Criminal Justice CRM 210
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This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Jessy' Zoo on Monday September 28, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CRM 210 at DCH Regional Medical Center taught by Patrick Gartin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see introduction to the american criminal justice system in Criminology and Criminal Justice at DCH Regional Medical Center.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
August 25 2015 Chapter 2 Crime and Crime Causation 0 In 2014 in West Palm Beach Florida Tia Lashonda Miller say in Jail awaiting trial for identity theft and tax fraud She was accused of stealing over 700 identities in order to file false tax returns to pay her debts 0 Miller did not physically harm anyone but what was the impact of her crime on victims on the government on the IRS How might we explain Miller s behavior Types of Crime Crimes can be categorized into seven tvnes 0 Visible crime 0 Occupation crime 0 Organized crime 0 Transnational crime 0 Victimless crime 0 Political crime 0 Cyber crime Visible Crime Often called street crime and ordinary crime Three Categories 0 Violent Crime 0 Death or Physical injury results 0 Property crime 0 Acts that threaten property 0 Public order crimes 0 Acts that threaten general wellbeing of society Occupational Crime I Offenses committed through opportunities creates in legal or business occupation 0 Crimes that result in huge costs to society 0 Estimates indicate that for every 1 lost in street crime 60 is lost as a result of occupational crime Organized crime 0 Continuing enterprise for purpose of making profit through illegal activities 0 Network of activities that typically cross state and national borders 0 Increased among outlaw motorcycle gangs Hispanic and African American gangs Transnational Crime 0 Refers to crime that cross country borders 0 Three Categories 0 Provision of illicit goods I Drug trafficking moving stolen property 0 Provision of illegal services I Human trafficking child pornography 0 Infiltration of Business of government I Bribery extortion money laundering Challenges Of Transnational Crime 0 American police agencies must depend on assistance from officials abroad 0 Difficult to coordinate With countries With different laws and priorities 0 Some countries protect transnational crime through Victimless Crime 0 Involve Willing and privates exchange of goods or services I Offenses against morality 0 Prostitution gambling drug sales and use 0 War on Drugs is an example of policies against a victimless crime Political Crime 0 Criminal acts by the government or against the government for ideological purposes Examples 0 Murder of abortion doctors O Bombing of abortion clinics O Bombing of federal building on Oklahoma City 0 Release of Classified documents Crime Rate 0 Generally declined since the 1980 s 0 As of 2009 rate of violent and property crime were at lowest overall level 0 Knowledge of crime rates aids in decisions on officer deployment and crimefighting strategies Problems with Accurate Crime Date 0 Lack of accurate means of knowing amount of crime 0 More crime occurs than is reported 0 Dark figure of crime Crimes never reported to police 0 Until 1972 only crimes counted were those reported to police and entered into uniform crime reports UCR National Incident Based Reporting system NIBRS 0 FBI s response to criticism of UCR 0 Detailed incident data on 46 offenses in 22 crime categories 0 Reports all crime committed during an incident whereas UCR only Reports most serious crime in an incident 0 Reports all available data on offenders victims and places Crime victimization 0 Victimology emerged in 1950s with a focus on 0 Who is victimized 0 What is the impact of crime 0 What happen to victims in the criminal justice system 0 What role do victims play in causing the crimes they suffer Who is Victimized 0 Women Youth Non whites O Lifestyles exposure model demonstrates the link between personal characteristics and Victimization 0 Race is key factor in exposure to crime 0 LowIncome City Dwellers 0 Low income closely linked to exposure to crime Impact of Crime 0 Fear of crime 0 Fear limits freedom 0 Cost of crime 0 Economic cost I Lost property lower productiVity medical expenses 0 Psychological and emotional cost 39 Pain trauma diminished quality of life 0 Costs of operation the criminal justice system 39 Courts serVices law enforcement Cause of Crimes 0 Classical and PositiVist theories 0 Biological explanations 0 Psychological explanations 0 Sociological explanations 0 Life Course Theories 0 Integrated Theories Classical and PositiVist Theories 0 Classical School 0 Developed by Cesare Beccaria 0 Views behaVior as stemming from free will 0 People are responsible and should be held accountable for actions 0 Stresses the need for punishment severe enough to deter others 0 PositiVist school 0 BehaVior stems from social biological and psychological factors 0 Punishment should be tailored to indiVidual needs of offender Biological Explanations 0 Emphasizer physiological and neurological factors that predispose a person to commit a crime 0 Early work of Cesare Lombroso 0 Physical traits distinguish criminals from law abiding citizens 0 Some people are in a more primitive state of evolution and are born criminal 0 Later work of James Q Wilson 0 Biological factors predispose some individuals to commit crimes Psychological Explanations 0 Emphasizes mental processes and behavior 0 Psychoanalytic theory 0 Psychiatrists have