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Chapter 6

by: Sophie Torma

Chapter 6 General Chemistry 1010

Sophie Torma
GPA 4.0
General Chemistry 1
Deborah G. Mitchell

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These are notes from the entire chapter 6 in the OpenStax textbook.
General Chemistry 1
Deborah G. Mitchell
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This 13 page Bundle was uploaded by Sophie Torma on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Bundle belongs to General Chemistry 1010 at University of Denver taught by Deborah G. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Denver.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Sunday September 13 2015 Chapter 6 Electron Structure and Periodic Properties of Elements 61 Electromagnetic Energy Isaac Newton first described light particles Electromagnetic Radiation Light Waves energy transmitted by waves that have an electricfield component and a magneticfield component Periodic variation of an electric field Universe 2 domains Classical mechanics Matter particles moving according to Newton s law of motion Classical ElectrodynamicsClassical Electromagnetism Electromagnetic radiation consisting of waves according to Maxwell s equations Waves Wave Periodic movement that can transport energy from 1 point to another Kinetic energy is being transferred but the thing doing the transferring stays in place Wavelength A distance between 2 consecutive peakstroughs inversely proportional to frequency convert to m Frequency v number of wave cycles that pass specified point in space in specified amount of time s inversely proportional to wavelength Hertz Hz unit for frequency cycles per second Amplitude corresponds to magnitude of wave s displacement 12 of peak to peak hight intensity of wave Refraction when light passes through a different medium it bends particles will not refract Diffraction when a wave strikes the edge of an object it bends around object If wave passes through slit as wide as its wavelength it bends and forms semicircular waves on other side Sunday September 13 2015 Period time it takes for one complete wave to pass a given point measured in seconds Period 1frequency lnterference if waves aligned together they can Constructiver interfere lf mismatched they deconstructive interfere waves cancel each other out Speed of light c Wavelength Frequency Speed cAv c2998 x 108ms1v Electromagnetic spectrum range of all types of electromagnetic radiation Interference Patterns result of when 2 waves collide Standing WavesStationary Waves remain constant within some region of space 1D wave Only waves that have n of half wavelengths between end points can form Quantization When only discrete values from general set of continuous values of a property are observed not continuous Nodes 1 points between the 2 end points in a wave that aren t in motion number of times it crosses the 0 axis Energy increases as number of nodes increases increases with number of halfwavelengths n but n1 so whatever 2 types Radial nodes circles sweep out in all directions from node Angular nodes line sweep out all radii at constant angles Blackbody Radiation and the Ultraviolet Catastrophe Continuous Spectrum combination of range of broadly distributed frequencies Blackbody idea emitter that estimates behavior of materials when heated Sunday September 13 2015 When solid heated up to high enough temp 1000 K can emit visible light and mimic sun Fits better with longer wavelengths Classical Mechanics Showed that intensity got infinitely larger as wavelength got smaller lmplies that everyday objects at room temp should emit lots of UV light Planck explained that vibrational energies must be restricted to discrete values for frequency Plank s constant 6626 x 103934joule seconds h E ninteger valuehPlanck s constantvfrequency n 123 Enhv n123 39 EVh The Photoelectric Effect Electrons ejected from metal when light brighter than it s threshold was shone on it independent of intensity Classical Theory energy of light dependent on amplitude not frequency Einstein argued that light acted as particles photons energy depended on frequency EhcA Light intensity depended on number of photons hitting surface LIGHT IS QUANTIZEDLIGHT MADE OF PHOTONS WaveParticle Duality light s behavior as wavelike and particle like Working function minimum energy required to eject an electron work function E hclambda Must at least have a blue light Higher brightness has positive effect of number of electrons ejected Each photon was interacting with one atom Kinetic Energy of electron being ejected hvworkfunction Sunday September 13 2015 Any Object including atoms can emit or absorb only certain quantities of energy Energy is quantized it occurs in fixed quantities rather than being continuous Each fixed quantity of energy is called a quantum An atom changes its energy state by emitting or absorbing one or more quanta of energy E nhv where n can only be a whole number 62 The Bohr Model Planetary model atom made of tiny dense nuclei surrounded by tiny constantly moving electrons Electrostatic force attracting electron to proton depends on distance Same form as gravitational force but it depends on magnitudes charges on particles Scientists work with potentials since it can be taken from gravitational and electrostatic forces and they are forms of energy Coulomb