History 2204: Midterm Notes
History 2204: Midterm Notes History 2204
Popular in Modern European History 2204
Popular in History
This 30 page Bundle was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to History 2204 at Ohio State University taught by Nick Breyfogle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Modern European History 2204 in History at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Great Transformation Stage 2 Surging Industrialization amp the New City 09242015 Industrialization 2ncl Stage 184019505 0 1 Steel Henry Bessemer Europeans are able to produce steal quicker and cheaper about 23 of price Better quality amp standardization Allows Europeans to build new structures because of light weight eg archways e le tower Changes environment they lived in n Railways expanding more War fare war ships that are lighter By 1910 German was producing more steal than anyone else 0 2 Electricity Packaging of energy easy to transport 1881 First Power Plant a Allows for street lights amp eventually makes it way into the home 0 3 Chemicals synthetic dyes medicines aspirin plastics fertilizers for farming less people to maintain plot of land German way ahead still producing about 90 of synthetic dyes o 4 First Automobile 1885 Karl Benz internal combustion engine Brought together the rst engine that worked lead to further designing of automobiles Allows for more options for transportation Initially very expensive Helps to spur on the production of other industries glass for windshield rubber for tires etc o 5 Oil Russia Baku Russia producing roughly 12 of all oil National Variations in Industrialization 0 First Begin in Great Britain Followers Then France Germany 18705 and Russia 18905 Catching up to Great Britain 0 Tariffs 0 Government intervention 0 Corporations like monopoly arising Problems of Catch up 0 Compress rapidly of change 0 Avoid social misery Advantage of Backwardness Latecomers 0 Get to apply the most uptodate and updated technology Sectoral Imbalance Certain areas succeeding and others not France 0 Slower rate of industrialization o Smaller family rms 0 Fine workmanship Germany 0 Later industrial development 18705 0 Heavy industry 0 Business Practices Monopolies amp Cartels Vertical Cartels Model they pushed forward 0 Government Protectionism amp Tariffs keeping out British goods Through this they push ahead of Great Britain Russia 0 18905 Rapid 0 Government Main driving industrial force Protectionism amp Foreign loans Saving the City the City as Savior European life expectancy increased because of urban living 0 City has become a safer environment Public Health Movement Urban Planning 0 Scienti c research to promote public health and control disease 0 Miasmatic Theory 0 John Snow 1854 Cholera in London Cause Broad St Pump common denominator source of disease says to take handle off disease drops off a Water was cause 0 Louis Pasteur Bacterial origins to disease Germ TheoryBacteria Vaccinationsintroduced The Beginnings of Urban Planning Rebuilding Paris GeorgesEugene Haussmann 0 Expanding land 0 Gardens for play amp relaxation 0 Required vast amount of destruction Knocks over crowded lthy disease centered areas Places large boulevards in place healthier and safer Social Control Big wide streets in order to make it dif cult to set up Segregation between classes due to locations 0 Paris Sewers fresh water placed in separates the people from the disease 0 History Notes Tuesday 92215 New Political Ideologies Reaction Revolution Reform 181548 0 Conservation restore pre1789 world Mainstream idea attempts to restore the world quotPut the genie back in the bottle that is the French revolutionquot 0 Conservatism Political ideology that wanted to return to old structures Value tradition amp legitimacy AntiEnlightenment against the idea of progress Monarchy Church Nobility amp patriarchal family returned with power AntiNationalist thought the rights of man was absurd Against revolutions and changing Look at French revolution to be a disaster 0 Conservatives Evolutionary vs No Change Edmund Burke 1729999 all change in human society needs to be slow and based on tradition Deeply opposed to French Revolution because based on newly made up ideas Argued quotideas can never be the basis for human societiesquot Criticisms of the French Revolution Gradual change represent tradition o The Conservative Reaction Europe after 1815 Trying to do away with changes against tradition Example Klemens von Metternich Austrian foreign minister Leading conservative gure puts into place police state and spies that x any problems against his rule 0 Role in Congress of Vienna 18141815 Pushed for 3 pillars for further government 0 Legitimacy Legit monarch back on the throwns of Europe not family members like Napoleon 0 Balance of Power No one power gets too strong or