linked criminal behavior to innate impulses psychic con ict and repression of personality Sociological Explanations 0 Social Structure Theories criminal behavior is related to social class 0 Anomie Theory 0 Deviant behavior is the result weakened rules and norms 0 Strain Theory 0 Negative relationship can lead to negative emotions O Negative emotions are expressed through crime and delinquency 0 Strain is produced by the failure to achieve valued goals 0 Those who cannot cope with negative emotions may be predispose to crime Sociological Explanations 0 Social Process Theories assumes that any person has potential to become a criminal 0 Learning theories I Criminal activity is learned behavior 0 Control theories I Social links keep people in line with accepted norms 0 Labeling Theories I Stress social process through which certain acts and people are labeled deviant I Justice system creates criminals by labeling people Sociological Explanations p x U Critical theories assumes that criminal law and the justice system are designed by those in power whose purpose is to oppress those who are not 0 Social con ict theories I Crimes is the result of con ict within societies I Class structure cause certain groups to be labeled as deviant 0 Feminist theories I Based on the idea that traditional theory centers an male criminality and ignores female offending I Underscores the need to integrate race and class with gender Anomie A of the rules of social behavior Biological Explanations Explanations of crime that emphasize physiological and neurological factors that may predispose a Classical Criminology that view behaviors as stemming from demands responsibility and accountability of all perpetrators and stresses the need for punishments severe enough to deter others Control Theories Theories an individual to society are Criminogenic Having factors thought to bring about criminal Critical Criminology Theories that and the are primarily a means of controlling the lower classes women and minorities Cyber Crimes Offenses that involve the use of Dark Figure Of Crime A the dangerous dimension of crimes that are never reports to the police Feminist Theories Theories that criticize existing theories for ignoring or undervaluing women s experiences and people subjected to decision making by criminal justice officials These theories seek to incorporate an understanding of occurs when the bonds that tie differences between the experiences and treatment of men and women while also integrating consideration of other factors 10 Integrated Theories Theories that combine differing theoretical perspectives into a 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Labeling Theories Theories emphasizing that the cause of criminal behavior are not found in the individual but in the as deviant or criminal Learning Theories Theories that see criminal behavior as learned Life Course Theories Theories that identify factors and end of criminal behavior over the life of an offender Money Laundering Moving the proceeds of criminal activities through a maze of National Crime Victimization Surveys Interviews of samples of the US population conducted by the number and types of criminal victimizations and thus the extent of unreported as well as reported crime National IncidentB ases Reporting System A reporting system in which the police describe each offense in a the offender victim and property Occupational Crimes Criminal offenses committed through opportunities created in a Organized Crime A framework for the perpetuation of criminal acts providing illegal services that are in great demand Political Crime An act usually done for constitutes a threat against the state such as treason sedition or espionage also describes a criminal act by the state Positivist Criminology A school of criminology that view behavior as stemming from It argues that punishment should be tailored to the individual needs of the offender Psychological Explanation Explanations of processes and behavior Social Con ict Theories Theories that view crime as the result of con ict in society such as con ict between using law as a means to maintain power Social Process Theories Theories that see criminality as normal behavior in the sense that everyone has depending on 1 the in uences that impel one toward or away from crime and 2 how one is regarded by others 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Social Structure Theories Theories that blame crime on the existence of that lives With poverty and deprivation and often turns to crime in response Sociological Explanations Explanations of crime that emphasize as cause of criminal behavior the that bear on the individuals Theory of Differential Association The theory that people become criminals because they encounter more in uences that View than they do in uences that are hostile to criminal behavior Transnational Crime Profitseeking criminal activities that involve planning Uniform Crime Reports An annually published statistical summary of crimes reported to the police based on voluntary Victimless Crimes Offenses involving a Willing and private exchange of illegal Participants do not feel they are being harmed but these crimes are prosecuted on the grounds that society as a Whole is being injured Victimology A filed of criminology that in precipitating a criminal incident and also examines the impact of crimes on victims Visible Crime An offense against person or property committed primarily by members of the lower class Often referred to as this type of offense is the one most upsetting to the