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Week 5 India (continued)

by: Mariah Armstrong

Week 5 India (continued) HST 106

Mariah Armstrong
GPA 3.2
Asian Civilizations
Dr. Sybil Thornton

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About this Document

These are the notes (from chapters 6-16) from my textbook on India.
Asian Civilizations
Dr. Sybil Thornton
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Mariah Armstrong on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to HST 106 at Arizona State University taught by Dr. Sybil Thornton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Asian Civilizations in Global Studies at Arizona State University.

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Date Created: 09/28/15
India Continued 0 Chapter 6 Taxila Gandhara and Ghandara Art 15t7th century BCE 0 International Trade Alaric leader of the Visigoths who demanded 3000 lbs of Indian Pepper as ransom when he besieged Rome for the rst time in 408 CE 0 Silk Road the overland route rst connected Han China 206 BCE 220 CE and Rome Shakas and Kushans funneled along with others into the Indian subcontinent 0 Three Kings Menander 150135 BCE made famous by Milinda Panha of the great Buddhist Nagasena IndoParthinian King Gondophernes 2048 CE Was king when the Apostle Thomas preached Kushan Kanishka assumed title devaputra and the maharajadhiraja on coins Sponsored a Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir Huns defeateddestroyed Taxila 5th century 0 Two imported documents describe Roman trade in the east 0 The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea Describes travel and trade 0 The Tabula Peutingeriana Map of highways of the Roman empire 0 Shows Muziris a port city that has temple to Augustus Bamiyan center for international learning and trade 0 Chapter 7 In uences of Persian and Subsequent Invaders 0 Titles and In uences Shahanshan quotking of kingsquot the Persian title from where the Kushan title maharajadhiraja came Devaputra came from the Chinese for quotson of Heavenquot tianzi 0 Religion 0 Buddha became another incarnation of Vishnu 4 ashrams student householder retired renunciant allowed renunciation and asceticsm to be t into warrior39s life 0 Response to Buddhism in development of Hinduism is shown in two texts o Bhagavad Gita o Dharma and devotion were reconciled o Krishna Vishnu and Arjuna s dialogue Code of Manu 2nCI century CE 0 Protection of purity of the Brahmans Chapter 8 Gupta Empire 320550 CE 0 Consolidation after fragmentation Chandra Gupta I Took care of old Magdha kingdom Grandson Chandra Gupta ll added triangle of land 0 By 515 Gangetic plain was lost and north fragmented 0 Characterization Achievements Literature 0 Math zero 0 Astronomy 0 Medicine Metallurgy iron pillar at Delhi Administered by samanta subordinates Ceylon and Kushans sent tribute Society based on rich agriculture and trade Kalidasa wrote plays Shakuntala Faxian 337424 CE Chinese monk visited India for 10 years 0 Architechture Cliffs of Ajanta Where Buddhist temples were carved Nalanda 5th century CE1197 CE Buddhist universary Chapter 9 Medeival lndia c 5001000 CE North and Central India 0 Successor states Harsha 606647 under which Thanessar consolidated a smaller part of the northern territory moved to Kannauj Wrote plays Bana wrote his biography Harsha Charita Xuanzang 596602664 CE Buddhist priest came to India to collect texts Tang China 0 Competition and rivalry Chalukya dynasty 6th8th CE 0 Harsha39s greatest rival based in the Deccan Pallava challenged the Chalulqas Pandya and Chola challenged the Pallava Kannauj object of content among Rashtrakuta o Rashtrakuta overthrew the Chalulqa Buddhist Pala of Bengal and Rajput GurjuraPratihara Transitions Vedas Buddhism Jainism D bhakti devotion of Shiva