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Date Created: 10/01/14
Chapter 1 Maior Themes of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy The Study of Form 0 Anatomy is the study of human structure or form 0 Anatomy dictates function 0 Physiology is the study of function 0 Biochemistry 0 Biology 0 Chemistry 0 Genetics 0 Examining structure of the human body 0 Inspection look at the body 0 Palpation using hands to feel body 0 Auscultation listening to the body s sounds o Percussion tapping on a surface to determine the underlying structure 0 Cadaver dissection o The careful cutting and separation of tissues to reveal their relationships 0 Comparative anatomy ie the use of animals most similar to humans 0 The study of more than one species to examine structural similaritiesdifferences Anatomy Inspection 0 Exploratory surgery 0 Gross anatomy What you can see with the naked eye 0 Medical imaging CT scans Xrays radiology 0 Methods of viewing the inside of the body Without surgery 0 Cytology uids around cells 0 Studying structure and function of the cells 0 Histology microscopic anatomy tissues 0 Histopathology 0 Ultrastructure looking at cell for nucleus and other organelles 0 Electron microscopy Physiology The Study of Function 0 Subdisciplines o Neurophysiology physiology of nervous system 0 Endocrinology physiology of hormones o Pathophysiology mechanisms of disease 0 Comparative physiology due to limitations on human experimentation o The study of how different species solve problems of life 0 Basis for new drugs and medical procedures Scientific Method driven by observations Observations Inductive reasoning and questions Hypotheses must be testable Carry out experiments should always be reproducible Start to make predictions deductions to test and eliminate some predictions 0 Francis Bacon in England and Rene Descartes in France 0 Science and scientific methods 0 Set standards for truth The Inductive Method 0 Described by Francis Bacon 0 Making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing predictions o Knowledge of anatomy obtained by this method The HypotheticoDeductive Method More physiological knowledge gained by this method Investigator asks a question Formulates a hypothesis Characteristics of a good hypothesis 0 Consistent with what is already known 0 Testable and possibly falsifiable with evidence Human Structure 0 Macroscopic to microscopic o Organism a single complete individual Organ system a group of organs with a unique collective function Organ structure of two or more tissue types that work together to do a function Tissue a mass of similar cells that form part of an organ and perform a function Cell the smallest unit of an organism that carries out the basic functions of life Organelle microscopic structures in a cell that carry out its individual functions Molecule a particle composed of at least two atoms o Atom the smallest particles with unique chemical identities Hierarchy of Complexity 0 Reductionism Theory that a large complex system can be understood by studying its simpler components 0 First espoused by Aristotle 0 Holism there are emergent properties of the whole organism o humans are more than the sum of their parts Anatomical Variation 0 No two humans are exactly alike 0 Most common structure 0 Anatomically variant 0 Variable number of organs I Missing muscles extra vertebrae renal arteries 0 Variation in organ locations kidneys Characteristics of Life what distinguishes living from nonliving things 0 Organization higher level of organization than nonliving world 0 Cellular composition compartmentalized into one or more cells 0 Metabolism break down foods for energy 0 Anabolism complex molecules are synthesized from simpler ones 0 Catabolism complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones OOOOOO Responsiveness ability to sense and react to stimuli or changes in the environment Movement organisms can move independently cells move substances internally Homeostasis maintaining internal stability regardless of outside changes Development any change in form or function over the lifetime of an organism o Differentiation transformation of cells with no function to cells committed to a task 0 Growth an increase in size 0 Reproduction passing genes on to new younger offspring 0 Evolution genetic change from generation to generation Physiological Variation 0 Typical physiological values 0 Reference man I 22 yrs old 154 lbs light physical activity 39 Consumes 2800 kcalday 0 Reference woman I Same as man except 128 lb and 2000 kcalday 0 Knowing the reference is important for some drugs based on height and weight Homeostasis 0 Claude Bernard 18131878 0 Maintaining an internal stable condition regardless of external conditions 0 Walter Cannon 18711945 0 Termed it homeostasis 0 Negative feedback 0 The body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it 0 Dynamic equilibrium within a limited range around a set point 0 Response either overrides or eliminates initial stimulus 0 Receptor 0 Receives the stimulus 0 Integrating control center 0 Processes the signal and sends instructions 0 Effector o Carries out final corrective action Negative Feedback 0 Ex Thermoreceptors sense changes in blood temperature 0 Vasodilation the widening of blood cells attempt to cool down your body 0 Vasoconstriction the narrowing of the blood vessels keeps temperature high Positive Feedback and Rapid Change 0 Selfamplifying cycle 0 A physiological change leads to greater change in the same direction 0 Normal way of producing rapid changes 0 Occurs with child birth blood clotting protein digestion fever and generation of nerve signals Gradients and Flow 0 Matter and energy tend to flow down their gradients 0 Gradient a difference in chemical concentration charge temperature or pressure between two points The History of Anatomical Terminology 0 Naming confusion during the Renaissance 0 Same structures with different names in different countries 0 Standard international anatomical terminology o Terminologia Anatomica TA 0 About 90 of medical terms have Greek or Latin roots Analyzing Medical Terms 0 Terminology based on word elements 0 Lexicon word elements on the inside back cover of textbook 0 Scientific terms 0 Root 0 Prefix o Suffix 0 Acronyms formed from first letter or first few letters of series of words 0 Calmodulin comes from the phrase ca1cium modu1ating protein Plural Adiectiyal and Possessiye Forms of Medical Terms 0 Plural forms Vary 0 Adj ectiyal form of a term can appear different than noun form 0 Adjective often follows noun it modifies The Importance of Precision 0 Be precise in your terms 0 Spell correctly 0 Healthcare professions demand the same type of precision 0 People s lives will be in your hands Atlas A General Orientation to Human Anatomy The Anatomical Position frame of reference 0 Forearm is supinated forearm is pronated anteriorly posteriorly Directional Terms 0 Ventral or Anterior VS Dorsal or Posterior 0 Rostral Vs Caudal 0 Median VS Lateral Maior Body Regions 0 AXIAL region 0 Head neck and trunk I Trunk is further divided by the diaphragm into the thoracic and abdominal regions 0 APPENDICULAR region 0 Upper and lower limbs 0 Abdominal quadrants 0 Right upper left upper Right lower left lower RIGHT LEFT Hypochondriac Epigastric Hypochondriac Lumbar Umbilical Lumbar Inguinal Hypogastric Inguinal Anatomical Planes of the Body 0 Sagittal and Midsagittal median plane 0 Divides body into left and right portions 0 FrontalCoronal section 0 Divides body into front and back anterior and posterior 0 HorizontalI ransverse plane 0 Divides body into upper and lower body Body Cavities l Cranial cavity and Vertebral canal 2 Thoracic cavity a Pleural cavity b Pericardial cavity 3 Abdominopelvic cavity a Abdominal b Pelvic
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