public 10 11 September 1 2015 Chapter 3 The first 10 amendments added to the US Constitution to provide specific rights for individual including criminal justice rights concerning searches trials and punishments Minor offenses that are typically punishable by small fines and produce no criminal record for the offender Law regulation the relationships between or among individuals usually involving property Contracts or business disputes The subjecting of a person to prosecution more than once in the same jurisdiction for the same offense prohibited by the Fifth Amendment The defense that the individual was induced by the polices to commit the criminal act Serious crimes usually carrying a penalty of death or of incarceration for more than one year in prison A legal doctrine supporting the idea that so long as a state s conduct maintains basic standards of fairness the constitution has not been violated Body of citizens drawn from the community to hear evidence presented by the prosecutor in order to decide Whether enough evidence exists to file charges against a defendant Conduct that is criminal even though the harm that the law seeks to prevent has not been done but merely planned or attempted The extension of the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to make binding on state governments the rights guaranteed in the first 10 Amendments to the US Constitution the Bill of Right The accountability of an individual for a crime because of the perpetrator s characteristics and the circumstances of illegal act 12 Guilty mind or blameworthy state of mind necessary for legal responsibility for a criminal offense criminal intent as distinguished from innocent intent 13 Offenses less serious felonies and usually punishable by incarceration of no more than one year in jail or of probation or intermediate sanction 14 Law defining the procedures that criminal justice officials must follow in enforcement adjudication and corrections 15 The act of exposing oneself to prosecution by being forced to respond to questions when the answer may reveal that one has committed a crime The fifth Amendment protects defendants against compelled selfincrimination Law that defines acts that are subject to punishment and specifies the punishments for such offenses Case deciding that the protections of the Bill of Rights apply only to actions of federal governments 18 Case deciding that indigent defendants have a right t counsel when charged with serious crimes for which they could face six or more months of incarceration 19 Case deciding that an attorney must be provided to a poor defendants facing the death penalty Mental Problem And Mass Shootings 0 In July 20 2012 dressed like the Joker 24 years old James Holmes entered the midnight showing if the movie Batman The Dark Night Rise point his gun at the audience and began to fire rapidly When the shooting ended 12 people were dead and more than 40 were wounded He was described as being calm and matteroffact at the scene even when revealing that he had rigged his apartment with explosive 0 Did mental problems lead Holmes to commit his murderous acts Foundation Of Criminal Law 0 Civil Law 0 Law regulating the relationship between or among individuals usually involving property contracts or business disputes 0 Substantive Criminal Law 0 Defines acts that the government can punish and defines the punishments for those crimes 0 Procedural Criminal Law 0 Law defining the procedures that criminal Justice offices must follow in enforcement adjudication and corrections De nitions and Classifications of Criminal Laws 0 Each state and the federal government define crimes differently but typically offenses are broken down into one of three categories 0 Felonies I Punishment can be incarceration for years or more in prison 0 Misdemeanors I Punishment can be year or less in country jail 0 Civil Infraction I Punishable only by fines and do not result in arrest or criminal record Elements Of A Crime 0 Three factors that are elements of a crime 0 The act 0 The attendant circumstances 0 The state of mind or intent 0 Inchoate crimes of attempt and conspiracy involve intentions for harm that are never carried out Seven Principles of Criminal Law I Legality 0 Must be a law that defines an act as a crimes 0 Actus reus 0 Must be a human act of either commission or omission I Causation 0 Must be a causal relationship between the act and the harm suffered 0 Harm 0 Act or failure of act must cause harm to some legally protected value I Concurrence O Intent and act must be present at same time 0 Mens rea 0 Act must be accompanied by a guilty mind related to intent 0 Some crimes lack the guilty mind elements they are called strict liability offenses ex statutory rape 0 Punishment 0 Must be a provision in the law that calls for punishment of those found guilty of violating a law Defenses Used To Challenge Criminal Intent 0 Selfdefense 0 Necessity 0 Entrapment 0 Duress 0 Mistake of fact 0 Intoxication 0 Insanity Excuse Defenses 0 Insanity Subject of heated debate 0 Four states no longer permit the defense 0 US courts have five test of criminal Responsibility for insanity O M Naghten Rule 0 Irrestible Impulse Test 0 Durham Rule 0 Model Penal Code s Model Penal Code 0 Over half the state and the federal government use this test which was developed in the early 1970 s 0 if at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease or defect he lacks a substantial capacity either to appreciate the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the requirements of the law Bill of Rights 