SOC384 Medical Sociology (Belgrave)
SOC384 Medical Sociology (Belgrave) SOC384
Popular in Medical Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Pelin Darendeliler on Tuesday September 30, 2014. The Bundle belongs to SOC384 at University of Miami taught by Linda Belgrave in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Medical Sociology in Sociology at University of Miami.
Reviews for SOC384 Medical Sociology (Belgrave)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/30/14
SOC384S Medical Sociology Lecture 1 Sociology of Health and Ilness questionable increase of medical progression procedures with the decline of mortality in the 20th Century overall concluson made was that the considerable decline in mortality rates began substantially after the point of intervention of medical procedures for specific illnesses and diseases 0 the major part of the decline is unrelated to medial practices 0 paper dispells the myths that medical measure lead the changes in mortality rates 0 then leads to the question of what is responsible for these changes if not medical advancements we are spending more on medical care and less people are dying 0 change in pattern of disease towards chronic suggest things that may have effected clean water hygene food and housing improvements in the standard of living mostly social things going on yet medicine takes credit for these trends but its about relieving suffering so of course we need it but its about putting medicine in suffering Sociology of Health Ilness and Health Care public issue what we are considering 0 women are undertested for heart disease personal trouble aunt dies not taken seriously when at the hospital with heart problems her death effects her and her immediate family and friends Sociology OF medicine 0 using medicing as an example 0 from the patients perspective being critical of what the doctor is doing to impact the issues with the patient not complying 0 provides an example to provide sociological analysis and improvement 0 begins from a sociological hypothesis 0 basic research Sociology IN medicine 0 why patient39s dont take medical advice 0 analysis in understanding the reasons behind it and thus make them comply 0 applied sociology help solve medical problems using sociology as a tool the work begins with a medical problem and as is the hypothesis 0 effects if socio economic status gender race on attitudes towards health labelling stigma deviance 0 easier access to resources may be limited to do a critical analyse of medicine 0 applied research which needs basic research they answer different kind of questions 0 both connected 0 resourses finances and recruitments health care professionals equipments 0 social construction of reality 0 makes many real realities through the percieved and believed 0 2 times the number of black babies die every year than white babies 0 when the cut off fro diabetes was lowered suddenly a social panis arose that there was an epidemic is this an existing or non existing problem still yes it is Lecture 2 0 Disease the abstract conceptualization of the biological medical o Illness social phenomenon having more or less objective and subjective components 0 the behaviours of being sick 0 either one of disease and illness can occur without the other 0 you can have a disease without being illness 0 hypocondreact illness is there without disease 0 even when they co occur they are not the same thing 0 health different definitions 0 state of being free from illness or injury 0 more complex facets psychological dietary 0 WHO a state of complete physical mental and social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease or infirmity its more of what we strive for 0 health will vary in accordance to place time and culture senses of health are contingent on ones situation 0 imposed by people39s environments and genes 0 uid definition that shifts in accordance to different people and places 0 functional definition i can do the things i need and want to do 0 epidemiological patterns chronic illnesses 0 childrens chicken pox us 0 middle age minorities and poorer people 0 elderly heart disease alzymers cancers 0 social conditions shaping the human body 0 the meanings behind the way the body is 0 culture beliefs values practices and material objects shared by a people Medical model 0 mind body dualism separating the dichtonomy 0 physical reductionism boiling a complex problem down to the most simplest form excludes social psychological and behaviors of illness o doctorine of specific etiology belief that each disease is caused by a specific potentially identifiable agent 0 machine metaphor metaphor of a complex biomedical machine and disease is malfunctioning of some consituent mechanism 0 object of regiment and control responsability of the individual on their quest for mastery of the body Power 0 making people to do what you want them to do whether or not they want to do it 0 direct how much health care and the type of health care we get Medical Sociology o 1965 Medicare increased the public nature of medicine expect to see more socio of med but there was a more even split between the two approaches o 19751977 the field then went towards socio in medicine 0 why power status money resources 0 applied is not heavy on theory not pushing social theory very far 0 but if sociologists dont do it then who will o we want to go beyond medicine Types of Illness o chronic long term no cure some come and go others get progressively worse life 0 acute short term either you get well or you die Lecture 3 Social Epidemiology 0 patterns of disease in populations o works with a web of causal factors 0 agent host environment 0 agent