All Notes for Exam 2
All Notes for Exam 2 BIOL1100
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Ann Notetaker on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIOL1100 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Robert Kosinski in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Principles in Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
This de nitely does not cover all that will be on the test but it s a good start Check out the booklet for all the complete de nitions and good luck I Proteins a Roles enzymes structure membrane pores receptors hormones b Old saying quotheredity and energy storage are the only things not controlled by proteinsquot c AMINO ACIDS i In order to be an amino it must have 1 The COO to be attached to the alpha carbon ii About 170 known amino acids iii Speci c to pH not any pH will do iv D vs L amino acids 1 D amino acids are where the amino group is located on the RIGHT side of the amino acid a Found in cell walls 2 L amino acids are where the amino group is located on the LEFT side of the amino acid a Most common form of amino acid v Different types of Amino Acid Groups 1 Nonpolar amino acid uncharged Rgroup a Ex Leucine 2 Polar charged RGroup a EXTheronine 3 Acidic when it has a C00 carboxyl in their R group not just next to the alpha carbon a EX Aspartic 4 Basic has an amino group in the R group NH3 a A little strange to think since amino acids are acids but it is basicish because of the NH3 b EX Lysine vi pKa s of Amino Acids 1 if pHpKa then the concentrations of the HA and A will be equal are well vii Isoelectric point 1 The point at which the amino acid or protein has no net charge 2 The pKA of the amino group and the carboxyl group and the average NH3 of the two viii Formation of a Peptide Bond 1 Found between two alpha carbons peptide bond H R I 0 9 a N HI3N 1 o6 3 Be able to recognize this on the test 4 Always have polar ends amino acid end and a carboxyl end for a DIPEPTIDE ix Polypeptide Backbone NCCNCC 1 Must be in a straight line x Size 1 An average sized protein is 513 amino acids 2 Actually lots of atoms in one protein xi Shapes of Amino Acids 1 Primary in a straight line ofjust amino acids a Not how it is really structured in real life though 2 Secondary a coiled version of the amino acid spiral a Still has its primary shape b Can be coiled like a spiral c Or can have a beta pleated sheet shape crimping the linear amino acid chain i Still has primary shape though of course d Has attraction between the amino acids to cause this shape 3 Tertiary Structure a Example ribbons and rockets b Has a distant attraction between amino acids and arbors to cause this shape 4 Quaternary Structure alpha chain beta chain a Ex hemoglobin 2 slinkiest tangled into each other b Caused by hydrogen bonds ionic forces xii Denaturation a change in the tertiary or quaternary structure of proteins caused by an environmental change 1 Drastic heating of pH it would break certain bonds 2 Heating the excess movement would change bonds to denature it 3 lonic Conditions salts adding ions could disrupt the weak bonds 4 Organic solvents gasoline or alcohol will wash away the water take away some bond attraction xiii Motif and Domain 1 Motif a combo of secondary structure in a section of protein a Ex 2 helixes with a bend between and a beta pleated sheet rolled into a cylinder Beta Barrel Motif 2 Doman a compact identi able region of the tertiary structure of a protein coded by one exon and having one function xiv Molecular Chaperone a protein that helps other proteins fold properly 1 Ex chaperones at prom to keep immature proteins from clumping together before they can handle it xv Enzymes a protein that accelerates a chemical reaction by bringing reactants close together on an quotactive sitequot DNA amp RNA a Bases i Pyrimidines single rings 1 Cytosine 2 Thymine 3 Uracil ii Purines double rings 1 Adenine 2 Guanine iii A T AU for RNA iv CG b Nucleotides sugar phosphate group base i Ex ATP c Facts about DNA and RNA i Have a sugar phosphate backbone ii Is complimentary iii It is also antiparallel 1 Meaning the bases are parallel but opposite in direction a for DNA the 5 end is opposite to the 3 end of the sugar phosphate backbone d DNA i Usually double stranded ii Double strand will be connected by the bases in the middle e RNA i Single stranded H Sugarnbose III The Combination of Macromolecules a Carbohydrates could attach to lipids and proteins i Called Glycosylation b Lipids with carbohydrates i Called Glycolipids c Carbohydrates and Proteins i Are decorated by carbohydrates ii Are very common in the human body 1 Ex hormones immune responses most cell surface proteins enzymes transport protein and bacterial cell walls iii Called glycoproteins d Lipoprotein a protein covering a lipid i Ex HDL a cholesterol IV THE ORIGIN OF LIFE a Around 14 billion years old that is the universe b How did life originate i Probably from spontaneous events to create life c The Miller Experiment i Supposedly produced quotlifequot like amino acids using amniotic synthesis d How does heredity work i The rst cells probably did not happen like how it happens today ii Today DNA is the same shape no