Test 1 Notes
Popular in Evolutionary Psychology
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Rk18370p on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to PSY 277 at Pace University taught by Robert Keegan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Test 1 Notes 0 Change over time a long period of time 1800 s 0 People believed a Nature didn t change b Nature was fairly recent 0 Very religious beliefs on creation 39 Genesis 6 days I Bishop Ussher 0 Calculated how old the earth was 0 Said earth was created in 4004 BC 0 Said it was approximately 6k years old d If god created nature then nature is perfect and doesn t change Every science is evolutionary 0 Things are changing over time 1 Big Bang a Beginning of Universe started with this explosion b 14 billion years ago 2 Origin of Earth a 46 billion years ago 3 Origin of Life on Earth a 38 billion years ago b Simple single celled creatures 4 Origin of Multicellular Life a 1 billion years ago 5 Origin of Dinosaurs a 200 million years ago 6 Extinction of Dinosaurs a 64 million years ago i Dinosaurs lived for almost 140 million years 7 First Primates a 60 million years ago 8 Departure of Humans a 57 million years ago i Chimpanzees 1 Closest living relatives a DNA genes b Humans are 98 chimp Test 1 Notes 2 Humans and chimps come from a common ancestor a We did not come from chimps b We came from something else 9 First Human Beings a Homo habilis hand precision grip b 28 million years ago 10 Appearance of Homo Sapiens a 200000 years ago 11 Out of Africa Eve Hypothesis a 60000 years ago 12 First Symbolic Behavior a EX Cave Paintings b 30000 years ago c Extinction of Neanderthals i Only homo sapiens alive 13 Civilization a 10000 years ago i Permanent Settlements 1 Syria 2 Iraq ii Agriculture iii DomesticationAnimals I Jean Baptiste Lamarck 1 Philosophy of Zoology a Animals changed over time i Including humans ii Studied orangutans iii Early theories of evolution 1 Gradual Notion of Change a Giraffes i Acquired Characteristic 1 Would be great for survival adaptation 2 Stretch neck over time longer neck a Long Necks i If you stretch your neck constantly your offspring Will have a slightly longer neck ii Offspring must stretch their necks to keep the cycle going ii Importance of Acquired Characteristic Test 1 Notes 1 Habit a Behavior must continue 2 Physical Feature 11 Birth of Charles Darwin 0 16 year old Darwin studied medicine at Edinburgh for two years 0 Went on to Cambridge University 0 Divine Studies 0 Natural History I Study of 0 Geology 0 Biology 0 Botany Naturalist on Board 0 His Majesty Ship Beagle 0 British Navy 0 2 year voyage turns into 5 0 Not a finished naturalist 0 Voyage of the Beagle 0 Chart the coast of Southern South America 0 Circumnavigate the globe I Go around the world 0 Half the time was spent on the boat the other half on land I Visited 40 islands 0 Volcanic islands 0 Coral islands 0 Galapagos Islands 0 60 miles off the coast of Ecuador I Different species of o Tortoises o Finches o Beak shape and size differed I Animals seemed to adapt in different ways Darwin convinced of Evolution Test 1 Notes Natural Selection 0 Known as great insight 1 Theory of Evolution a Published views in 1859 39 Origin of Species 1 Natural Selection Darwin s Theory 4 Basic Components of Natural Selection 1 Variation Ubiquitous you see it everywhere a Nature provides material for evolution bChance i He knows it happens but can t fully explain it yet so he says chance is the only explanation 2 Heredity Breeders a Artificial Selection i Humans choose the type of breeding that is done not nature ii Breeders Law a Like produces like i 3 Superfecundity aSuper meaning above average bFecundity meaning fertility i Together meaning Tendency towards Over Population EX Humans make humans b Traits get passed on to offspring a We produce more than will possibly make it to adulthood RathS 1600 1640 1680 1720 1760 Population 1 2 4 8 16 Food Supply 1 2 3 4 5 i ii Population has a geometric progression Food Supply has a arithmetic progression b Swift s solution to this problem was to eat the children in his satire A Modest Proposal cDarwin said that all of this was happening in nature Test 1 Notes i The more that is being produced the more that will survive to adulthood a EX The more children you make the more that have a higher chance of surviving 4 StruggleCompetition in Nature aInescapable amp inevitable if Superfecundity is true bScarce resources cHerbert Spencer said Survival of the Fittest i A trait that allows them to survive a You were lucky enough to have that trait i Your ancestors got it through luck and it got passed down to you ii Traits need to work in the local environment a EX Long hair is good in cold places 11 Fatal Flaw in theory of Natural Selection 1 Reproduce 2 Fitness producing offspring aEX Bees ultimately unfit i There are individual bees and social bees a Different bees have different jobs ii They are neuter a they cannot reproduce 3 Evolution occurred at different levels a Individual vs Individual i You vs me bNest vs Nest i Us vs them ii Group vs group III Mendel wrote the first paper on Genetics 1 Nobody paid attention to the paper when it first came out 2 Years later in 1900 3 scientists rediscovered genetics IV Darwin writes about human evolution 1 He called it Descent of Man a This had no discussion of genes 2 Scenario a How it occurred bHe said that we are descendants of African Apes Test 1 Notes 3 3 mental traits involved in humans a Intelligence i Problem solving ii