too weak avoiding an outward power like Napoleons Austria treated France very nicely to appease 0 Compensation Congress System aka Concert of Europe Powers of the Vienna Congress meet up on regular basis and maintain the fact of no one country becoming too powerful if one country did become too powerful they agreed they would bond together to ght militarily to protect and defeat Impact No massive ghting taking place in Europe pretty peaceful Success on part of the Compensation Congress System 0 Holy Alliance 1815 Austria Prussia Russia Revitalize Christianity as ruling ideology Christianity amp their ideas need to be a foundational aspect of their world Active Intervention to maintain status quo o The New Contenders Struggling over who will have dominance series of more revolutions o Liberalism 0 Democratic Liberalism o Nationalism o Socialism 0 Political Feminism 1 The Rise of Liberalism Pushes the ideas of government and socially 0 Representative assembly 0 O O O O O 0 Individual Freedoms Rule of Law Free trade end to feudal restrictions Adam Smith Wealth of Nations LaissezFaire Middle Classes New social group arising from industrial change Fear of broad popular participation in government Rule by the Majority is absurd These ideas start to dominate Europe at the end of the 19th century 0 2 Democratic Radical Liberalism 0 Break from mainstream by establishing universal male suffrage All Men should vote 0 John Stuart Mill one of the foremost advocates Wrote On Liberty 1859 0 Social Reform 0 Mass Education 0 Even Female Suffrage 3 Early Socialism o Frustrations with industrialization urbanization liberalism and conservatism Workers were sick injured have little opportunities 0 Utopian Socialists Agreed that this world is unacceptable with vast numbers of people living in slums think that liberalist s ideas of factory workers having power isn t well amp conservatist s ideas lead to no solution to better the lives of these people 0 General Characteristics Human cooperation vs human competition Economic planning within economic forces with a guide in mind Protect Poor wealth should be shared more equally Community Ownership verses individual property 0 Early Socialists Robert Owen Claude Saint Simon Charles Fourier Following Rousse idea s they believe that the relationship between society and the individuals needed to be better mixed together 0 Robert Owen tries to create his own utopia with newcomers moving in working 10 hours a day ages 510 went to school vs coming to work into factory 0 Working Class Organization Agree to share the burdens of industrial life Mutual aid Trade unions Cooperatives 3 Nationalism Believes that there are Nations communities of people that have shared characteristics such as language culture religion every nation needs to have their own separate poHUcalnann 0 Ex Italians cheks Germans 0 National Uni cation German states and principalities 0 National Independence Peoples of Habsburg Monarchy and Ottoman Empire 0 Challenge to status quo Revolution and Reform 0 Conservatism Liberalism Nationalism Socialism in constant con ict 0 Europe 18151848 Under dynastic o Revolutions 18205 Liberal revolutions Spain 18205 and Russia 1825 Nationalist revolutions against ottoman empire in Balkans Greeks Bosnians Montenegrins Serbs o Revolutions of 1830 France Poland Belgium Italy 0 Revolutions of 1848 Explosion of Europe demands for change national separate in some areas and uni cation in other areas Harvests weak people are hunger their bellies speaking and saying they need food 5080 income to pay for bread 0 Paris 1848 Demands of for Political liberalization and relief of workers 0 German States Demands for political liberalization and National Uni cation 0 Austria Demands for Greater Political LiberalizationParticipation and National Independence Political revolutions exploding bloodyviolent people ghtings Quiz 1 Response questions Dates not important unless they are milestones Pay attention to the order of events quotWhat was the storming of bastille and why was it important Starts off French revolution people involved know how important is was to the French revolution July 14th 1789 like France s fourth ofJuly Readings Need to read all of it Speci c pointsarguments quotRights of the people who had them whom didn tquot The big ideas Europe before the Dual Revolutions Industrial and French Revolutions m 393 Enlightenment 393 How the Majority Lived 393 Europe and the World The Enlightenment The Intellectual Transformation of 18thCentury Europe Whiis Enlightenment o Immanuel Kant quotEnlightenment is the releasequot 0 Sapere aude Dare to know Characteristics of Enlightenment Thought Secular scienti c critical skeptical 1 could and should be used to believed would come to laws of human society are now born understanding 2 rather than rely on believed