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Philosophy of the Classical World

by: Aimee Castillon

Philosophy of the Classical World clas260-01

Marketplace > George Mason University > Classical Studies > clas260-01 > Philosophy of the Classical World
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Legacy of Greece & Rome

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About this Document

Covers last Wednesday and Monday's class notes
Legacy of Greece & Rome
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This 5 page Bundle was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to clas260-01 at George Mason University taught by Arans in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Legacy of Greece & Rome in Classical Studies at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
I I 7 W97 v13 i x 39 l 1 quot 1 1 i 3 39739 quot 3 ll 131 1 1 1 r 7 quot i quot 1 39739 quot 3 quot i 1 1 iquot m l 5 71 u 7 1i quot i 1 31 s 3 31 H 1 u 51 l1 1 1k1k eggx 3137 1 33 g Maggy 3 1 ijinsj 11 H MM 1 1 1 1 1 z 3 H11 r ss 331 Cal K241 1 7 3 1 1 2 l gt 392 1 t l 13 L 14 z CLAS 260 0 Fall 2015 acastil7amuedu l fl PreSocratic Ionian God in Delphi neither reveals nor hides but rather gives a sign Atomists Leucippus Democritus Thales of Miletus 580 BC 1st philosopherscientist one of the Seven Wise Men know thyself Gnothi seauton gt Delphic gates learned it from Phemonoe World originates from water Semitic myth all is full of gods Panta plere theon predicted solar eclipse 585 C watching the skies fell in the well Because I love children too much invented market monopoly Anaximander 57O BC Thales student On Nature dressy world originates from the Infinite to Apeiron Creation the Fall separationconflict of the elements Countless other worlds universal vendetta of the elements Heraclitus of Ephesus 54O BC The Weeping philosopher Dark philosopher mystic Principle of understanding is universal single formula of the universe Nothing is selfsame quotEverything flowsquot Panta rhei lmmanent conflict quotAres father of all king of all Death of one thing is the life of anotherquot Hierarchy of elements darkwet brightdry Dry good quotDry soul is wisest and bestquot However behind the opposites there hides the sameness in their strife elements are transformed into each other The Big Year 360 human generations 1000 years cycle of the opposition wet dry Dialectics balance of the opposites quotVibrating harmony of bow and lyrequot Leucippus 44O BC atomist world atoms atomos indivisible amp void Democritus of Abdera 420 BC The Laughing philosopher atomist fire soul ATOMS moderation convincing paleoanthropology Anaxagoras of Clazomene 45O BC Divine mind Nous driving principle of the universe rest of universe is a mexiture of particles sun redhot mess of metal the seeds of things primordial mixture in everything there s a portion of everything else sojourn in Athens lectured there taught Pericles Socrates accused of impiety and Persian influence book publicly burnt and he was fined and exiled Cf Socrates introduced idea of school vacation for children fluid transitory world reality of nature change life Pythagorean gt Eleatic philosophy paradoxical mathematical and mystical Pythagoras of Samos 57O BC coined the term philosopher mysticalmathematical sect real being is imperceptible phenomena illusion transmigration of souls reincarnation Buddhism Parmenides of Elea 54O BC talked to young Socrates in Athens gt Plato true being is immovable change nonbeing Zeno of Elea 5OO BC Paradoxes Achilles amp Turtle Achilles will never catch up with a turtle if a turtle starts an inch ahead Arrow does not fly for at each particular moment it is fixed in a particular spatial spot The impression of flying is thus a mere illusion and a logical impossibility quotWhich grain makes a heapquot Melissus 5OO BC On Existence or Being died under torture in revolt against the local tyrant Empedocles of Acragas 46O BC Bridge between lonians and Eleatics Mystic thaumaturge Dressy and conspicuous wore heavy sandals to keep himself down to earth called himself God in exile Love synthesis vs Strife analysis four elements fire air water earth wanderings of souls jumped to the crater of Aetna Sophists amp Sophistic itinerant professors charged fee taught persuasive argument regardless of truth Protagoras of Abdera 45O BC Man is the measure of all things I know nothing about the gods for the difficulty of the subject and brevity of human life Prodicus of Ceos 45O BC I care not how the world was created all wish to know is how to be a good man and live a good life And my personal life depends on the wellbeing of my city Socrates We all are most of usgood people to be sure and all of us wish the best for our state Then why are we always in such disagreement AHA Because people are ignorant of the TRUE GOOD Here in the decisions of our citizens Assembly we depend on each other