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Theater 101

by: Jessy' Zoo

Theater 101 THE 101

Jessy' Zoo
GPA 3.5

Rachel Bush

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This will help some much in this class because that in these notes will be on the test. My friends use the as much as use them and we all passed the class with an A
Rachel Bush
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This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessy' Zoo on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to THE 101 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Rachel Bush in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views.


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Date Created: 09/28/15
Jan 14 2015 What Is Theatre Actor Audience Place Theatre Poor Theatre Ensemble Thespian Thespis 1st Known actor Theatre is living art form Theatre Result is a and a Process Jan 16 2015 Chapter 1 Theatron Seeing place Combination of people and Ideas Audienta Those who hear Latin word Companies or Troupes Rehearsals Min 4 to 6 weeks Preparation equal time too often months or year Producers Directors Actors Designers Crew Technicians Stage Managers House Mangers Playwrights and composers are in a class by themselves Secures personnel Space Financing angles Supervises Production and promotion Handles legal matters Distributes Proceeds Visual and Aural element Set Props Costumes and Wigs MakeUp Lighting Sound Programs Advertising General Ambience Execute light and sound cues and shifting of scenery Oversee placement and return of props Assigns launders repairs and change costumes Running the Production in Performance Admitting Seating and Providing For General Comfort of the audience House of Intangibles Creativity imagination elegance power aesthetic harmony etc Impersonation is unique to theatre and set it apart confusion solution the mask Two modes 0 Presentational direct 0 Representational indirect Unlike cinema Theatre is a living Realtime event performers and audience mutually interact fully aware of each other s presence Jan 21 2015 A play is not a thing It is an event Drama from the Greek darn something done A play is action Action is not merely movement it is argument Struggle Sound Music Dance Speech and Passion A play Offers themes Ideas and revelations we can accept Scorn or store for future contemplation fundamentally a play is a piece All plays have a beginning middle and an end classified in a variety of ways but mainly between duration and Genre How long is a play Western drama s fall length play between 2 to 3 hours Oneactplay of one hours or less Ten minute Eastern theater varies some last all day or even all night Come from the old French word meaning kind First defined dramatic genres were tragedy and comedy Aristotle describes tragedy in his known as poetry Look at Phone 0 Very popular staple of Theatre from ancient time 0 Dark comedy comedy with serious themes and particular dark humor 0 Farce Continuous hilarity through common devices such as chase mistaken identities Sexual puns clever disguises 0 Material is topical about ordinary life 0 Aristophanes is the great comic playwright of ancient Greece 0 History play usually about a historical figure Shakespeare 0 Tragicomedy attempts to blend tragedy and comedy Jan 23 2015 Dramaturgy Action 0 Patterned 0 Provides thrills and excitement Dramaturgy 0 Provides momentum and meaning 0 Devices lead audiences to see the action as consequential rather than random series of events 0 Dramaturge scholarexpert of theater aka theatre historian Drama s components The Vertical Axis 0 Components Elements that make up it s essential fabric 0 Aristotle identifies 6 components of tragedy I Plot characters theme diction 1 Plot 0 Mechanics of storytelling O Sequencing of character s entrances and exits 0 Timetable of events 0 Specific ordering of discoveries and action onstage 0 Platte or Pottle was hung on the backstage wall of 16th C English theatre to remind actors of the play order of event and entrance and exist 0 Action can be outer physical or inner emotional 0 wellmade play farce and melodramas in the late 19th C that relied heavily on intricately and precisely craft drama 2 Characters 0 Human figures who undertakes the actions of the plot 0 The fundamental demand of a play s characters is that they made the audience care 3 Theme 0 Abstracted intellectual contentoverall statement message 0 Nothing demands that a play have single theme Plays that are too theme intensive are often considered too propagandistic or academic for theatrical success 0 Nevertheless a play must have something to say 4 Music 0 Plays in Aristotle s time were sung or chanted not simply spoken 0 Music remains directly or indirectly present in all plays performed today 0 Many forms Songs are common in Shakespeare and modern plays Many naturalist play have characters sing or play recording on stage Anton Chekhov