everything in human life is subject to quotaway with faithquot 3 believed that is was quottomorrow could be better than todayquot New thought Christians believed that the quotgolden agequot was in the past during Adam amp Eve were condemned to suffering in this life future would be no different than yesterday quotPowers of the human mind amp with working with others creates a better futurequot 4 0 John Locke 16321764 Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 Laid out new theory about how Locke argued that quot quot and society then wrote on such slate Human development can be determined by humans can change other humans Enlightenment and Religion 0 0 Example Voltaire and Religious Toleration for minorities quotdifferent Christian types living togetherquot quotEcrasez L infamequot Crush the Horrible Thing The Individual and Society 0 What is relationship between individual and society 0 Came to different conclusions 0 Scottish optimistic about relationships wrote economic book An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations are individuals left alone Con ict between the individual and society What are the roles of interaction between individuals and society The Enlightenment and Politics put forth set of ideas that o The Spirit of the Laws 1748 explores the options for the best type of political systems between executive legislative and judicial No one law can be more powerful than the other Enlightened Absolutism Human beings are very to be a enlightenment thinker they would then do good in society 0 Separation of Powers would led to nothing being accomplished o Held up several monarchs around Europe using this idea of quotEnlightened Monarchsquot Central amp Eastern Europe 0 Prussia 0 Russia 0 Austria How the Majority Lived 17th and 18th centuries 3 Characteristics of Peasant Life now to today and means to produce more tomorrow Born and die in same village idea of only how their quotworldquot works O Work and play together as a collective social isolation is not a characteristics tend to believe that the o constan tly in each others affairs every one is pulling their own weight cautious of freeloaders List of various behaviors that are threats to collective punishshame people who go against collective Ex Donkey riding through town quotAss on an assquot Or banish people of the 17th century and Changing Peasant Status 0 Western Europe 0 1 Divide between rich and poor 0 2 lmpoverishment of majority 5080 of peasants didn t have access to the means needed to produce their own food 0 Eastern Europe 0 peasants who were not freelabors legally bound to speci c land amp landlord work for life for master Close to slavery can t get out but people are coming together and working together Landlord Controlled everything in peasants life could beatrapesell members Family Structures on family life o 1 Children 2025 died in 1st year 50 died by age 20 Families started o 2 Changing Family Structures in Eastern Europe 34 generations living together as a group in usually husbands house Daughters are seen as less valuable bc eventually they leave for husbands household Creates reliability among family members because of large number of members to divide work up into in Western Europe 0 When a couple married they would form their own new household No many generational families in West lmpact people are marrying latJ in life in order to buildsave up enough capital to start uprun own household many new babies being born Marriage age is later in life in West o E 1 changed local social amp economic structures Has huge impact on 0 he bringingredistribution of plantsanimals to the Americasaround planet 0 3 Slavery sugar and tobacco plantations only about Most slaves sent to Caribbean islands 60 30 sent to South America 0 Europe 0 Outlet for population Wealth and it s rise of merchant and professional classes Food clothing ex Cotton socializing coffee houses Warfare between Europeans powers over trade New ways of seeing the world 0000 History Notes Thursday 9315 France in Revolution 17891815 across continent Constitutionalism and Political Participation Becomes National Impact Power to the People Rev claims potiical taking from monarchy Who are the People 0 Who Gets the Power What about women minorities man without land During rev the largest party play a role in pushing the 0 Not always the one s that bene t from the revolution Two Processes 0 Middle Class professional Merchants Lawyers Political Change 0 Urban poor amp peasant Access to land bread and work 0 Both Pushing in opposite directions 0 Monarchy to the people but who are they They both drive revolution forward Precursors to Revolution 1 Enlightenment Rousseau Montesquieu 2 The American Revolution a 100 s of French men came to Seeing ideas for rst time 3 Social Origins a The Three Estates 1789 All people