necessary but not sufficient the bacteria 0 host where the disease happens persons body 0 environment biological and social enviro biosocio 0 triad works especially well with infectious diseases and not chronic illnesses mutifaceted causes 0 factors of primary interest 0 changes over time 0 geography variability according to place Utah mormons amp Nevada opposite to that 0 persons characteristics demographics gender race age SES 0 biological characteristics blood levels of different enzymes 0 personal habits tabacco alco diet 0 genetic characteristics 0 research methods 0 observational drawing inferences through correlational Fluoride in the water in reference to cavities 0 natural experiments stronger than observational Utah Nevada finding a comparison Theoretical Epidemiology tracking how the epidemic is moving comparing groups and populations gives you clues but not concrete evidence for anything ecological fallacy generalising from aggregates to individuals depending on what level you are doing it on it can be very practical salmonella poisoning attributed to the feed mortality the numbers of deaths and statistics around it morbidity sickness 0 looking at incidence new cases very useful for infectious diseases 0 prevalence how many cases present in the population the burden of disease useful for chronic illnesses HIV is an in between disease as it follows both categories Historical Patterns Chegg today we are dying from chronic disease time variable Middle Ages increase in commerce trade and urbanisation and increased food supply but also increase of epidemics gt plagues were born we tend to think that illness is about the individual but its a social problem with social consequences but when epidemics whipped out so many people the plague happened to the whole people as a completely different experience of illness colonising of the Americas the health of the colonisers improved with more food etc but for the colonised where obvs not better off with the diseases they bought 1800s increased urbanisation increased mortality infectious diseases on the rise with crowding of cities and bad hygiene now we have a reemergence of infectious disease mutating bacteria from the misuse and overuse of antibiotics 0 then we develop stronger antibiotics globalisation of disease planes and travel premature deaths and causes 0 medical error 3rd on the list which is about not the individual but the system Lecture 4 7 Social Production of Disease and Meanings of Ilness focusing on the individual and short term effect seemingly wanting the positive approach to making a change rather than targetting the long term effects 9 Dying alone The Social Production of Urban Isolation Ethnography lack of social connection isolation ageing 0 fear of crime for violence o financial implication make for the worst effected black males usually in poorer areas 0 lack of ability of public assistance financial aid 0 public services as being limited 0 lack of family for support and aid 0 view themselves as being more likely to be targetted o phenomenological philosophical evidence talking about a lived experience 0 physical problems keepings them in the home and hindering social interactions 0 heat wave given as an overarching example as the extreme case of the elderly 0 the quotes present the themes sections as the methodology 0 doesnt obide by general forms of presenting work Lecture 5 Weitz Ch3 o Fundamental Cause theory 0 access to resources will keep you healthier 0 in countries where societies has more inequality their mortality rate increases 0 Social Drift Theory 0 when you get sick or are diabled and cannot work you drift down in the social level lower than your parents 0 poorer people get sick and die younger 0 hispanic paradox well the sick stay home back to their country or do not move to USA these are some reasons but they are not the concrete we just dont know 0 as the population gets older are we just going to live longer or are we going to extend our active life expentency 0 will there be more disabled people or a compression of inactive 0 gender 0 medicalization of menopause its thought about as an illness for HRT Lecture 6 info on logs name soc384 source pgs date log 0 use ASA format for citations use conrad as example of referencing style p34 42 0 at least 3 journal articles site the text book reader 0 for journal articles libguides in UM go to sociology peer reviewed scholarly article proquest search Racial Diparities Conrad 3 0 hot topic at the moment 0 intersectionality the categorization of status understanding how race gender class fit together 0 you do not live life as a black person and a woman you live them together and doing that has meaning they are not separately lived entities the bridge between the terms adds meaning to the lived reality 0 systems of racial classification are arbitaray and eoled from systems of stratification power and ideaology p36 0 race is a very special distinction that is beyond the distinctions we make everyday 0 race socially defined and believed to be a biological entity that is how it is constructed as having biological differences 0 ethnicity about national heritage related to culture but its far more complex than that where your people come from is associated with culture nationality we assume more similarity than there exists 0 race and gender need to be considered together the patterns are clearly different 0 table 31 the gap between white and black is closing more for women than for men 0 health as social 0 double jeopardy hypothesis natural urban link 0 hypothesis about aging old people have more problems than young and black people have more problems double jeopardy old black