and Tennessee Williams both make use of offstage Music Play can have live or prerecorded sound score or preshow intermission and post show music 5 Spectacle 0 Encompasses the Visual aspects of production Scenery Consumes lighting makeup props and overall look of the theater and stage 4 0 Spectacle does not spectacular Some production are very restrained visually 0 Theatre is a much a visual experience as it is and aula emotional and intellectual experience 6 Con venations 0 A seventh component Aristotle may never have seen reason to consider 0 Agreement between audience and actor by which the audience willingly suspends its disbelief and accepts the play as new and temporary Reality 0 Traditional ways theatre has used specific methods for suspension of disbelief Aside a line addressed directly to the audience unheard by the other characters Elapsed time actors exit light or set changes Freeze we might be in dream state Voice overs actor s though Location changesmight be down with shift of lights and color 0 Each theatrical era sets up its own system Jan 26 2015 Drama s Timeline Part 3 0 Begins with the attraction of an audience 0 Greek festivals opened with a Paragon literally preaction Play wrights and actor were introduction at large public meeting Plays that were about to be seen in the next several days were discussed 0 Elizabethans ew ags atop playhouse on performance days 0 Today Poster programs newspaper articles press releases Usher preshow music lights may warm a curtain or the set may be reveled 0 Beginning Middle end Play begging with one stasis and ends in another stasis 5 act of Shakespeare 0 Plot Exposition Con ict Climax Denouement 0 Eases audience into the concerns of the characters 0 Well made play A few character often servants discuss something that is about to happen Hamlet s first scene 0 Greek custom to begin a play with a prologue 0 Shakespeare uses prologue at beginning of Romeo and Juliet 0 The outer or inner struggle of the main character usually a choice of some kind Known as inciting incident 0 Con ict and confrontation are the mechanisms by which a situation becomes dramatic 0 A character s decision must proceed from powerful con icting alternatives if we are to watch this behavior with empathy instead of mere curiosity 0 Audience watchers the character think as well as act 0 Con ict cannot be intensified indefinitely something has to give 0 The moment of maximum tension Main character makes a decision takes action on choice 0 Climax in modern plays do not as a rule involve death or disfiguration 0 In French means un knotting 0 Passion are now stilled and con ict are over 0 Falling action into resolution 0 Curtain call is not only a time or actor to be congratulated by the audience 0 Originally an act of humility to the patrons as far back as the time of the Romans 0 Audience 0 Generates animated discussions 0 Review article books 0 Dramatic criticism is not only for experts Jan 28 2015 Chapter 11 Critic Plays impact learning from characters Discussing the production Acting costumes set sound Prompts questions for discussion did it get to you Was it moving Could you follow the story Dramatic Analysis seeks to answer the question Social signification Human signification Artistic Theatricality Government control Discussion forum for every social issue imaginable 1 Drugs gay rights women s rights to vote labor civil equality political corruption 2 Public debate solutions are not dogma Greatest plays seek to transcends the issues and confront con icts faced by all humankind Universal truths love Theatre re ects ourselves We discover and evaluate our personalities Form What is Art Aesthetic judgment what we like or do not like and why uses five senses We want our expectations to be exceeded Plays that refer to theatre Noise off Hamlet A midsummer Night s Dream Methatheatre plays which refer to themselves play within a play oPlays can be studied on how well they conform to conventions on break them and the repercussion All plays are a form of entertainment Great theatre always pleases even tragedy OEntertainment that which holds attention 0A meeting place for people who care about each other Jan 30 2015 Critical Focus 0 Specialists in dramatic criticism for a career 0 Box Offices success depends on favorable press 0 Instant Criticism 0 Scholarly Journalists or bloggers on a deadline Reactions are brief unstudied rather than detailed Writing skills trump dramatic expertise Analyze plays and productions in detail Rigorous researched context Seek to be original adding then voice to the discussion 0 Anyone who watches a play 0 Choose one or more not all of the 5 perspectives 0 Forum of communication Communication demands participation 0 A favorable review does not a critic make 0 Question to ask 0 Keep an open mind 0 Remain Unbiased Regardless of a good or bad option it is the evidence given which is important Does the critic support claims with logical Evidence