of France divided into 1 of 3 quotsocial groupsquot i work for catholic church 23 pop no taxes ii 2 pop 25 land have access to government positions everyone else pays majority of taxes 1 Bourgeoisie doctors lawyers professionals 85 2 Ubran workers day labors 3 Peasants 7580 pop majority work the land 4 Group iv Parliament 2 3rd Estate felt that they were want political chances 4 Financial Difficulties a Louis XVI i Suffering nancially ii Due to wars iii Starts raising taxes and collecting money iv Estates General 1 13 of each group 2 Had authority over big decisions 4 Country s a buzz chance for the people to voice their opinion a Local elections for people to go to general b All agree that they are tired of living under monarchy with delgates getting increase in power with decreaserestrict on monarch power C Can t agree on How will they vote when they do i Last met 1614 ii Need 57 pop ruling for many 1 we re 9095 of population 5 ACT 1 Liberal Constitutional Revolution 1789 92 a Estates general opened 3rCI estates delegates waited decided to i Decided to because they were the June 17 1789 June 20 1789 Delegates meet on F 1 Discuss ideas 2 King gives a speech that everyone must come together also mentions he is ready to use his troops to kick 3rCI estate out of court 3 Realize if troops come in their game is up Enter the People The Storming of the Bastille 5 Extreme economic hardship Parisians want bread and work rising of grain prices decrease in production of grain Bastille July 14 1789 Rumors spread through Paris that all such Charged atmosphere poor start to Huge group of and killcut updehead amp as well as the mayor of paris King felt that The Great Fear Summer 1789 Peasant Rebellion Because entire country is feeling afraid Hearing rumors Power of king has been shaken at the time decide to act Towards a Limited Constitutional Monarchy of remnants of land to peasants Aug 4 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Aug 27 1789 0 Liberty property Trying to decide King s position The Women s March October 1789 7000 and o All for armed with weapons 0 Track down Want to tear her heart out fry in in liver Guards protected royal family King Helps with workshops People 0 Was built recently in order to show his wealth of power 0 Next day the royal family leaving in a cart with killed heads on top pikes to Paris The Constitutional Revolution Achieved Meeting in Iconclude 0 National Assembly 39 Was to be Women do all the dirty work Protestants and Jews 0 Ex ass wipe photo Main goal to reach F France In Revolution Part 2 The Reign of Terror to Napoleon Tuesday 982015 Act II The Radical Revolution 179294 0 quotbetter for us that France is weakening at startquot eventually led to worry by other leaders such as a disease 0 Don t evade but see as a threat ltOct 1791 o Broughtfor o Jacobins radical 1 brand new 2 Jacobins quotMessagemission across Europequot France declared War April 1792 o revolution spreading across Europe 0 From beginning Radicalizations of Paris Street amp Assembly June 1792 on street had the ability to lead Seemingly unheard September 1792 o Jacobins Mountain Both dominant political parties at the time o Maximilien Robespierre 0 George Danton No longer a monarchy 1793 Accused of treason F through means I From War to Terror Challenges to the Revolution 0 War worsening 0 Members and Between the Girondins amp Montagnards quotWho will rulequot quotthose people without britcheswho do not have long pants onquot Bread all they truly wantdesire 0 War amp Reign of Terror 179394 Military TurnAround o 1 wanted to make sure they wanted to they could in order to Became most European led by Robesprierre job was to go out quotenemies within people who oppose the revolutionquot Method of instilling fear as well while quotropingquot people into following the revolution The Guillotine for the peopleNation you fought Act III 17941799 0 Terror expanded to the limit of 39 People realized that this is 1794 Event is referred to as because they are worried they 0 When they 0 People O gtllt 17971799 Decide they and that the Act IV Napoleon Bonaparte reigned 17991815 Reigned 17991815 0 From Corsica okaywell off family mathetical understanding amp technology skills Took advantage of 0 Popular wellknown 1799 o Plotters quot 0 Out goes plotters and 0 Emperor 1804 o Quitensial modern made man Thinks he 0 Pope is crowning napoleon Napoleon pauses and the empresses Says quot o Brought Uprisings economy aring Wants to bring peace received very welcoming Legal 0 Long Impact on France through Europe by some E are free 17891791 quotFirst stage quot Restricted rights of women and urban workers imbedded lose out all sorts of strikesabusing s are legal quotnot guaranteeing anythingquot highly subverteht place right asked once who is the greatest women that ever lived The one that