and Vishnu Three social processes 0 Samantization placing royal territories under the control of subordinates o Brahmantization the conversion or absorption of local of nonVedic indigenous religion by Brahmans such as bhakti worship of Krishna and Vishnu Ch 10 The South 0 Characteristics Dravidian language 0 Trade Spice Islands 0 The Chola o Sanskritization the imitation of or adoption of Brahmanic religion and practices by nonVedic peoples Processes observed among Rajputs Kalingas of Orissa and Cholas Thanjavur one of the three capitals of the most powerful of the Tamil kingdoms Madurai capital of Pandya early center of culture and literature Vanchi capital established by Chera o Sangam period 350 BCE 300 CE 0 Beginning of Tamil history 0 Roman historians Pliny Naturalis historia Claudius Ptolemy Strabo Geography 0 Tabla Peutingeriana indicates port city of Muzuris temple in Augustus Religion Local gods were absorbed 0 Ex Madurai goddess Minakshi Parvati Shiva39s consort Ceylon Legend of Vijaya Ceylon modern Sri Lanka was settled early by speakers of lndoEuropean language that developed into Sinhala Legend of Ananda these people were converted to Buddhism never to Hinduism Two kingdoms formed 0 Anuradhapura 437 BCE 845 CE 0 Polonnuruwa 8461302 CE Both were based on a Dry Zone and eventually abandoned Tissa Reservoir tank built by Anuradhapura dynasty Kandy capital established in mountains and Colombo lowlands 0 Location of the Temple of the Sacred Tooth of the Buddha Jaffna base of Christian Tamils irrigation in the north led to wells Ch 11 Southeast Asia 0 Funan o Funan Characteristics Guptastyle art trade Dominated 500 years became vassal state of Java 19th century 0 Khmer Kingdom of Kambuja Kings Chakravartin universal rulers Capital at Angkor Wat Vaishnavite destroyed by invaders at Angkor Thom rst temple Bayon was Mahayana Buddhism 0 Capital at Mount Meru center of the world 0 12961297 Zhou Daguan visited Angkor Thom Offshore civilizations Shailendra dynasty O O O O O O Medang kingdom emerged after fall of Funan Built Borobudur Buddhist temple with a stupa Maritime power with an agricultural base Controlled trade between China and India with the Strait of Melacca 19th century Baaputra moved to Palembang and became a head of Srijivaya empire 671 Chinese Buddhist monk Yijing stayed 6 months while traveling to and from China 0 Ch 12 Medeival India Two Examples 0 KaHnga Kharavela 193 BCE amp after 170 BCE made Kalinga independent after submission to Maurya arge extension Hathigumpha cave inscription details accomplishments o Veneration ofJainism Other ruers Maharajadhiraja Satavahanas Guptas Harsha 2 dynasties of Eastern Gangas Temples Konark Sun TempIe dedicated to Surya shaped as a giant chariot pulled by horses 0 Temple to Jagannath oca god at Puri and manifestation of Krishna had a yearly procession of the god and his two brothers in their giant chariots 0 Performance of Gita Govinda by poet Jayadeva o Viyanagara quotthe City of Victoryquot 13361646 Characterstics Ruled by 4 dynasties Divided amp ruled by sons of king instead of bureaucrats 0 Never fully united 0 Kings facilitate local languages patronized literature in Kannadu Telegu and Tamil 0 Ch 13 Turkic Invasions Background 0 Islam 0 Characteristics Founded by Muhammad 570632 CE KoranQu39ran holy text the will of God revealed to him by the angel Gabriel Mamluks Central Asian slave soldiers that augmented the military force of caliphate rule 0 Brought to slave markets as youth converted to Islam trained and then promoted o Afghanistanian dynasties Ghaznavids 997 1186 Governors of Ghazna Ruled by Mahmud who made it the cultural capital Ferdowsi completed the Book of Kings Ghurids 1148 1215 0 Made rst raid into subcontinent 1175 take Sindh amp Bengal and replace the Ghaznavids 5 