person has both the effects of racism and age upon that person triple jeopardy is also used including gender o wealth blacks have less wealth to fall back on than white 0 there is a far larger black middle class but still differently to whites 0 less wealth at every level of income far less quotold moneyquot from their families o racism 0 enviromental racism no good resources schools how can you possibly live a healthy lifestyle in those conditions policies that are not directly in relation to health do impact health for minorities Conrad 6 p69 0 stuctural violence social structural arrangements that hurt people and put them at risk 0 doctors know that becuase they see it everyday but have no training to deal with it 0 but they can deal with it 0 the eg are providing care that it beyond medical care 0 doctors treating HIV giving the mother a stove and formula helps them not breast feed the baby and pass on HIV and enable the baby to hvelonger 0 the way we understand the history and the natural course of the HIV Disease we know it within structural violence o the course of a disease is contigent on social structures 0 stuctural interventions by doctors should be legitimized and aided even if not trainted to interveen 0 pretty radical concepts being talked about 0 HIV becoming disease of the poor Lecture 7 Who cares about Malaria War 0 the indirect killing of people during war destroying infrastructure wells of clean water hospitals 0 development also beyond the war has a lot of unintended consequences Free trade 0 free trade we get rid of terifs to inport and export more easily and build factories where the labor is cheaper supersede national laws like environmental laws 0 consequences in these international countries sweatshop increase disease 0 neoliberalism its freedom for the coorperation not for the people Lecture 8 o epi is a model of disease 0 diagnose disease not illness as define by people who experience it 0 how epis are effected by categories shared characteristics not just people who have social relationships groups 0 doesnt really look at social processes 0 ilness subbjective judgement about the meaning of the condition 0 is it desireable to be sick 0 well the poor are always sick so for them it is more normalized 0 we say that they are ill the language assigned them as the thing o illness as socially construction 0 illness exists because we have defined it as existing 0 menaupause when it gets defined as a hormal inbalance makes it illness it doesnt mean the underlying physiology does not exist 0 shortness as a dieases defining it as the lowerst 10 of the population whcih there will always be thereofre they always have a market for their product 0 medicalization can reduce stimga in blaming medicine makes it not your fault but in some cases it doesnt 0 it can reduce suffering 0 it can be useful in some sense BUT if we medicalize ADHD when we take the focus off the school system and fix the children and not the school it takes things in order rounds and puts it in the pervue of medicine 0 a lot more is coming out of pharmacuticals it can come from different avenues social construction of reality 0 there is contraversy if social reality is real 0 Burger and Luckmenn had concern with the quotrealityquot of everyday life seems objects 0 language affirms the objectification of reality 0 validity of everyday reality is assumed until something doesnt work 0 if we look at scoiety as quotobjective realityquot activities that are repeated become habits and make it unneccessary to redefine every situation 0 reciprocal habits between actors become social institutions celebrating something in a particular way the people who begin them know they made them up next generation either born or recruited they dont know how we do it and the next gen is socialized into the habits that those people made up but for them it becomes HOW IT IS for them its objective reality made up nature of reality is not aware its made up there is a problem of compliance but they didnt make it up so why shoudl they follow but you need social control need legitimization needs to be acceptable 0 for BampL the objectivity of these insitutions are humanly produced 0 power and politics some groups have more power and ability to define reality and have vested interested 0 medicine is the biggest in defining illness and disease 0 pharmacologists have a much greater in uence 0 insurance companies what will be covered as a disease then it will get fizzled away as a disease 0 want to look at how these things have been defined and who has vested interests in these definition and power to define 0 the way we do science is a social construction 0 what happens as a result 0 quotthe ill are more morally deviantquot 0 defined in terms of guilt and innocence through this miasma way of thinking 0 lifestyle approach personal responsability 0 stress the problem is you dont coping with it properly 0 individual personality if you dont love yourself enough you will die 0 tendency to lay the blame at the feet of the person keeps us from looking at the bigger picture 0 we blame the individuals that cannot do anything about it Medical Model and Sociological model 0 p103 Weiss medical model grounded in mind body dualism evidence that mind body dualism doesnt make sense placebo effect inert medication having effects getting so depressed you are nauseous open quality of bodies we are not that separated phsycially to the world the enviornment is absorbed through our skin we breathe it our social environment is interconnected O O O O we have to learn to be people and function and be independent quotwhen we are born we are unfinishedquot we do not have only