Was this particular production discussed or did they only talk about the script other production Did they ass context using at least one of the 5 perspectives Even if the play is not your favorite you cans still discuss how well it was performed custom etc If they play deals with one side of a controversial issues you do not agree do not let that in uence your review 0 Having background info to provide context for opinion and evaluation If the play is historical know a little about that time period Maybe research the actor or director s background If it deals with an issue is it relevant to this community 0 Must be receptive to life and artistic experience 0 Respectful Humble and eager for personal discovery and the opportunity to share it 0 Holding theater to highest standards 0 The theatre want to be liked 0 Express thoughts with precision clarity and grace 0 Do not give general opinion or lack of one 0 Articulation Careful building of ideas though a presentation of evidence local argument and the use of helpful analogy and example Keeping Theatre honest 0 These qualities inspire us to each theatre highest goals 0 We must be able to see ourselves in the characters and performance 0 Theatre is part of us it is our theatre Feb 2 2015 Chapter 7 Part 1 Western Theatre 0 First known dramatic presentations in north Africa in Ancient Egypt 0 African Theatre is far older than that Ancient tribal groups date as far back as 6000BC 0 Ritual collective ceremony performed by member of society normally for religious or cultural reason Intention was for a direct effect Over time ritual incorporated more theatrical elements Some ritual not religious graduation weeding Pledged of Allegiance 0 Storytelling is more personal than collective ritual Relies on single voice Generates elements of character Structured narrative rather than a random series of observations Dance drama first appeared in Africa and tribes around the world Animism The belief in the power if such spirits to animate objects Shamans human who assume n animist role meditating between spirt and earthy realities Can cute the sick aid the hunter make rain come and help crops grow Shaman s trance thought to lead him to other world realms Performance takes on magical appearance Costumes body paint headdresses and make help to transform performer into spirts Drama did not continue to ourish in Middle East Much of the ancient theatre disappeared by 3rd BC Islam saw the visual and performing arts as irreligious City state of Athens Greek drama established the formal foundation of Western theatre Subject were a blend of myth legend philosophy social commentary poetry dance music public participation and visual splendor Dithyrambs ancient orgiastic rites that consisted of win drinking phallus worshipping and chanting ancient poems Aristotle and later scholars tell us that this is where Greek Tragedy derived from Honored Dionysus the demigod of fertility and win Springtime festival celebrated the semi god s apparent rebirth Three great Tragedians Aeschylus Sophocles and Euripides Great comic author Aristophanes Greek tragedies explored social psychological and religious meanings of the ancient gods and heroes of Greek history and myth as well as current events Comedies presented contemporary issues effecting all Athenians Orchestra wheatthreshing area on the ground Skene dressing hut behind it Theatron audience seating on adjacent hillside Greek Conventions All actors are male and performed in maskd Tragic actors wore elevated shoes elaborate headdress and long usually colorfully grown with a tunic over it Play performed with ony two or three principal actor Change masks to portray several character Chorus 1215 singer dancer Rspresented local populace Chanted lines in unison through a single chorus leader Tragedy was chanted or sung not spoken Foundation Greek tragedy is responsible for musical theatre and opera Greek comedy is foundation for burlesque satire and television Sitcoms Old comedy of Aristophanes are filled with broad physical humor gross sexual gags ands innuendos and brilliant wordplay and repartee often at the expense of contemporary politicians and celebrities Later play of Menander Known as New Comedy Stock character bumbling suitor and timid warrior Weeklong Festivals Roman Day one Paragon playwright introduces cast and theme of his work Day two processions sacrifices and ten dithyrambs Day three five comedies Day four five and six three competing playwright presented each on a different day three related tragedies trilogy followed by comic variation or parody satyr play on the same theme Day seven Final day where judging took place and prized were awarded for the best play and best leading actor Feb 4 2015 Took over after Greek Theatre Focused on architecture engineering less on dramatic creativity Theater Structure Orchestra cut in half Tunnel entrances Skene 3 story wall decorated by dozen of statues Most plays Greek