dynasties 1206 1525 as Delhi Sultanate Ch 14 The Delhi Sultanate 1206 1525 o Dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate Mamluk Slave dynasty Established by QutbalDin Aibak 1150 1210 who was a slave of the Ghurids o Lahore was made a basecapital o QutbalDin Albak began the Kutub Minar in 1200 0 Rule passed to son lltutmish nished minaret Fended off challenge from Mongols Selected daughter Raziyya to succeed nobles disagreed and had her deposed Khalji 12901320 0 First Khalji was murdered by nephew AlaudDin 0 New controls on taxation money for army forts and supplies to fend off Mongols 0 Booty from Pandya Tughlug 1320 1413 Founded by general of Khalji 0 Most famous was Firuz Tamerlane In 1398 invaded and destroyed Delhi then retreated Muhammad ibn Tughlug extended empire to furthest extent brie y o Sultanate of Madurai Hindu Vijayanagara and Bahmani Sultanate broke away o Samarkand o Triangular base of Tamerlane Sayyid Fought with the Rajputs quotdescendantsquot of the Prophet Pashtun Lodi 1451 1526 Agra was founded by Sikandar 1489 1517 o Positioned to meet force invading via Khyber Pass 0 Rebels invited Babur rst Mughal emperor to invade Punjab Ch 15 Relations with Hindus o Invasion and Relationships Conversion Similarities between bhakti devotional Hinduism and Su sm devotional Islam 0 Both aim realization of union with object of devo on o Jayadeva39s Gita Govina has parallels with poems of Kabir Ch 16 The Mughals 15261707 0 Main themes of Mughal history Central Asian Islamic invasion and Hindu resistance Confrontation Conciliation mysticism bhaktiSu sm and syncretism 2 religions create a 3rd Dinl Lahi and Sikhism Succession imprison one s father or murder one s brothers Babur rst of the Mughal emperors O O O O Forced out of home country Ferghana modern Uzbekistan Had taken Kabul and Kandahar 1526 defected Lodi at Panipat then Rajputs then Lodi Baburnama his memoirs Son Humayun was forced out retook kingdom Daughter Gulbadna wrote his biography Humayannama o Akbar 1542 1605 O Grandson of Babur who was raised in Kabul succeeded at age 14 fought and campaigned against his brother and his son Uzbeks Persians and Afghanistanian rebels Established capitals at Delhi and Agra in 1556 Tried to establish a capital at Fatehpur Sikri but failed because of water issues Represents conciliation in relations with Hindus and culture O O Ex established Hall of Worship Admixture of Persian development of Hindi and Urdu Admixture of Central Asian and Indian elements Red Fort and Taj Mahal 0 JahanH15691627 O O O Revolted and maybe poisoned his father In uenced by Persian wife NurJahan Imprisoned by his rebel son Shah Jahan o Shah Jahan 1592 1666 O O 0 Married to niece of NurJahan Mumtaz Mahal Built Taj Mahal after wife died from childbirth had Timurid Rajput and Persian elements Sons Dara Sikoh and Aurangzeb fought the latter brother won 0 Aurangzeb 16181707 0 O 0 Sikhism Imposed sharia Faced resistance from Rajputs of Mewar and Marwar and Sikhs Sikhs built capital Amritsar and Golden Temple 0 Ramanada nonsectarian sainreformer o Founded by Guru Nanak and Guru Angad O Guru Angad wrote holy text Granth Sahib o Tegh Bahadur O O O Ninth leader that gave aid to the enemies of Aurangzeb tortured when he refused to accept Islam Transition from religious to political leaders Sikhs 5 k39s do NOT practice purdah or sati o Marathas O 0000 O Resister Aurangzeb Capitals at BombayMumbai and Poona Called Iand Maharashtra quotGreat Countryquot Resistance began under Shivaji quotMountain Ratquot Court languages were Marathi and Sanskrit Persian and Urdu were banned Grandson39s mother Tara Bai Ied Marathas against Aurangzeb Came to power after Aurangzeb39s death Breakdown of leadership open incursion by the EngHsh


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