instincts symbols to communicate which are learnt stress response the enviro person physiological all connected 0 0 fight or ight body prepares to respond dualism just doesnt work illness deviation from normal what is normal not an objective concept 0 O anything in the middle of the curve is considered normal normal is a soical construction but so hard to defined its uid and to talk about it as a deviation of normal is not very scientific specific and universal comes from germ theory a specific thing will cause the same disease for everybody but does not deal with multicausality specific causality of disease does just not exist a magic bullet fix bodies are not universal bodily versalility biologically and environmentally machine metaphor does not look at the interconnectivity of bodily systems Weiss p103 O 0 Stress O the seeming objectivity of medicine comes from the numerical allocation but these are decided from social construction the defining of the disease defines the treatment what about different cultures obsesity and anorexia are socially learned they have moral distinctions the medical model speaks of it all scientifically a political ADHD hiding school fault in Soviet Union the people against gov were defined as mentally ill PTSD if you say you dont have it then you go home without treatment very politicised unique etoilogy is just not the case acute v chronic final exam is acute if you are in over your head with school then it goes on for long term stresses are mostly social in nature social role played by police gives them chronic stress tend to be symbolic physical v social stressers but physical is conected with social eg noise effects our hearing but also our mood successibility to stress vulnerability nature and nurture coping mechanisms 0 good stress eustress pushing our bodies use it or lose it responsabilities and the need to push ourselves but too many will hurt you 0 social position is protective power is very good in avoiding stress you can still delegate to others who become responsible 0 schedules control over time stress linked to controllng space if you are in the factory the machine sets the pace for u Essay requriements p28 focus on findings be critical doesnt mean its true short critical lit review critique the methods of the scientific studies goal is to show what we know about something can combine theoretical article with scientific if you focus on HIV then the first sentence is how many people have HIV define key concepts 68 for an A good citations and reference list ASA APA use literature without quotations good use of courses integrated compared and evalutated have something solid to say dont use secondary sources world count put there double space Lecture 219 someone role in society as being a sick person quotsick rolequot structural functionalist Parsons 0 analyses the structure of a phenomenon looks to see how the parts fit and work together 0 how the parts contribute to the function of society 0 gender discrimination is bottomline functional for society Parsons 0 Parsons is very abstract analyzes units but applies it in various areas 0 theory of the sick role when we are sick we cant do our jobs disfunctional for society sick role is a way to make society keep working handle illness priviledges when we are sick you are relieved from doing our obligations responsabilities and blame you are sick its not your fault in exchange for this you are expected to seek treatment and do what the doctor recomends sick role falls apart with chronic illness you cannot get well 0 you need to cope to work 0 there are disability benefits but only if its bad enough at the lower end of the SES spectrum sick days are not payed Parsons theory falls apart but its so in uential nevertheless 0 looks at illness as deviance a break from the norm 0 it doesnt make sense to refer to illness as deviance there are so many people who are sick all the time Labelling Theory 0 labelling theory conntected to stimga blame 0 you are this stigmatising labels 0 has effects impacts behavior and relationships eg mental illness you are never better you are a treated alcoholism you are never a ex alcoholic you are always a recoving alcoholic social construction of never being cured or treated 0 you can get secondary deviance when you label someone you start being treated as such 0 we define who we are by how other people treat you 0 secondary deviance comes when you start fulfilling the label 0 can effect recovery 0 some poeple say its a self fullfilled prophecy but you are fullfilling others ppls prophecy not your own dont say that because its a social process and it should be talked about as secondary deviance Lecture 221 0 during Middle Ages disease was seens as an epidemic but it was about a whole society being sick 0 for disease to be thought as an individual issue 0 survival had to be more important than dying and going to a good place with God 0 medicine had to have something to offer 0 linking of health and production process gave sick a socially responsable reason to get better to work Disease amp Chronic Illness 0 chronic illness living with chronic illness 0 the issue of loss of the integrity of the body the whole in some way a loss of the future hard to project themselves or the future is not the one you had 0 time becomes an issue past and future how to connect a different future with the past disconinuity drawing a line scheduling is hard can you do what you are making plans for 0 self consciousness stigma 0 uncertainty not knowing what will happen different illnesses have different trajectories and patterns rematoid althritis are ups and remisions planing and stressing 0 your body failing