Decision making bCommunication i Positive Feedback Loops a As intelligence increases communication increases ii Negative Feedback Loops a As temperature increases your body sweats and you cool down your temperature decreases cMorality i If you kill people in your group you are not efficient ii If you don t kill me then I won t kill you 4 Key Phrase in Descent of Man a One of a degree and not one of a kind i Theme we are not all unique other animals have them too a They have the basics like communication and morality bHumans have evolved not just animals i This is explained through group selection a Ex Us vs them or group vs group ii Shrink the gap between humans and other animals a Increase the status of animals i They have many human like traits The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals 1872 0 Mostly facial expressions 0 It s behavior 0 More specifically evolved instinctual behavior I We share something in common with ancestor 0 First book in evolutionary psychology because it explains behavior as a product of evolution 0 Strategy Remnants leftovers o Shrink the gap between humans and animals I Lowers human status to show animal like behavior in humans 3 Principals to explain Expression 1 Serviceable associated habits a Certain habits are associated with a service in the past b Remnants left over expressions from the time we were more animal like i Ex Physical Remnants 1 Wisdom teeth 2 Appendix ii Behavioral Remnants Test 1 Notes 1 Service in the past 2 With us even if they don t share the same purpose anymore a Anger i Face turns red you snarl 1 Purpose send you a signal you are getting ready to attack ii Body gets tense 1 Purpose Fighting running away b Disgust i Shrinking nasal passages and closing mouth 1 Purpose to get away from disgusting thing 3 Present Day We don t use our teeth to defend anymore a It stays with us even though we don t use it 2 Antithesis Opposite a Happy Smile you are relaxed i When you are in opposite emotion you make opposite expression anger to happy ii Your posture opens up 3 Direct Action of the Nervous System a Hints of being nervous i Tapping hands and feet ii Twitching iii Sweating 1 Your body does these things to try and calm you down b Excess of Emotion i Nervous energy ows in a certain direction 1 If you have nervous energy it ows down the most used paths the path of least resistance a Ex on your face you blink and swallow and your fingers are always moving Universal Facial Expressions Instinct Anger Fear Disgust Sadness Happiness 6 Surprise U PP NF Paul Ekman 0 Introduced research about facial expressions and emotions in the 1960 s 0 Tried to nd evidence to either support or deny Darwin s views 0 Ask if there were universal expressions or not Test 1 Notes 0 Primitive people in the 60 s 0 Still tribal people who were completely isolated I People in the rainforests or amazon 0 Traveled to primitive area in Indonesia I Brought translator I Went for research I He would tell people stories and observe their expressions 0 Stories about 0 Death of Children Sadness I They frowned 0 You re walking along and you come across a rotting pig Disgust I His work provided evidence that Darwin was correct facial expressions are instinctual Experiment using Operant Conditioning 0 Proposed by BF Skinner l Behaviorism a What controls it b What we learn from our behavior 0 Consequences of Behavior 1 Positive Reinforcement reward a Increases frequency of that response 0 If the rat presses the lever food comes out 0 After a few days the rat will press the lever for food 2 Negative Reinforcement take away an annoying stimulus a Increases the frequency of that response 0 If you put the electric shock on the rats feet you make the lever the thing that turns off the shock o Eventually the rat will learn that he must push the lever to take away the shocks 3 Punishment a Reduces the frequency of the response 0 When the rat passes the bar he receives the electric shock o Rat will not continue to pass the bar Experimental Expressions from the 1960 s 0 Using Operant Conditioning 0 Subjects Rhesus Monkeys I Part 1 Put monkeys into cage oor is electrified if monkey presses bar it escapes electric shock 0 This is called escape learning Test 1 Notes Part 2 Part 3 They learn to press the bar 0 Negative Reinforcement Use same monkeys from Part 1 Add light to cage when off oor isn t electrified When light comes on monkey has 10secs to press the bar and avoid the shock o This is avoidance learning I Discrimination learning Ability to tell difference can the monkey s tell the difference between light on and light off 0 Also Negative reinforcement Use monkeys from Part 1 and Part 2 Cage 1 Light goes on and off TV camera films monkey no lever Cage 2 Lever is present TV screen shows monkey in cage 1 no light 0 This monkey sees the facial expressions of the other monkey and he can stop the electric shock 0 Animals can communicate via facial expression 0 Advantage of a change of expression in communication over a vocalization Keeps it a secret from the predator You keep me out of danger without letting the predator know my location 1 Expressions are always changing a Emotional states are temporary b Not an indication of the person s personality C Referring to stable characteristics 2 Facial Expressions to emotions are irrepressible a They can t be stopped Micro expressions come onto our face for a second but we don t want other people to see us so we change it b They are instinctual
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