potential electrostatic potential Central potentials force whose magnitude only depends on the distance radius of the object from the origin Spherical symmetry Use polar spherical coordinates centered at nucleus linear coordinate r and 2 angular coordinates 6 CD Niels Bohr I Assumed electron in atom doesn t emit radiation but would emitabsorb photon if moved to different orbit hv hclambda Energy absorbedemitted would reflect differences in orbital energies IAEI l Ef Eil hv hclambda h Planck s constant Ei Ef initial and final orbital energies Bohr s expression for the quantized energies Sunday September 13 2015 En kn2 n1 2 3 k fundamental constants electron mass and charge and Planck s constant 2179 x 1018 J To determine orbit energies AE k1n21 1n22hcA Eg energy remaining after electron moves orbit Bohr s Model of the hydrogen atom electron moves around nucleus only in circular orbits each with specific allowed radius orbiting electron doesn t emit electromagnetic radiation does when changing from 1 orbit to another Ground electronic state when electron is in lowest energy orbit Matter is most stable with lowest possible energy Excited Electronic state when electron gets enough energy that the electron moves to a higher orbit Excited gt less excited released photon Less excited gt Excited gained photon Atom can store energy by using it to promote electron to state with higher energy and release it when electron returns to lower state Energy expression for hydrogen like atoms 1 electron atoms and ions En k22n2 k2179 x103918 J Sizes of circular orbits for hydrogen like atoms in terms of radii rn2Z oO d0 Bohr radius 5292 x 1011 m As electron s energy n increases electron further away from nucleus The energies of electrons in an atom are quantized described by quantum numbers integer numbers having only specific allowed value and used to characterize the arrangement of electrons in an atom An electron s energy increases with increasing distance from nucleus Sunday September 13 2015 Discrete energies lines in the spectra of the elements result from quantized electronic energies 63 Development of Quantum Theory Behavior in the Microscopic World Louis de Broglie Thought that since electromagnetic radiation can have particle like behavior electrons and other submicroscopic particles have have wavelike behavior Theorized that a particle with mass and velocity should also exhibit behavior of wave De Broglie Wavelength Ahmvhp A wavelength h Planck s constant 6626 x 1034 Js or kgm2s2 m mass v velocity Characteristic of particles not electromagnetic radiation Electrons not treated as particles but as circular standing wave that only integer number of wavelengths could fit exactly within orbit Formula for the quantization of the angular momentum L nh2pienh Momentum for circular motion Lrprmv for a circular motion Lavisson and Germer proved that electrons can exhibit wavelike behavior Heisenberg uncertainty principle It s impossible to determine simultaneously and exactly both the momentum and the position of a particle Distinguishes modern quantum theory from classical mechanics Calculate the limit to how precisely we know both position and momentum simultaneously AxxApxAxmAvah Sunday September 13 2015 h h4pie px mass moving with velocity in x direction Ax uncertainty in the position A px uncertainty in the momentum The QuantumMechanical Model of an Atom Schrodinger used de Broglie relation into wave equation making Schrodinger s equa on Wavefuctions LIJ 3D stationary waves developed by Schrodinger Modified by Born electrons are particles so wave functions can t be physical waves but complex probability amplitudes LJl2 probability of the quantum particle being present near certain location in space Determines distribution of electron s density Schrodinger s equation HALIJ Exp Hquot Hamilton operator represents total energy of the quantum particle LJ wavefunction of this particle E actual value of the total energy of the particle Quantum Mechanics Field of study that includes quantization of energy waveparticle duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to describe matter The energy of the photon hv equals the difference between the energies of the 2 energy states Understanding Quantum Theory of Electrons in Atoms Energy levels n n 1 2 3 Principle Quantum NumberShell Number n defines location of energy level As n increases energy increases Shell circles within corresponding circular area Sunday September 13 2015 Electronic orbitals stabilized by protons in nucleus by electrostatic attraction further away the electron greater energy it has Electron to higher levelgt energy absorbed energy change is positive photon has to be absorbed Electron to lower gt release of energy energy change is negative photon released AE Efina Einitial 2 8gtlt O 18 1n2r 1n2iJ hi hr 2 final and initial energy stages of electron Characterize Orbitals Atomic Orbital general region in atom within which an atom is most probable to reside Principle Quantum Number defines general size and energy of orbital Angular momentum quantum number I defines shape of orbital values O sphere s 1 1 angular node bisecting sphere p 2 2 angular nodes looks like 4 leaf clover d n1 no negative numbers IO12n1 Subshell orbitals with the same value of l S subshell electron density distribution is spherical P subshell has dumbbell shape The greater