and betrailing you alienating from your body does not match your expectation of what you want it to do dualism can even help to understand the process 0 marginality soically expectation of reciprocity hard to obide by those norms women had bladder problems and althritis and couldnt get to the bathroom in time in bridge class spiral of isolation stimga 0 family impact 0 pain is not a disease in an of itself tremendous under treatment of pain in the country its exastential you experience it alone no one knows what you39re feeling can become a focus in your life number one priority in older days more suicides in orthodepdic wards than psych wards when we talk about it we need to distinguish between tolerance when the pain is invalidaded then its scaring for the individual 0 dualistic idea of the body and self mind 0 treat the self as if its disembodied 0 we only pay attention to body when it deviates from the norm 0 bodies are sources of stimuli how are we act in th world 0 more attention to embodiment a lot of diff fields 0 all the bodies of body self and society are not really distinuishable esp when talking about illness your body is part of your self 0 what happens to the self without the body 0 emodiment 0 how we live as selves with bodies 0 muscle memory in athelete 0 phantom limb syndrome 0 p125 activity limitation in disabiliies 0 medical model focus on mind and body 0 social model limitations within society and surroundings 0 need to distinguish between disability and the impairment 0 the impairment becomes a disability when the society does not let that person to cope in the society 0 a old person w a cane cannot cross US 1 there isnt enough time 0 the student is only disabled when there isnt an elevator the construction of the space does not allow them to be 0 supercrip Oscar Pistorius first paralympian to be in the olumpics for the 400 0 a hero 0 and now such a big deal for killing his gf cochlear implant into children forcing children into another commnity and forcing them to be someone else Mental Illness o researchers want to show that there is a lot of need for services 0 but still what is mental health incomprehensible and unacceptable by people of power 0 its subjective at different times and places different things are considered mental illness 0 homosexuality masturbation used to be a mental illness 0 hearing voices could be God talking back which is values in some religious 0 Medical Model 0 points on objective measurements which is behavioral and thereofre is not subjective 0 more depression living in lower SES 0 911 PTSD social settings destructive of people needs aknowledging 0 mental illness can go away by itself social setting changing 0 EST still a treatment especially for depression still works 0 a lot of drugs numb people schitzophrenia 0 medical treatments can harm patients 0 zanex very addictive psychoactive drugs 0 when people go off their meds the chemical balance in their brains change and sometimes can lead to death 0 Show Monday Morning 0 diagnosis intentionally look objective to legitmate helping insurance companies DSM 0 power of applying the label secondary deviance 0 power given to practitioners psychs powerful people in medicine 0 a little social psych stimulus gt psychological response gt expression of emotion 0 the arrows are our interpretations inherently social socially construction 0 perception is different in everybody what you say may not make sense to you its problematized o biology does not dictate it hints o Labelling theory 0 Goffman pre patient in patient expatient 3 career stages of mentally ill patients psychiatric view has a powerful effect in their future fate small put themselves in hospital others are documented by authorities next of kin publically betrays you your self is completely stif ed 0 what is mental illness 0 organic definition but remmeber corelation is not the same as causation behavior cognition and feelings people who violate those norms Health Insurance 0 women use it more than men 0 older people 0 race and ethnicity much variability blacks sicker and having less utilisation correlation between income and illness health care genderhealth hard to determine where andersen39s model predisposing gender age race enabling health insurance access to different types of care need dying gt all in uence utilization 0 not very intellectuallystimulating HMO health maintenance organization Paul Star gt the history of health care in USA Big Pharma advertising trying to make an emotional tie with the company and create an identity for the company all aboutt image and emotinaly impact extremely positive life lived thanks to pharmaceuticals 0 never see the condition or ailememnts need to legally tell all teh consequences and risks but get an incomplete picture not as safe or effective as they seem 0 adverse drug reactions 5th leading cause of death 0 eg Vioxx when overpromote a drug and overprescibed as a result and sideeffects appear when you could have taken a more effective older drugs and cheaper too advertising is not education that is what 30 seconds of poeple playing in owers does 0 its not a big effect if someone chose pepsi over coke but with drugs the impact is so much greater are the new drugs more effective 0 when applying to FDA companies do not have to compare their drug to other ones of the same condition but to a placebo aka nothing at all 0 only 14 of new drugs in the last 7 years involved new chemical compound 0 80 of them were ME TOO DRUGS use compounds that are already present in older drugs focus is on lifestyle drugs 0 top selling drug in the world Lipitor to lower colestorol the same as 2 of 6 others also me too 0 marketting