characters and struggles Comic playwrights Plautus Terence Tragedy Seneca Sheer spectacle gladiators sea battles public massacres Greek amp Roman drama Classical theatre tradition Mediaeval Created in ignorance of classical predecessors Fall of Rome mid1st millennium AD Early Christians banned theatre Reappeared 10th C sponsored by C Church Structures Mansions fixed Wagons moveable Tropes Chanted dialogue beginning in church Q amp A used during Easter Mass etc Types of plays Mystery more secular actors no longer monks Miracle martyrdom life of saints Morality Characters personify moral qualities in which lessons are taught Renaissance Began in Italy 0Commedia erudite learned comedies Semi improvised variation Comedia dell arte England had greatest masterpieces 1 William Shakespeare most produced 2 Christopher Marlowe 3 Ben Jonson 4 John Webster 5 Playwright actor part owner of companies of company The Kings Men Globe Theatre in London Thrust stage Royal 00rdered elegant enlightened debate 17th C Farnese theatre Early proscenium Royalty is parton of arts King Philip IV of sain OKing Louis XIV of France OKing Charles II of England oPlays aimed at aristocracy Formed neoclassic Indoor theatre lit by candlelight Romantic Rebels against royal theatre 18th 19th C Exotic grotesques free spirt of individual 0Compassion rather than style Victor Hugo Johan Wolfgang von Goethe Gave rise to melodrama grand opera modern realism Returned to drama s earlier years of eastern theatre Feb 6 2015 Eastern Theatre Chapter 7 Never just spoken Language is rhythmic and melodic More Visual and sensual than literary or in intellectual Emphasis on storytelling and myth Not tightly plotted as western drama Broadly stylized Actors train from childhood Deeply traditional India Beginning of Eastern Drama Has middle Eastern roots Sanskrit s dance drama oldest from 2c BC Natyasastra Comprehensive book of dramatic theory Describes 10 major genres Nataka based on heroic stories kings or sages Prakaranna based on themes of love Performed indoors within roofed buildings Instrumental and percussive accompaniment Kathakali Dance Drama Story play 17th C Performance starts at 10am and lasted past dawn the next day Audience members free to leave take nap and eat Modern performance three hours evening time blocks Text is sung with percussion accompaniment by two singers seated at the side Actor dance and pantomime with precise hand gestures footwork and eye movements Training from childhood to age 40 Highly stylized makeup and costumes RedBlack bearded divine Chinese Xigue Sung Chinese Opera Zaju various plays 10th C 13th C Comedic music dancedrama Acrobats and clowning Most famous modern times Beijing PekingOpera Much singing is falsetto Uses some props but not dependent on scenery No oldest continuously performed drama in the world 1415th C 240 surviving plays Highly ceremonial drama Shiteshetay doear wears a mask tend to be a godghostanimal warriorwoman play centers around the character and is challenged by secondary character Waki secondary character does not wear maske uaslly living male human Stage is square Has a bridgelike runway Feb 9 2015 Kabuki 0 Created 200 year after No 0 More spectacular gaudy and exhilarating 0 Dazzling colors dance passionate emotion 0 Women first performed both male and female roles 0 Then became all male actors 0 More Complex in storytelling Themes based on myths history local seX scandals and suicides 0 2 genres history and domestic 0 2 styles wagoto soft and aragoto rough Bunraku 0 J apenese puppet theatre 0 Three puppeteers per one puppet One for right hand and head One for left hand One for feet or Kimono March 16 2015 Chapter 3 What is acting Doing living the part Two modes are External and Internal External imaging grow the characters behave then imitating that technical acting Internal Experiencing the characters behaviors entering the mind and emotional state method acting Today training is using both Denis Diderot 1773 wrote Paradox Acting OInternal as playing from the heart Inconsistent Extemal as playing from thought will always be at his best Denis Diderot 1773 wrote Paradox Acting OInternal as playing from the heart Inconsistent Extemal as playing from thought will always be at his best Rationalist view popular through 19th C Konstantin Stanislavski 1863 193 8 ORussian actor director Highly in uenced American Theatre Started at Moscow Art Theatre OInternal system became known as The Method emotional recall can cry on scene Substitution making something clear The actors instruments tools 39EXpI GSSlVG voice Scropt analysis Body s capacity for movement Presence The ability to reject an aura of magic of the divine Imagination to become a creative force that makes characterization a high art each creates the role uniquely Discipline Arriving on time taking care of oneself making good choices The Approach OFirst element Stanislavski 3 primary principle actor creates performance