has the most childrenquot o Repression Restrictions Price of and right to quotHow much freedom are you willing to give up for peace stability and orderquot Okay ahol At a moment with military dictatorship 18031814 Appeared to be By 1810 controlled most of Europe 00 0 Britain exception Defeated AustriaHungarian Prussia and Spain r 1805 0 Created counties 1806parts parts Polish very happy amp excited by this all over country Frenchstyle rule and reforms in quotgreen areas of mapquot 0 o Protestants Happy Catholics Not pleased impiements military expansion Changes to surrounding counties is the exception they and they believe that O you imposed by France in order to creating a problem for Great Britain ex Big Russian trees used as supplies for British boats St DomingueHaiti o 40 of France of trade from Haiti 0 Vast amounts of coffee from haiti 0 At least have of sugar from Haiti Haitians warit quot to their revolution 0 Sent Napoleon s army was defeated They had 0 Occupation of began 1808 Guerilla War Francisco Goya o describe in the face of the quotoccupationNapoleon and heroism Hand drawn series titles quotWonderful Heroism Against Dead Menquot quotThey do not want toquot rape amp assault culture against women quotThe Populacequot violating body after murder of peasant is coined Guerilla Little quotLittle Warquot ghting here amp there eventually push Napoleon out Napoleon s Invasion of Russia Between quot 0 Napoleon decided to teach Russians a lesson March in with twice the size of Russians army 39 Russia realize the on their size begins to o to create coalitions Strategy Stay Fight Move On Stay Fight Move On Repeat quot because so as Napoleon s army moves through Russia but with and leave up to When they arrive is set When was Alexander to Alexander says because and nothing left for them around or in Moscow along with Napoleonic forces Russia keeps Amazing part only 500000 men dead much more horses dead success is theirs to win ght British leader Duke Wellington 0 Defeated Napoleon exported to island History Notes Tuesday 91515 The Great Transformation aka the Industrial Revolution This transformation The Great Transformation Began mid18th c Great Britain 0 by accident o 3 Stages 0 From home to factories 0 New goods D cotton clothing chemicals o market economies Economy from SOCIet new m 0 Culture change in notion of time and speed you can usecontrol the environment gtilt 0 Military 0 Population 0 o 8000 BC 1500 AD few millions o 2000 AD peaking around 6 billion 0 Very short time frame 200300 years 0 Looks visually like quotsquizzely amount of human eshquot How do we get from oldtime agriculture basedappearance with a lot of humans to factory farming buggies to car women milking cow in bucket to picking up milk in store amp marketed as a commodity writing with quills to typing on computer 0 Some allows people to like factory Job 18th c Agricultural Revolution Generalcharacteristics New way of growing grains More produce more to can give to market more produce the more you pro t 0 What was there before 0 Before 1 3 types of land in quot elds of wheatquot everyone owned take your mushrooms berries animals to hunt 2 Peasants are communitybased in their thinking 0 Soil differs in all areas so separate areas but must o Downfall Restricted Innovation Based line everyone receives 3 o of their elds would be left 13 of land in England 0 Three major changes Happen I1 2 0 One familyland owner cultivates ef ciency increases England Fencedin common amp poor open lands into larger private elds 0 Land used for thousands of years is taken away from them and handed over to larger landowners Acts of Parliament 0 1760 1815 3 Scienti c Agricultural Practices 0 Linked livestock rearing with crop growing 0 End 3 eld system Fodder crops clover amp turnips o All elds growing 0 More livestock More fertilizer More crops 0 Common land is taken up into arable land Selective Breeding 0 Bigger Animals 0 Animals quotlong term food storagequot 0 Results 1 Agricultural Production up Old 1 person feeds for 7 people New number rises to 25 people 0 Time total 130 increase 2 New Social Structure 0 Few large landowners Shift of who owns the land 0 Mass of landless villagers Freed from their previous ties desiring something else to make a living or else they might die 0 Con ict o Happened in an unhappy fashion 0 Opposition from peasants due to their loosing of land 0 Parliament rules landowners they used to have the opinion Industrialization and the Factory System Cottage Industry aka Domestic Industry or Puttingout System 0 In Rural areas with wake of change looking for other ways to obtain money 0 Merchant capitalists eager to hire peasants in cities 0 Manufacturing in peasant cottages hand tools andor hand power 0 Peasants getting connected to larger market 0 Made Textiles knives forks instruments