is just to convince poeople that one me too drug is better than another its only brandawareness not that there is any proof this 0 when we pay more for our drugs thats what we are paying for the advertising of these drugs Nexium the new purple pill 0 same as Prilosec heart burn was going to not be allowed to advertise and was going to lose 6 million a year 0 Nexium basically the same thing but one S ion trained to canabilize Nexium and transfer their company to it 0 from 27 141 a year the fact that there is a generic brands is just not made aware disease mongering medicalization 0 same time as drug advertising is pushing patients into 0 if you change the definition of chloestrol then the market is widely increased the industry stands to make a huge profit 0 making up sydromes and making it seem very common RLS resteless leg syndrome adult ADD the system has profit as its goal but has no mind or thinnking Prosac was turned into Serophen to treat PDMM 0 PMS 39disorder39 0 same dose and priced at 3 times as much that prosac we do not look at lifestyle issues or erectile disfunction 0 we are not looking at social causes or social solutions 0 consumers need to protect themselves Worstpillsorg as subjective comparison no free lunch 0 the real story lies behind the public advertising but at medical conferences jounrals and practicioners visiting doctors hospitals 0 the branded random stuff pens etc make doctors and students walking advertising and then develop realtionships with the companies 0 begins with the students and the gifts just keep increasing funding is unlimited 0 its illegal to give doctors kickbacks when called education you can hide anything under it even you give them millions of dollars of shit its education 0 free drug samples is its strongest artilary chief enabler of the marketting machine consumer ready seeing the ad the doctor got dropped off a medical study by the reps educating them about te drug and has the free sample this chain just does not fail doctors say that the lunches the pens the pads the pizza did not effect them but their workers are a healthier presciptions Development of Medical Profession Paul Star how medicine has shaped the health care interest in USA power ability to make people do what they want them to do if they want it or not 0 authority legitimated power usually tied to a position lasts only as long as it is accepted 0 persuasion direct to consumer advertising of pharmaceutical 0 force or control only works for so long professional authority is a particular type of authority 0 rests primarily on knoledge and service trusting that they will use their knolwedge for good challenged lately o ideology analyzed as a set of values of beliefs that tends to support vested intersts 0 dominant ideology supports those in power capitalism and bourgeois democracy every runner wants the support the power structure 0 competing ideology white racism individualism 0 role of ideology part of politics economics and connected to medicine and intrinsicaly to ideology in uences science what sciences we do Early american health care o Politics and Ideology 0 the left is much weaker in USA than other european liberals bough into science 0 corporate medical care became a reality with left being put in prison o national health care was equated with communising 0 very effective and long standing 0 capitalist countries with a strong left have more progressive health care systems than USA o Nixon introduced HMOs 0 for profit private health care 0 huge backlash between Nixon Regan and Bush against social spending 0 hospitals understaffed and nursing become tougher job 0 very dehumanising 0 huge burocracies very high tech 0 decreased individualized care 0 Iulius Roth moral evaluation and control of the clientel 0 analysis of ER as place of work as service providers and clients 0 examine moral judgements made of clients as day to day routine 0 application of concepts of social worth 0 rapid turn over impersonal situation judgements made on whatever clues snap judgements race age clothing and wealfare status behavior diagnosis eg diagnosis drunk moral judgements made on diagnosis PID pelvic in ammation slut first judgements made are transfered other and accepted as fact 0 judgements made by staff matter the judgement they make about you depend on how soon they see you if it an emergency is it an intersting case medical or surgical surgical prioritized 0 these judgements are bascially the same as the ones made in larger society they are also a part of society and do not stop being in teh hospital we expect them to be different but at the last time how can we Medical knowledge 0 recipe knowledge practical application 0 knowledge power prestige 0 this enabled historcially to construct medical knowlege disease of masturbation slaves running away from owners histeria for women 0 objective medicine does not exist 0 paradigms tell us what counts as knowledge what to look for 0 medical model tells us how to generate this knowledge 0 Einstein the theory dictates what we will observe 0 objectivity is an ideology that does along with science 0 disease categories have many uses outside of treatement politically inclined 0 uses in school making children sit still with Ridillin for concentration 0 PMS objective no 0 once established they become reified and internalized and sustained by themselves 0 pharmaceuticals PMDD 0 medicine is still a social construct role of social factors political fators economic factors 0 HIV called the GRID gay related immunization defincy 0 research money for minoirty and womens health problem underfunded or none socially in uenced 0 menopause o ideology a system of ideas