through pursuit of the Objective or the task to be accomplished Second element Tactics Ways to achieve that Objective and avoid defeat Third element style of the play mode of performance The Actors Routine Auditions open or closed Monologues and or cold or open scenes callbacks Rehearsals ordinarily a matter of weeks Productions OD Stanislavski and Brecht often rehearsed for a year or more actors investigates characters memorizes lines experiment with timing and delivery and gets secure with lines and stage business Always room for improvement finding something new Appear fresh spontaneous The Playwright Chapter 4 About the playwright Both Central and peripheral figure Some revise during rehearsals Some are initial director or even actor Edward Albee director August Wilson actor Since Romanticism Playwright changed from mentorcoworker to isolated observer social critic Independence is most important charactistrisc Seek material from own life and not from establishment Views must be personal and grounded in own perceptions and philosophy in order to ring true Playwriting is not primarily a literary activity 0A playwright makes plays just as a wheelwright makes wheels some plays are never written Improve ritual documentary some are nonverbal 0A plays finished form performance in front of an audience Script Blueprint of the play 0Core of every play Action Play Ordering of observable dramatizable events Eventsbasic building blocks os the play Two tools of the playwright Dialogue and Physical Action What they must infer to an audience Psychology of character Viewpoint of author Social significance Events of a Play 00rder can be chronological Cause Effect Can also be ordered by subject theme many plays are nonlinear Shakespeare s lay Time shift Place Shift Subplots hamlet Simultaneous plots Midsummer Night Dreams March 18 2015 Qualities of a Good Play 1 9080quot Credibility Demand for play s action to ow logically from its characters situation and theatrical context Intrigue make us curious to see What happen next Speakability line of dialogue should written so that it achieves maximum impact When spoke a Must be true to character s vocabulary and mode of expression Stageability dialogue must be integral element of particular staged situation in Which setting physical acting and spoken language are inextricably combined a Both Speakability and Stageabilit are contingent upon human limitation Flow A continual steam of info continually saying doing and meaning something Richness leave us With a sense of satisfaction rich in detail and dimension Depth of characterization characters must fully believe in themselves Gravity and pertinence describe importance of a play s theme and overall relevance to concern of intended audience 9 Compression Skill in condensing a story into theatrical time frame 10 Economy Skill in condensing a story character event locals words 11 Intensity Conveys to audience that this moment in theatre is unique and its revelations are profound 12 Celebration Great plays celebrate life not merely depict analyze or criticize it Playwright s Process p x 4 Writers begin with Whatever works for them there is no norm Use of dialogue a Remembered form overheard conversation b Imagined Extended reality What might have happened Forced con ict make dialogue dramatic a Uses discovery victory rejection revelation separation death b Involves all character not merely one of them Structure a Outline b Rewriting c Creates intrigue and attention Rewards a Playwriting is creative political act that enlarges human experience and enriches our awe understanding and appreciation life b Tony Awards c Pulitzer Prize Directing p x Not a visible are Direction underlies everything we see and hear in theatre Are of directing is recent did not exits 19th C and didn t become universal until just before the 20th C Technical Jobs of Director 1 2 3 Organizes the production Schedules work process Supervise the acting designing staging and technical operation of the play Artistic Job Inspires creation of theatre with each production Conceptualizes the play Gives the play vison purpose and unity Inspires artist to collaborate PP N Teacher Director Considered Masters in their art Taught techniques of Correct performance within a given style Often playwrights served as directors Began the art of directing we know today organized production around specific ideas 99 created unified and coherent theatrical works Directors of Realism a End of 19th C restudied convention of theatrical presentation in age of realism b Strove for mote lifelike production than those of the past 0 George 11 Duke of SaxeMeiningen became known as first modern director Director of Anti Realism a Brought directions to current position of power and recognition b Demanded originality theatricality and style be unrestrained by rigid formulas to realistic behavior 0 Paul fort one of the first Anti realists launched Theatre de Art in Paris 