0 Procedural law is shaped by four of the 10 amendments known as the bill of right as well as the 14th Amendment 0 Fourth 0 Fifth 0 Sixth 0 Eighth Fourteenth Amendment 0 Created after the Civil War to protect people right to due process of law 0 In early cases Supreme Court operated under the fundamental fairness doctrine which basically meant that the Constitution had not been violated as long as the state s conduct maintains basic standards of fairness Due Process Revolution 0 Beginning in the 1960s Chief Justice Earl Warren the warren Court Era 0 Extension of the due process clause of the 14th Amendment to make binding on the state the right guaranteed in the Bill Of Right 0 Critics of these decisions believed that they made the community more vulnerable and gave too many legal protections to criminals Fourth Amendment 0 Protects people against unreasonable searches and seizures 0 Limits the ability of law enforcement to search a person or property in order to obtain evidence 0 Limits the ability of police to detain a person without proper justification Fifth Amendment 0 Outlines basic due process rights in criminal cases 0 Protection against compelled selfincrimination 0 Protect against double jeopardy or the prosecution of the same crime twice 0 Entitlement to indictment by grand jury before being prosecuted I Citizens from the community that hear evidence and determine whether enough exists to charge a defendant I Applies only in federal court 39 One of the few rights the supreme Court has not applied to the states Sixth Amendment 0 Provisions dealing with fairness in a criminal trial 0 Right to counsel I Gideon V Wainwright 1963 Supreme Court made right to counsel binding on states 0 Right to a speedy and public trail 0 Right to an impartial jury Eight Amendment 0 Rights of the defendant during pretrial and correctional phases 0 Prohibits excessive bail 0 Prohibits excessive fines O Prohibits cruel and unusual punishment I Trop V Dulles 1958 September 8 2015 Chapter 4 Police 0 On February 26 2013 in Santa Cruz California two law enforcement officers went to the home of Jeremy Goulet to arrest him for a sexual assault They had no information suggesting that he would shoot at them but after speaking that he would shoot at them but after speaking to them threw a glass door he refused to come out Suddenly he emerged from a doorway and fried five shots killing both officers 0 What attracts people to a career that entails lifethreatening danger and how do they carry out their duties in the face of such danger Sir Robert Peel s Police London 1828 0 Four basic mandates Prevent crime without repressive force 0 Maintain public order by nonviolent means 0 Reduce con ict between the police and the public 0 Show efficiency through the absence of crime and disorder 0 Early American Law Enforcement 0 Adopted many English titles and offices 0 Sheriff old shire reeves a county based system 0 Constable 0 Night Watchman 0 Also Developed some new law enforcement O Slave patrols designed to prevent slave Three Period of American Policing 0 Political Era 18401920 0 Professional Model Era 19201970 0 Community Policing Era 1970 Present Community Policing Era 0 Began in the 1970s as a result of civil rights and antiwat movements urban riots and rising crime rated 0 Greater emphasis on keeping order and providing services to the community Broken Windows Theory 0 Approach to order maintenance based on three assumptions 0 Neighborhood disorder creates fear 0 Untended disorderly behavior is a signal that the community doesn t care and results in worse disorder and crime 0 To reduce fear police must rely on citizens for assistance 911 and The Next Era of Policing 0 Terrorist attacks of September 112001 shifted federal government s funding priorities for law enforcement and led to reorganization of federal agencies 0 Led to development of intelligence led policing With emphasis on gathering analyzing and sharing information among law enforcement agencies at all levels and incorporation those elements into community policing plans Law Enforcement Agencies 0 US has a federal system of government With separate national and state structures each With authority over certain function 0 Police agencies are responsible for four functions 0 Enforcing the Law 0 Maintaining order 0 Preventing Crime 0 Providing Services to the Community Federal Agencies 0 Part of the Executive Branch 0 Investigate specific set of crime defines by congress 0 Recent efforts in the areas of grub trafficking organized crime insider stock trading and terrorism Federal Bureau Of investigation 0 Investigative agency Within the US Department of Justice DOJ 0 Power to investigate all federal crimes not placed under jurisdiction of other agencies 0 Significant responsibility Other Federal Agencies 0 Drug Enforcement Administration DEA 0 Internal Revenue Service IRS 0 Bureau of Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms ATF 0 US Marshals Service 0 National Parks service 0 Department of Homeland Security DHS 0 Customs and Border protection 0 Secret Service 0 Transportation and Security Administration TSA State Agencies 0 Each state has a police agency that O Patrols state highways 0 Provides complete law enforcement services in rural areas 0 Conducts statewide drug investigations 0 In many state crime lab is run by state police as a means of assisting local las enforcement County Agencies 0 Sheriffs are found in almost every US Country except Alaska and Connecticut and are responsible for policing rural areas 0 Elected and hold position as