s opinion s Thus the knowledge of the true good is essential for our common wellbeing Socrates body is the grave of soul the shadows of the shadows Diotima teacher of Socrates Diogenes threw away his only jug as unneccessary Alexander What can I do for you Diogenes step off don t block my sunlight Alexander If I were not Alexander I would like to be Diogenes When people said to Diogenes Slow down you are getting old He answered Do you tell an athlete to slow down before the finish line On the contrary it s time to speed Hippias of Elis 430 BC Gorglas of Leontini Sicily 420 BC On Existence or NonBeing Socrates 469399 BC vs Sophistic relativism truth vs plausible argument To be einai rather than to seem dokein Esse quam videri state motto of North Carolina 1893 typical marks of Socrates moral philosophy irony selfdoubt diatribe conversation perhaps the most important figure in world philosophy turned attention of philosophy away from natural phenomena towards moral inquiry unlike the Sophists Socrates never pretended to be a teacher and preferred dialectic method as if learning from the opponent s opinions Accused of impietybad influence on Athenian youth Socrates was condemned to death and drank a cup of hemlock in prison After loss of Peloponnesian war the Tyranny of the 30 lead by Critias and other followers of Socrates made Socrates a target of political hostility and once the tyranny was overthrown the charges of subversion were filed against the old philosopher Socrates gt Plato ideal world transmigration of soul gt Aristotle Plato 427347 BC Disciple of Socrates also influenced by the Pythagorean school the world of ideas the only real world philosophical realism founded the Academia the romanticized view of Plato s Academia is inspired by the famous Dialogues on love Phaedrus Symposium believed that the fall of the souls from the entourage of the gods into matter and birth Aristotle 384322 BC disciple of Plato laid down principles of formal logic analytical studies split from Plato opened the Lyceum Peripatetic school Major postSocratic philosophical schools saw h Lr A J r S C Urealnb Gbramca gt HHrr i i luics cynics Dogs survival on the minimum freedom from society Antisthenes 36O BC I would rather go mad than enjoy myself Diogenes of Sinope 34O BC lived in a barrel introduced the world cosmopolite he had a slave Manes at some time but his duty was unpopular and ran away On the essense of man In response to Plato39s definition of up man as quotanimal with no feathers or fur walking on two legsquot Diogenes plucked a chicken and threw it over the fence of Plato39s academic congregation The cynic39s own idea of man seemed more exacting When asked one day why he was walking through the streets of Athens in full sunlight with a lamp lit he answered quotI am searching for MANquot Crates of Thebes Crates discarded his riches to pursue a simple life Thebes burned Alexander asked Crates if he wished his city be rebuilt quotWhy Perhaps another Alexander will burn it againquot Hipparchia woos Crates and eventually became his wife Menippus of Gadara Menippean Satires gt Lucian stoics ltStoia Poikilie divine providence perseverance Cleanthes 260 BC Chrysippus of Soil 140 BC Natural good In Rome Cicero 60 BC Lived to 99 and starved himself to die Seneca 60 AD Epictetus 90 AD slave Marcus Aurelius Philosopher 121180 AD Emperor Wrote Moral Reflections in Greek Stoic philosophy has largely paved the way to Christianity academicsskepticsPeripatetics Academiafreedom from opinion suspended judgement Pyrrho of Elis 310 BC Alexander s soldier Timon of Phlius 260 BC Dancer Silloi philosophical satires philosophers argue in the UndenNorld Carneades Ambassador to Rome 156 BC shocked Romans by providingdisproving any point of an argument epicureans Epicurus freedom from feargods Epicurus of Samos 300 BC taught in the Garden No Ananke necessity no universal rule Live and wane away Lathe biosas Cyrenaic sect hedonism bodily pleasures supreme good in Rome Lucretius 80 BC Horace 20 BC Celsus 150 AD Spiritual Movements and the Rise of Christianity 15 AD Gnostics gt Christian heresies Simon Magus father of Gnosticism Thaumaturgist from Samaria tried to get acceptance from Apostles gtSimony was repudiated kept with him a beauty from Tyre Helen announced her the incarnation of the Holy Wisdomthe WorldSoul Doctrine of Universal Love enlightened promiscuity Unsuccessfully attempted to fly dead NeoPythagoreanism NeoPlatonism Christianity Philo of Alexandria 30 AD Interpretation of Bible in terms of Platonic allegory Plotinus 250 AD God vs matter dispersion of Soulsubsequent reunion with the divinity Proclus 460 AD Pedantic mystic Hypatia of Alexandria 400 AD Woman professor mathematician thosopher killed by fanatic mob in 415 AD 529 AD Justinian closed philosophy schools in Athens sacred knowledge salvation


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