matter what or where it is in 1 DNA has a genotype but not a phenotype 2 Meaning it cannot change shape iii So what about RNA 1 Has a genotype but also a phenotype a So maybe RNA was what started it all iv Are there evidences of an RNA world 1 Not really 2 If you discovered it probably a Nobel Prize for you Cell Structures a Early Microscopes i Were pretty big ii Magni ed only up to 30x regular lab microscopes magnify 40X b The Cell Theory i 1St proposed 150 years ago and still true today 1 All organisms composed of cells 2 Cell is the basic living unit of an organism 3 Cell arise form preexisting cells 4 Cells come from an ancestral cell ii Reason why cells are so small is because it is easier to control and command when you have them in smaller units 1 Ex France s providences c The smaller the better i Surface area supply ii Volume demand iii So you always want more supply than there is demand d Microscopes work by bringing you closer to the actual specimen i Magni cation 1 Makes objects seem larger by bring your eye closer to it 2 Also helps your eye focus on it better ii Resolution 1 The clarity of the image 2 The smaller the number of the resolution the better iii Fluorescence Microcopy 1 Basically quotcolorcoding the parts of the cell by adding uorophores to the molecules that glow e SUMMARY i Magni cation makes objects look bigger by allowing a very close working distance and increasing the angle ii Increased angle also makes sin 2 a larger number which makes the resolution a smaller number 1 A good thing iii But diffraction circles proportional to size and wavelength blur the image at high magni cations iv EM has much smaller resolution than LM because its wavelengths are so short 1 KNOW THS a Visible light 400700 nm b Accelerated electrons 0005 nm f Cell fractionation messing up the cell in order to separate organelles g Diffential centrifugation gently disrupting the cell then shaking it at high speeds which causes the big hinges to settle out and repeating the process until all the organelles are separated out i Note anything will sin until it reaches a level that it is denser than itself VI Parts of the Cell a Protoplasm all cell contents inside the cell membrane i An imprecise term b Two Types of Cells i Prokaryotic 1 2 3 Means quotbefore the nutquot quotwas here before anything else and will be the last things here to survivequot 10x more abundant than eukaryotic cells a Ex bacteria dental plague Very small a Occasionally a big one will show up Heterotrophic and autotrophic a H eat other stuff b A self feeding i Has lots of more cell membranes between of the photosynthetic pigments The Setup a DNA is naked not covered or inside the nucleus b Cytoplasm contains ribosomes used to make proteins c Storage granules stores things d Membranes varies depending on the type of cell e Cell Walls contains peptidoglycan in bacteria and has a carbohydrate capsule f Fimbriae used as attachment to hold itself onto a surface g Flagea whip used to move rotates h Sex Pilus javelin a cell will inject a agellum into another to exchange DNA i Endospores i The reason why bacteria will probably be the last living thing on earth ii Have a very thick layer iii Even found on Mars ii Eukaryotic Ces P P FWN Larger usuay 10100 micro meters Membranes are abundant with DNA inside Larger ribosomes Complex cytoskeleton Flagea and ciia bend and are very long Membrane bound organelles The Organelles a Nucleus i Heterochromatin the dark areas on the sides of the nucleus ii Chromatin the extended chromosomes the lighter areas iii DNA is bound by a membrane RER Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum i Add carbohydrates and lipid groups to proteins ii Main site for make new membranes iii RER Lumin the location of protein chaperones iv Aka A network within the cell SER Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum i Detoxi es alcohol poisons ii Modi es proteins iii Stores calcium Sequential Processing the assembly line making sure that whatever is being made is made in an certain order and that in order for something to be processed another has to have been done already Lysosomes the disposers i Break down the wastes in the cell ii Contain enzymes that only work in certain pHs Vesical Traf cking i RNA from ribosomes cause proteins to be made ii Lumin in RER add carbohydrates to make glycoproteins iii Travel to Golgi body to add modi cations iv Travels out of the cell Food Vacuole i Usually merged with lysosomes to break down food Peroxisomes micro bodies i All called a nucleoid ii Converts hydrogen peroxide to water iii Breaks down fatty acid molecules Vacuoles i Allow for Turgor pressure in plant cells ii Plant cells can be so big and expand because of the central vacuole iii Serve as a storage site for wastes for lysosomes can alleviate surfacevolume ratio problems iv Have 5x pressure than in a rubber tire v Also allows plants to grow Mitochondria i Generation of ATP ii The powerhouse of the cell k Chloroplasts i Absorption of light to use as food ii Apoptosis programmed death of cells I Chloroplasts i Stores nonphotosynthetic pigments ii Ex ower petal colors
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