chief law enforcement officer in country Patrol unincorporated parts of the country or small towns without a police force Operate jails Serve court orders 0 O O 0 Provide courtroom bailiffs Native American Tribal Police 0 Through treaties Native American tribes are separates sovereign nations with significant with Signiant autonomy 0 Reservations have been policed either by federal officers of the Bureaus of Indian Affairs BIA or by their own tribal police 0 Approximately 178 tribal law enforcement agencies Municipal Agencies 0 Police in cities and towns have general law enforcement authority 0 Sworn personnel are officers with power to make arrests 0 Nearly three quarters of municipal police department employ fewer than 25 sworn officers Special Jurisdiction Agencies 0 Four year college and university polices forces 0 Two year college police department 0 Conservation officers and police in parks and recreation settings 0 Agencies that enforce the law at specific mass transit system airports bridges tunnels and ports Recruitment 0 Applicant Requirement and initial training varies widely between states and jurisdictions 0 Be a US Citizens 0 Meet age requirement 0 Have a high a school diploma 0 Possess a valid driver s license 0 State Police typically turn their own training academies 0 Quantico Virginia is training academy For DEAFBI 0 Federal Law Enforcement Training Center FLECTC in Glynco Georgia is training academy for Secret Service ATF and other federal law enforcement agencies 0 Salaries are higher in areas with high cost of living and federal agencies Minority Representation 0 Since the1970s makeup of police department has changed 0 Minority officers makeup 40 of officers in largest cities 0 African American compose 12 of officers in local department 0 Latinos compose more than 10 of officers in local department 0 For cities with populations in excess of 1 million 0 Latino officers compose 23 0 African American compose 18 Women in Policing 0 In 1970 women composed 15 of sworn officers and by 2007 women composed 12 0 Research studies indicate 0 Male and female officers perform in similar ways 0 Positive feedback on female officers 0 Females have superior performance in avoiding excessive use of force and interviewing crime victims Training 0 Formal training provides and understanding of legal rules weapons use and other aspects of the job 0 During probationary periods new officers work with and learn from experienced ones 0 Socialization is the process by which the rules symbols and values of a group or subculture are learned by members or the informal ways of law enforcement Police Subculture 0 Subculture 0 Symbols beliefs values and attitudes shared by members of a subgroup of the larger society 0 Police have developed their own subculture based upon four key issues Working personality 0 Role of police morality 0 Isolation of the police 0 Stress involved in police work 0 Police Morality 0 Aspects of police creating dilemmas morality can overcome O Contradiction between goal of presenting crime and the of cer s inability to do so 0 Officers feel they must their discretion to handle situations in ways that do not strictly follow procedures 0 Fact that they invariably act against at least one citizen s interest Police Functions 0 Order maintenance 0 Law Enforcement 0 Service 0 Agencies divide their resource among these functions based on community need citizens requests and department policy Increasingly agencies require 0 Psychological evaluations O Certifications from state s law enforcement training agency 1 Organizational Structure based on a military model with clear definition of rank to indicate authority over subordinates and obligations to obey order from superiors 10 ll Approach to policing that emphasizes close personal contact between police and citizens and the inclusion of citizens in efforts solve problems including vandalism disorder youth misbehavior and crim The sworn Law Enforcement officers in the FBI who conduct investigations and make arrests A system in old English law in which members of a tithing a group of 10 families pledged to be responsible for keeping order and brings violators of the law to court An approach to policing in conjunction with concerns about homeland security that emphasizes gathering and analyzing information to be shared among agencies in order to develop cooperative efforts to identify prevent and solve problem The Police function of controlling crime by intervening in situation in which the law has clearly been violated and the police need to identify and apprehend the guilty person Preservice training required for sworn officers in many states which includes coursework on law use of weapons psychology and police procedures Police departments for state and large cities often run training pragmas called police academic for their own recruits Style of policing that emphasizes strict enforcement of laws and reduces officers authority to handle matters informally The Police function of preventing behavior that disturbs or threatens to disturb the public peace or that involves facetoface con ict between two or more people In such situation the police exercise discretion in deciding whether a law has been broken The core operational units of local police departments that deploy uniformed officers to handle the full array of police function for service order maintenance and law enforcement The organizational description of police departments design and operation that seek to achieve efficiency through division of labor chain of command and rules