Chapter 7 Extensive Notes
Chapter 7 Extensive Notes Biol 2259-001
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Camille Alvin on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to Biol 2259-001 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Melanie L Harris in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Microbiology in Biology at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4th ed Ba uman Chapter 7 The Genome and Gene Function genome all DNA present chromosome plasmids plasmid extrachromosomal DNA 1 replicate independently of the chromosome 2 nonessential genetic material The Central Dogma DNA lgenotype DNA l RNA lprotein l phenotype genotype and phenotype Phenotype gene expression transcription and translation Quorum sensing as a type of regulation Cels secrete quorum sensing molecules and cells measure their density Ex Vibrio vulni cus they have to turn on different genes when the microbe invades a human so it survive in its new environment Estuarine when salt water meets fresh water lmportance of gene regualtion you will not be tested on prokaryotic operons Mutations spontaneous and induced Spontaneous mistake random Induced something causes it exposure Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4th ed Bauman radiation as a mutagen Ultraviolet light if Thymine dimer IIIGTTGiII GCT GlTA CGACAACCAT n Education Inc a Where thymine dimer exits DNA cannot replicate or transcribed there i pyrimidine dimers thymine dimers b Could result in death of cell or change in phenotype DNA repair Enzyme only activated in light Can repair thymine dimers so my not have cell death or phenotype change Dark enzyme DNA polymerase 1 and ligase repair gap Gene transfer Vertical binary ssion no genetic variation Existing cells can transfer and exchange information horizontal 1 Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4th ed Bauman Look up Grif th s experiment Observations of Streptococcus pneumoniae Griffith s experiment in vitro transformation Living I Heattreated Hleatetrealted Ci Live cellls strain Ft dead cells dead cells of injiection of strain 5 strain 3 51 DNA broken l d I into pieces a Capsule 39b k a M quotv 39 Mention DNA iraglment l 7 from strain 3 Living strain Fl tleatatreatecl C dead cells oil 39 Some cells take strain 8 up DNA from the 7 environment and 35 E a incorporate it into l 39 C 39I I mouse dies their chromosomes bl 39 ouse lives 1 l u Culltlu re of 2 d 39 T Streptococcus V 439 from dlead l Strain lFl live cells n 39 quot mus gtm r e tegs no capsule 7 39 39 I synthesize capsules R b injection A quotx quotquot5 Living cells quot1 39 39 with capsule strain 3 ll tel cl 2Di5 Pearson Educalion Inc b 1 The donor cell is dead 2 Recipient Cell has to be able to inherit DNA from donor cell Competency a ll39ralnsliorrnatian with DNA fragments in Transfermationl with a plasmid whi fllilllii1 ragrrients D le plasmid 7 in Bacterial gamma ghrlnmssnms i 3 quotchromosome Uptake Uptake of DNA of plasmid Integration by 7 nsnrasiprosall 1 H rasamlhinatiion OH Degratliationi mama tramsl rm m39 Stabllatir sllarmation lLInlsii asstain ltranstarrnation To stop it 1 Stop Donor DNA enzymes to break it down Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4th ed Bauman 2 Stop competency Block the recipient cell from allowing the DNA into the cell 2 1 Donor cell is injected by virus 2 Host cell DNA gets degraded 3 Sometimes a viral capsule will take up a fragment of bacteria DNA making it a mistake 4 The Bacteria virus will inject the recipient cell 5 Recipient cell has donor DNA integrated into its own DNA Same result as transformation only if a bacteria virus mistake injects recipient cell is it a recipient cell If it was injected but viral DNA it would be host cell Cepyright The hitcErawvHill Campanies Inc Permission required fer repleductidn or display Pillage V Empty phage eeat remains w an eLttside df bacterium Phage DNA enters the cell Baetenall host When a phage infects a heat cells it may cause the degradation of heat DNA inte srnall lragn tente Phage eeat preteine are synthesized and phage DNA is replicated During maturatien if the 1thirtie partieles a tew phage heads may envelop fragments at haete rial DNA instead of phage Dhl t Drquotin bacterial DNA is present in the transducing diriene The phage carrying the hareterrier DNA infects another cell transferring tlhe bacterial DNA into the new cell requirements 1 The bacteriophage 1 F Factor plasmid in donor cell making it an F cell 2 F pillus is formd with F cell recipient cell 3 F factor replicates itself and donates it to the F cell Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4th ed Bauman 4 Then both donor cell and recipient cell have full plasmids Recipient cell becomes F cell F plasmid Bacterial chromosome FBEH M ating b dga Samaria chromosome la Conjugation and Iransfer of an F plasmid from an F donor 11 an F recipienl c requirements 1 For the recipient cell to become F it has to receive ALL of F factor If the pilus is disrupted and not all F factor is received it remains F Donor cell must have F factor Both donor and recipient cell have to be opposite mating types F and F 4 Attachment F pilus JUN c 2 types i F F ii 1 Factor does not exist as plasmid It is a part of the donor cell chromosome 2 F cells attach to each other 3 Origin of replication is in middle of F factor DNA 4 First half of F factor DNA is replicated then the donor DNA chromosome then the rest of the F Factor DNA 5 The recipient cell receives half of the F factor rst then chromosomal DNA cells not attached for long so unlikely it will receive all DNA 6 The recipient cell with have gained half of the F factor and a little chromosomal DNA a So not called F cell b Still F c Cannot issue conjugation Microbiology With Diseases by Body System 4 ed Bauman w 7 a E g mbi nt FF if partiia ipln id a 1b BoningMm arm wanele of part of the ba mal hmm um 5mm an Him gluing to an F recipient mending kiln fEE imbi i To stop it stop the F factor
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