that explians and legitimates the actions and interests of a specific sector of society 0 coal mines firstly the respiratory issues where due to coal dust then when it became a profit making business black lung was suddenly due to coal miners lifestyle and then when they became unionised the definition turned back completely socially constructed 0 medicine has the dominance to legitimate these social distinctions ideology often doesnt show its burried 0 creation of medical case ideaology of medicine reifies body and biology conception of disease separate from the person experiencing it the doctor should not only treat the patient as a whole person but treat as a whole person 0 social in uences 0 with old poeple assume its to do with old age and do not carry out tests diagnoses viewed as conclusions whereas are working hypotheses but once written down they are reified 0 inital disease assumptions gets treated as fact and real 0 interpreting an xray is just that interpretive and not objective 0 there are multiple treatments for most diseases its based on a decision based on the doctors personal preference or vested interests 0 when patients become consumers of health care 0 sometimes seen as positive have their own control 0 doctors as being part of working class 0 more are working for corporations 0 private practices few but even them the HMOs infiltrate them Professionalization amp Monopoly 0 religious leaders cleared of abortion issues 0 now its completely changed 0 feminists were opposed it as a threat to womens health 0 abotion became a problem after civil war 0 became a moral issue when middle class white women began getting them 0 doctors moving towards professionaliztion and doctors did not like that it was being done by midwives o language of case presentation 0 formal exercised and performed on certain occasions mortality rounds daily rounds 0 ritualized and some of ways they are ritualied are significant when med student or resident presenting one you are being evaluated learn stategies diplay competent and avoid problems 0 technology becomes an agent people are not agents but technology becomes quotscan revealed and showed quot it objectifies it the results of the machines the interpretation of the results are gone 0 patient 39deny39 or reports its not factually stated but clasts doubt on what the patient says whereas machine invinsible 0 very dualistic view obsevations separated from people who make them and measurement instruments are infallable Internet ESSY IDEA EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINEDENTISTRY 0 computer has changed practice more than any other innovation but car was big 0 patients do research on their own 0 authors think its not such a bad thing unless hypocondriac 0 patients feel free to email own doctor or specialists around the world 0 expecting answers 0 portals look up information online 0 if lab reports are put up there without any interpretation not helpful for lay people 0 but portal advocated more and more for health literacy patients looking up doctors online about their practice info knowledge does not wisdom 0 so much of the info is crap 0 a lot of ppl dont know how to tell the difference Alternative medicine medical dominance 0 nursing midwives fazed out variety of titles in nursing a lot of avenues 0 LPM least education BSN bachelor of nursing MSN masters nursing nurse practioners 0 struggling to get respect not treated like professionals 0 below the doctor 0 constant struggle for nurses 2 kinds of nurse widwives pre med but also more traditional more independent 0 variety of doctoral degrees PhD more research based 0 clinical degree beyond masters struggle of professionalization nursing science is different paradigm than medicine 0 different science 0 and still in hospital the nurse comes with the room pharmacy alopathic medical failures gt homeopathic medicine Alternative healing not enough money to research studied from medical perspective even though called alternative medicine chiropracty religious medicine santoria healing a lot of alternative healing is holistic not about curing disease but healing the person categorizing them 0 chiropracty and alopathic medicine parallel do not cross 0 now they intersect TCM different reasonsing to the same problems faith healer read the scripts to them christian scientists herbal tea chamomile meditation chanting hipnosis special foods ginger for stomach aches cranberry juice UTI praying rituals formal behavior with no direct technological consequence purely symbolic is there specialiized knowledge or training 0 some healing born with the power 0 or learn it what is the theoretical model of health and illness effectivenss 0 what are the criteria 0 what are the goals its not about fixing the disease necessary it39s about healing the situation and the entire person 0 even if they died it could be successful because they could have made peace with the situation or problem illegitimacy and who uses it and how a lot of times used with western medicine or western medicine doesnt work they try new things santoria make a lot of money doing it in cuba 0 governmet does not support it comes out of africa most treatment for illness IS lay treated Care Dillema caring is what nurses officially do women are inherently caring and if its part of your job then its hard to get status when the quality that is undervalued in part of the job feminist V nurses liberal feminist strategy more autonomous nursing is caring in a group 0 they dont talk the same language 0 nurses want autonomy with connectedness alternative medicine coopted by allopatic medicine BioEthics
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'