cloths shoes etc 0 Rise in levels of production Structure of Cottage Industry 0 Two central people involved Merchant capitalist Rural worker and his family 0 Merchant brought raw materials for them to use quotputitoutquot to them he would leave amp come back later when the raw materials were transformed into speci c goods he would paid them amp he then continued to go sell the made goods to other merchants 0 Domestic Family Enterprise Family worked as a family unit Children contributed no child labor laws idea hasn t even be considered at this historical point in time Takes place in house hold Growth of Factories o 1 Discipline and Supervision o Merchants want to be able to control dominate and discipline their workers 0 Merchants had ability to determined ways of producing for that day good for business Problems of Cottage Industry 0 Con ict between workers amp merchants Business relationship in which con ict is recurrent over amounts of weights material etc Inconsistent work amp quality Peasant s mistake materials made Peasants still want pay Merchant must pay for mistake goods o Peasants think quotlife is goodquot amp no need to overwork and desire to ll the demand 0 quotHon Mondayquot Peasants get paid on Saturday Drink from Saturday until next shift maybe quotreligioust reserved to not work on Mondays from hungoverquot o 2 Innovations in Technology especially textiles o Textiles examples 0 Flying Shuttle John Kay 1733 weaving system in which production was increased through the quot ying of the weaverquot via the machines technology 0 Spinning Jenny James Hargreaves Allows you to spin multiple spins of thread simutaniously 0 Water Frame Richard Arkwright Water powered spinning machine 0 Power Loom Results of Inventions 1 Replacement of workers by machines 0 2 Rapidly increased production 10x increase 0 Trade off you need much fewer people at work 0 3 Centralization of production in factories 0 Merchant gain advantage because they have the capital to invest in machines amp peasants do not 0 Richard Arkwright Built factory on water source Developed his machine Began spinning thread at increased rate 0 The more the humans no longer need to rely on power centralization of power is needed 0 Factories often set up in rural areas and on water sources 0 The Problem of Energy From Water to Steam Power 0 The Fossil Fuel era shift to era unleashes power that no human had thought was possible 0 James Watt amp The Steam Engine Coal Fueled 1774 Perfectsdevelops a highefficiency coalpowered steam engine Steam power impact on production o 1 Cotton explodes with the power of steam to run machines producing more than ever before 0 2 Coal allows for the desaturating of the water holes that are produced when mining coal 0 Children pulled amp gathering coal because they could more easier t success on the backs of children 0 3 Iron makes possible for iron to be melted and molded huge iron blocks produced 0 Shift 17000 3 Mil iron produced 0 People brought to more urban areas makes sense with this large of production Families coming from rural to urban areas The Birth of Railways George Stephenson develops rst effective steampowered locomotive 1830 The quotRocketquot rst test run show the rocket from Liverpool to Manchester at the speed of 16 mph 0 At the time 16 mph extraordinary fast 0 Results of Railroads O O 0 Freight costs reduced certainty of delivery raised Markets become larger raised connections of the production centers Encouraged larger factories More ef cient in producing larger quantity for their large demand Railroad construction contributed to growth of the working class Joined the railroads production left home behind Populations start to migrate to due this Over course of 40 years Europe is quotblanketedcoveredquot with railroads England is ahead of everyone else all other countries must catch up their governments confused on how to regulaterecreate the quotexperimental occurrencequot that took place in England Shifting Social Worlds 0 Early urbanization in the areas that have undergone change 0 0 England Majority percent of population becomes primarily urban from primarily rural The new classes Working amp Middle Classes New connected relationships begin Ex Docter s lawyer New social groups bring their own new issues 0 quotDangerous Citiesquot 0 Problems of early urbanization o Overcrowded unsanitary amp lack of infrastructureplanning Housing was extremely inadequate People live in quotlockedpackedinquot houses outside factories No codes about the number of people in house Recordings of 385 people in each house 0 Effects 0 Smog smoke amp putrid smells o Sewage problems 0 Lack of drinking water 0 Disease Cholera Typhoid 0 Poverty rises as people continue to come to city 0 Result Life expectancy is decreased
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