to guide staff 12 Oriented Policing An approach to policing in which officers routinely seek to identify analyze and respond to the circumstances underlying the incidents that prompt citizens to call the police 13 The police function of providing assistance to the public for many matters unrelated to crime as well as for crime prevention education 14 Style of policing in which officers cater to citizens desire for favorable treatment and sensitivity to individual situations by using discretion to handle minor matters in ways that seek to avoid embarrassment or punishment 15 Top law enforcement official in county government who was an exceptionally important police official during the country s westward expansion and continues to bear primary responsibility for many local jails Distinctively American from of law enforcement in southern states that 16 sought to catch and control slaves through patrol groups that stopped and questions African Americans on the roads and elsewhere in public places 17 The process by which the rules symbols and values of a group or subculture are learned by its members 18 Units within local police department that deploy officers often in plain clothes if not assigned to the traffic unit who are dedicated to a specific task such as investigation or type of crime such as narcotics enforcement The symbols beliefs values and attitudes shared by members of a subgroup 19 of the larger society 20 Federal Law Enforcement officials appointed to handle duties in western territories and today bear responsibility for providing federal court security and apprehending fugitives Practice of assigning individuals to night observation duty to warn the 21 public of fires and crime first introduced to the American Colonies in Boston and later evolved into a system of paid uniformed police 22 Style of police that emphasizes order maintenance and tolerates minor violation of law as officers use discretion to handle small infractions informally but make arrests for major violations 23 A set emotional and behavioral characteristics developed by members of an occupational group response to the work situation and environmental in uences September 15 2015 Chapter 5 Policing Duties 0 On December 142012 Adam Lanza a mentally trouble 20 years old had shot his way into Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newton Connecticut He had semiautomatic pistols a ri e and more than enough ammunition to kill everyone in the school Officers found two women shot to death in the hallway and the bodies of teachers and 20 dead first graders in two classrooms 0 What is the range of responsibilities and challenges police officers todays Police and Citizen Encounters 0 Each year 1 in 5 citizens has a face to face encounter with law enforcement O 15 are calls for assistance 0 US are people reporting a crime 0 US are police investigating crime 0 Remaining 40 are drivers and passengers stopped by police 0 90 of people who have contact believe police acted properly Police Discretion 0 Police have power to deprive people of liberty and take them into custody O Often choice arise in ambiguous situation leaving it to the officers to decide how when to apply the law 0 Officer on the scene must define the situation decide how to handle it and determine whether and how the law should be applied Critical Factors in Police Discretion 0 Nature of the Crime 0 Relationship between alleged criminal and victim 0 Relationship Between police and the Criminal or Victim 0 RaceEthnicity age gender class 0 Departmental Policy Police Abuse of Power 0 Police officers can break the law disobey department Policies through corruption Favoritism discrimination and the failure to carry out their duties properly Use of Force 0 Police may use legitimate force to do their job 0 Police violate the law when they use excessive force or force that violates departmental policies of the constitutional rights of citizens 0 Use of force occurs most frequently when police are dealing with people affected by drugs or alcohol or mental illness 0 Using of deadly force has become an emotional issues with a direct connection to race relations 0 Risk of lawsuits by victims of improper shooting 0 Police administrationtors have few tools available 0 Training 0 Internal review of incidents 0 Discipline or firing of officers Corruption 0 Police officer s violations of law and departmental policy for personal gain or to help out their friends 0 Grass eaters 39 Officers who accept payoffs through routine police work 0 Meat eaters 39 Officers who actively use power for personal gain Question For Discussion 0 In 2011 30 Baltimore police officers were charged in an extortion scheme netting thousands of dollars In 2011 several Chicago police officers were convicted of robbing drug dealers for money and drug In 2013 a NYC officer was fired in an ongoing scandal that uncovered the involvement of over 200 officers in illegally fixing parking and traffic tickets 0 How is it possible that police administrators were unaware of ongoing scandals such as these What action can they take to ensure it doesn t occur again Civic Accountability 0 Currently there are four methods used to control the police Internal Affairs Units 0 Civilian Review Boards 0 Standards and Accreditation 0 Civil Liability Lawsuits 0 Internal Affairs Units 0 Receives and investigates complaints against officers 0 Officers charger with misconduct can face 0 Criminal Prosecution Civil Liability Lawsuits 0 1961 Supreme Court ruled that Section 1983 of Civil Right Act of 1871 allows citizens