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Date Created: 10/01/14
Chapter 3 Cellular Form and Function Cell Shapes and Sizes 0 Squamous 0 Thin at and have a bulge where nucleus is esophagus skin 0 Cuboidal o Squarish and approximately as tall as they are Wide liver cells 0 Columnar o Markedly taller than they are Wide line the intestines o Polygonal o Irregularly angular shapes with four five or more sides 0 Stellate like stars 0 Spheroid round 0 Egg cells fat cells 0 Discoid concave on both sides 0 Red blood cells 0 Fusiform spindle shaped 0 Thick in the middle and tapered towards the end smooth muscle cells 0 Fibrous o Threadlike shape skeletal muscle cells 0 Human cell size 0 Most from 1015 micrometers in diameter I Egg cells very large 100 micrometer diameter 0 Light microscope 0 Resolution of electron microscopes reveals ultrastructure Basic Components of a Cell 0 Plasma cell membrane 0 Forms the border of the cell 0 Oily film of lipids with diverse proteins embedded o Intracellular face side that faces the cytoplasm o Extracellular face side that faces the outside of the cell 0 Cytoplasm cytosol intracellular uid ICF o Fluid between the nucleus and surface membrane 0 Extracellular uid ECF Membrane Lipids and Proteins 0 98 of molecules in plasma membrane are lipids o 75 of the lipids are phospholipids o 20 of the membrane lipids are cholesterol 0 Remaining 5 of lipids are glycolipids o Contributes to glycocalyx 0 Only 2 of the molecules in the plasma membrane 0 Larger than lipids and constitute about 50 of the membrane s weight 0 Transmembrane proteins 0 Functions of membrane proteins include 0 Receptor usually specific for one particular messenger second messengers o Enzyme carry out final stages of starch and protein digestion in small intestine help produce second messengers break down hormones 0 Ion channel open or gated open to specific molecules I Proteins with pores that allow water and dissolved ions to pass through the membrane 0 Carriers bind to glucose electrolytes and other solutes and transfer them to the other side of the membrane 0 Cellidentity marker acts as in ID tag to identify foreign invaders o Celladhesion molecule hold cells together Second Messengers 0 Chemical first messenger epinephrine binds to a surface receptor 0 Receptor activates G protein GTPbinding protein 0 G protein relays signal to adenylate cyclase which converts ATP to cAMP second messenger 0 CAMP activates kinases in the cytosol which activates or deactivates enzymes Membrane Transport 0 Plasma membrane a barrier and a gateway between the cytoplasm and ECF 0 Passive transport mechanisms require no ATP 0 Filtration I Particles are driven through a selectively permeable membrane by hydrostatic pressure the force exerted on a membrane by water 0 Simple diffusion I The net movement from area of high concentration to area of low concentration down its concentration gradient I Factors affecting diffusion rate through a membrane 0 Temperature high temperatures move faster 0 Molecular weight heavy moves slowly 0 Steepness of concentration gradient higher moves faster 0 Membrane surface area higher surface area allows more diffusion 0 Membrane permeability higher permeability helps more diffusion I Hydrophobic molecules diffuse through lipid bilayer I Hvdrophilic molecules diffuse through channel proteins 0 Osmosis I Flow of water from side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other I Osmotic pressure hydrostatic pressure required to stop osmosis I Tonicity the ability of a solution to affect the uid volume and pressure 0 Hypertonic 0 Has a higher concentration inside than outside I Crenate shrivel 0 Ex blood cell with more water than solution 0 Isotonic 0 Salt concentration is equal on inside and outside of cell o No net movement 0 Hypotonic 0 Inside of cell has lower concentration of water than outside I Lyse burst I Aquaporins water channels 0 Used to absorb water 0 Active transport mechanisms consume ATP 0 Carriermediated mechanisms 0 Speci city I Transport proteins specific for a certain ligand molecule 0 Saturation I Transport maximum Tm o Uniport transporter I Carries only one solute at a time o Symport transporter cotransport I Carries two or more molecules at same time in same direction 0 Antiport transporter countertransport I Molecules being