1890 d Vsevolod Meyerhold began theatre of biomechanical constructivism acting method characterized by bold gestures and rapid nearacrobatic movement in Moscow to combat Stanislavski s realism C These innovations introduced lyricism and symbolism and expressive and abstract use of design explosive theatrically and methods of acting that continue to have profound effect on today s theatre March 25 2015 Chapter 5 Lighting p x Always been a major theatrical consideration Timing of sunrisesunset Indoor Staging s Lighting technologies attained sophistication with 1439 production in Annunciation in Florence Leonardo da Vinci designed 1490 Paradise Twinkling light and colors glass Live ame was major fire hazard Electricity provides lots of Flexibility Light can be Focused re ected aimed shaped and colored Follow spots Swivel mounted lighting instrument that can be pointed at any direction by operator Focus Soft vs hard harsh aim directionality Intensity How bright or dim Contemporary Lighting Design Professional Lighting Designer Principal member of production team since mid20th C Working with lighting instrument Hanging position angles color shadows and moment to moment adjustments of intensity and directionality Primary consideration are visibility and focus 0 Professional Lighting Designer Principal member of production team since mid20th C 0 Working with lighting instrument Hanging position angles color shadows and moment to moment adjustments of intensity and directionality 0 Primary consideration are visibility and focus 0 Verisimilitude lifelikeness and atmosphere are common goals 0 Tools gobosfog effectget footlights boarder lightsside lighting back lighting follow spots Light Plot 0 Plan showing placement of each instrument 0 Type wattage size wiring and connection to specific dimmer 0 Color and sometimes physical movement Cue Sheet 0 List of the times referred to by number and keyed to script of play to indicate the precise moments lights are to move and or change color or intensity 0 These are added to the Stage Manager s Prompt book for calling the show 0 Weeks and months go into preparing light plot and cue sheet 0 Almost always programmed into computer system capable of executing light changes Costumes 0 Always been major element in theatre 0 1St were ceremonial 0 Renaissance brought about distinguishing individual characters and historical periods 0 Elizabethan actors were often favored by patrons with gifts of their cast off but elegantly detailed garments Modern Costume 0 Retains hint of ceremonial magic 0 Shows the world of the play 0 Expresses individuality of character s role 0 profession wealth status tastes selfimage 0 Wearable clothing for the actor functional as well as meaningful and aesthetic Costumer at Work 0 Designer selects oversees acquiring of all materials 0 Costumes can be made found from Sewn from scratch Chosen from actors wardrobes Bought from thrift or clothing stores Rented from costume company 0 Production designed from scratch fully test imagination and ability Materials 0 Velvet silks woolens are luxury fabrics 0 Cottons felts burlap and painted canvas are less expensive and often very effective for theatrical use 0 Dying aging to alter fabrics 0 Accessories greatly affect impact of basic design 0 Hairstyles beardsmustaches wigs 0 Costuming s impact may subtly underline the play s meaning and character s personalities March 27 2015 Design Part 3 Make up 0 Tends to be last design area to be considered 0 Sometimes left to the actors 0 Types Ingenue Highlights and subtly exaggerated simplifies and emboldens actors features in order to make them distinct and expressive to the audience I Character alters the look of the actor to the look of the character Examples old age prosthetics fantasy gore making actor appear sickly 39 Stylized Ceremonial Traditional Chinese opera Kabuki Specific time period 40 s 80 s and tribal makeup Sound Design 0 From ancient times sound is one of Aristotle s Six Components Music of Tragedy 0 Mostly an electronic art now 0 Mediums of the art of sound Amplification mics Live or record sound off stage established locale time of day time of year weather and offstage onstage events Music evokes mood emotion intensifies action or provides a transition Puppets and Projections 0 Puppets in theatre Bunraku Avenue Q Lion King War Horse Shrek the Musical 0 Projection not possible until 1920 s and after 0 Tim Bird earned first ever Drama desk award for understanding projection and video design on 2008 Broadway revival of Sunday in the Park with George 0 New technologies are not always well received for certain productions Production Stage Manager Coordinates directors work With that of the actor and the technical and design department Scheduling Record Blocking Anticipates technical problem Organizes the Calling of the Show During performance they are in full charge of the show


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