to sue public officials for violations of federal constitutional rights Section 1983 lawsuits by an agency s customs Delivery of police services 0 Evidence based practices are often the basis for allocating resources and determining how to set priorities 0 Significant budget cuts 0 Reductions in personnel Police Response 0 Proactive versus Reactive policing 0 Reactive I Responding to citizen calls for service 0 Proactive I Police try to anticipate crime and prevent them from occurring Incident Driven Policing 0 Policing in which calls for service are the primary instigators of action 0 Less than 30 of calls to police involve criminal law enforcement Productivity 0 Clearance rate is the percentage of crime that have been solved through arrest 10 CompStat approach to crime prevention and police productivity 0 Twiceweekly briefings before peers and executives O Held responsible for success of crime control efforts 0 Computer system with uptodate crime date A patrol strategy designed to maximize the number of police interventions and observation in the community Citizen s committee formed to investigate complaints against the police The percentage of crimes known to the police that they believe they have solved through an arrest a statistic used to measure a police department s productivity Nonprofit organization formed by major law enforcement executives associations to develop standards for police policies and practices on request will review police agencies and award accreditation upon meeting those standards Programs through which criminal Justice officials cultivate relationship with and rely on assistance from citizens in preventing crime and apprehending offenders within neighborhoods Approach to crime prevention and police productivity measurement pioneered in New York City and then adopted in other cities that involves frequent meetings among police supervisors to examine detailed crime statistics for each precinct and develop immediate approaches and goals for problem solving and crime prevention Police officers typically working in plain clothes who investigate crimes that have occurred by questioning witnesses and gathering evidence Differential Response A patrol strategy that assigns priorities to calls for service and choose the appropriate response A proactive form of patrolling that directs resources to known high crime areas The term commonly used to refer to intimate partner violence or violent victimizations between spouses boyfriends and girlfriends or those formerly inanimate relationship Such actions account for a significant percentage of the violent victimizations experienced by women 11 Based Policing Police strategies and deployment of resources developed through examinations of research on crime social problems and previously used strategies 12 Applications of force against individuals by police officers that violate either departmental polices or constitutional rights by exceeding the level of force permissible and necessary in a given situation 13 Centers run by states and large cities that analyze and facilitate sharing of information to assist law enforcement and homeland security agencies in preventing and responding to crime and terrorism threats Policing in which calls for service are the primary instigators 14 of action 15 A branch of a police department that receives and investigates complaints alleging violation of rules and policies on the part of officers 16 The International Criminal Police Organization formed in 1946 and based in France with the mission of facilitating international cooperation in investigating transnational criminal activities and security threats 17 Information collected and analyzed by law enforcement officials concerning criminal activities and organizations such as gangs drug traffickers and organized crime 18 Police officers violations of law and departmental policy for personal gain or to help their family and friends 19 Making the police presence known to deter crime and to make officers available to respond quickly to calls Acting in anticipation such an active search for potential offenders that is 20 initiated by the police without waiting for a crime to be reported Arrest for victimless crime are usually proactive 21 Oriented Policing An approach to policing in which officers routinely seek to identify analyze and respond to the circumstances underlying the incidents that prompt citizens to call the police 22 Occurring in response such as police activity in response to notification that a crime has been committed 23 Police officers assigned for duty in schools to assist in order maintenance While also developing positive relationships With students that may assist in delinquency prevention 24 Civil lawsuits authorized by federal statute against state and local officials and local agencies When citizens have evidence that these officials or agencies have violated their federal constitutional rights 25 Police employees Who have taken an oath and been given powers by the state to make arrests and to use necessary force in accordance With their duties 26 Federal law enforcement agency With responsibility for border security by patrolling national land borders and coastal waters to prevent smuggling drug trafficking and illegal entry including entry by potential terrorists A federal statute passed in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 that broadens government authority to conduct searches and Wiretaps and expands the definitions of crimes involving terrorism
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