the number the greater the angular momentum of electron Orbitals S Orbitals O P Orbitals constitute p subshell n3 D Orbitals l2 Radial Node radius where probability density of finding electron located at particular orbital is O Number in orbital is nl1 Sunday September 13 2015 Magnetic Quantum Number ml specifies the 2 component of the angular momentum rotation for a particular orbital Defines orientation of orbital ml l l1 1 0 1 l1l l1 ml 10 or 1 s orbitals have 1 possible orientation No matter how you turn it the sphere will always look the same p orbitals have 3 different orientations Dumbbell sides up Dumbbell side 1 in front 1 in back Dumbbell sides left and right d orbitals have 5 orbitals Look at a fucking picture Total number of possible orbitals in same subshell is 2l1 Spin quantum number defines the electron spinning When electrons spin they create magnetic field perpendicular to direction their spinning Either spin up left to right or spin down right to left Can be 12 Pauli s Exclusion Principle no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers Atomic orbital can hold a maximum 0f2 electrons and they must have opposing spins 65 Periodic Variations in Element Properties Periodic table Groups vertical columns similar chemical behavior Same number and distribution of electrons in valence shells 10 Sunday September 13 2015 Metallic character increases as moves down conducts better Goes down electrons the same but principle quantum number changes Period horizontal rows add proton and electron with each element Properties Vary as electronic structure and elements change Size of atomsions Ionization energies Electron affinities Variation in Covalent Radius Covalent Radius 12 distance between nuclei of 2 identical atoms when joined by covalent bond Sizecovalent radius increases as electron added to atom Move left to right on period elements have smaller covalent radius Effective Nuclear Charge Zeff pull exerted on a specific electron by the nucleus taking into account any electronelectron repulsions Increases as moves left to right across period Hydrogen only 1 electron so nuclear charge Z and effective nuclear charge Zeff are equal The more angular nodes the worse you are at shielding lnner electrons partially shield outer electrons from pull of nucleus Zeff Z shielding 2 nuclear charge Shielding determined by probability of another electron being between electron of interest and nucleus electronelectron repulsions the electron encounters Mainly done by core electrons Radius increases as move down a group and across a period Sunday September 13 2015 Each energy level is split into sub levels of different energy Splitting is caused by penetration and its effects on shielding For a given n value a lower I value indicates a lower energy level sltpltdltf Variation in Ionic Radii Ionic Radius measure used to describe size of ion Cation positive ion has few electrons smaller same number of protons as original Greater Zeff makes atom smaller Larger charges are smaller than with smaller charges Cations of successive elements with same charge have larger radii Anion formed by addition of 1 electrons to valance shell Greater repulsion among electrons decrease in Zeff per electron Anion larger than parent Increased electrons Decreased Zeff lsoelectronic elements that have filled up their electrons so that it has the same configuration of a noble gas Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration Number of protons determines size Greater nuclear charge smaller radius Aufbau Principle 11 Building up Principle electrons always want to be in the most stable electron configuration It is most stable for electrons to be in energy states closest to the nucleus Electrons will fill in lower energy orbitals first and than build up to a higher energy level 12 Sunday September 13 2015 Exceptions are Chromium and Copper Hundt s Rule if you have orbitals of the same energy available they will spread out before they pair up Rule of the School Bus Will give lowest energy electron configuration Variation in Ionization Energies Ionization Energy IE1 energy required to remove most loosely bound electron from gaseous atom in ground state ElementX from ground state Xg gt Xg 939 Remove second most loosely bound electron Xg gt X2g 939 lE1 energy decreases as size increases Ionization energies decrease down group and increase across period Exceptions due to shielding and penetration for higher energy S electrons lower in energy than p making it harder to remove Atoms with low lE form cations Atoms with high lE form anions Variation in Electron Affinities Electron affinity EA energy change for the process of adding an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion Low EA are cations High EA are anions lf negative than it accepted an electron Left to right become more negative Second element in group has greatest EA 13 Sunday September 13 2015 Not first because of small size of n2 shells and resulting electronelectron repulsions If a lot of energy was released when an electron was added than that means that it was favorable Higher electrical charge without being a noble gas easier to add electrons Easier to add electron as effective nuclear charge Zeff increases Metallic character increases as move down a group and decreases across a penod


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