeffect curve to shift LEFT gt Drawing of alcohol and Xanax 2ncl pic Xanax and alcohol alcohol becomes more potent o Antagonism two drugs have opposing effects combining them causes doseeffect curve to shift RIGHT OOOOO gt Drawing of amphetamine and Haldol 3rCI pic High dose of amphetamine given Haldol to block the dopamine 925 Quiz 3 Wed 930 Quiz 4 Fri 109 amphetamines d Change in drug effect w repeated use Tolerance takes more drug to produce same effect over time or same dose produces less effect over time quotchasing a highquot 1st vs 100th use of heroin graph 0 types of tolerance what causes lowering of drug effect w repeated use gt metabolic tolerance liver makes more enzymes drug metabolized more quickly 0 EX alcohol and barbiturates gt Pharmacological tolerance neurons compensate for drug exposure by lowering communications 0 presynaptic neurons lowering nt release 0 postsynaptic neurons lowering receptor number 0 dendrites shrink upping synaptic gap lowering neural communication gt behavioral learned tolerance behavioral adjustment a person learns to make to compensate for drug s effects 0 quotlearning to drive while drunkquot 0 First few uses UCS alcohol will go to UCR staggering and subsequent compensatory quotover controlquot i Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response 0 Later uses Conditioned stimuli any stimuli associated w alcohol smell taste sight of place where one drank well get conditioned response compensatory control occurs earlier and then staggering is lowered i Most of this learning happens wo conscious awareness classical conditioning Sensitization takes less drug to produce same effect over time or same dose produced more effect over time methamphetamine becoming tolerant to high but more sensitized to the seizure inducing part of the drug gt Dose effect curve shifts LEFT
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