transported in opposite directions Processes of Membrane Transport 0 Three processes that employ a transport protein or carrier 0 Facilitated diffusion passive I In order for the ions to move there must be a carriertransport protein I Transport of solute through a membrane J its concentration gradient I Does not consume ATP 0 Primary active transport I Transport of solute through a membrane against its concentration gradient I ATP energy is consumed to change carrier 0 Ex sodiumpotassium pump Na 9 out K 9 in 0 Secondary active transport I Does not directly use ATP but indirectly uses ATP through another transporter that uses it I Na moves down concentration gradient Vesicular Transport 0 Processes that move large particles uid droplets or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles 0 Endocytosis vesicular processes that bring material into the cell 0 Phagocytosis cell eating taking in solids I The process of engulfing particles dust debris and bacteria I Occurs in only a few specialized cells 0 Pinocytosis cell drinking taking in liquids I taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules of some use to the cell I occurs in all human cells 0 Receptormediated endocytosis particles bind to specific receptors on plasma membrane 0 Exocytosis discharging material from the cell 0 Secreting material 0 Utilizes motor proteins energized by ATP The Cell Interior 0 Organelles cytoskeleton and inclusions 0 All embedded in a clear gelatinous cytosol The Cvtoskeleton 0 Cytoskeleton collection of protein filaments and cylinders that determine the shape of a cell lend it structural support organize its contents direct the movement of substances through the cell contribute to overall cell movements 0 Composed of o Microfilaments I Form a network on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane 0 Intermediate fibersfilaments I Resist stresses placed on a cell participate in junctions that attach some cells to their neighbors o Microtubules I Radiate from the centrosome and hold organelles in place form bundles that maintain cell shape and rigidity and act somewhat like railroad tracks Organelles 0 Internal structures that carry out specialized metabolic tasks 0 Membranous organelles o Nucleus mitochondria lysosomes peroxisomes ER Golgi complex 0 Nonmembranous organelles o ie centrosomes ribosomes centrioles basal bodies The Nucleus 0 nucleus largest organelle 5 micrometers in diameter 0 nuclear envelope two unit membranes surround nucleus 0 nucleoplasm material in nucleus 0 chromatin fine threadlike matter composed of DNA and protein o nucleoli darkstaining masses where ribosomes are produced Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 ER system of interconnected channels called cisternae 0 Rough ER covered with ribosomes 0 Continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope 0 Produces phospholipids and proteins of the plasma membrane and synthesizes proteins that are packaged in other organelles 0 Smooth ER lack ribosomes 0 ER synthesizes steroids and other lipids detoxifies alcohol manufactures cell membranes Ribosomes 0 Ribosomes granules of protein and RNA found in nucleoli cytosol and rough ER 0 They read mRNA and assemble amino acids into proteins Golgi Complex 0 Golgi complex synthesize carbohydrates and puts finishing touches on protein synthesis Lysosomes 0 Lysosomes package of enzymes bounded by a single unit membrane 0 Functions 0 Intracellular hydrolytic digestion o Autophagy digest and dispose of Wom out organelles 0 AutolysisApoptosis cell suicide Peroxisomes 0 Peroxisomes resemble lysosomes but contain different enzymes and are not produced by the Golgi complex 0 General function is to use molecular oxygen to oxidize organic molecules Proteosomes 0 Hollow cylindrical organelle that disposes of proteins Mitochondria 0 Mitochondria organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP 0 Powerhouses of the cell Centrioles 0 Microtubules arranged in nine groups of three microtubules each 0 Play role in cell division 0 Form basal bodies in cilia and agella Inclusions 0 Two kinds of inclusions 0 Stored cellular products I Glycogen granules pigments and fat droplets 0 Foreign bodies I Viruses intracellular bacteria dust particles and other debris phagocytized by the cell
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