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ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Hominins, Heritage, Evolution

by: Amy Bu

ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Hominins, Heritage, Evolution ANTH0050

Marketplace > Tufts University > anthropology, evolution, sphr > ANTH0050 > ANTH 0050 Prehistoric Arch Hominins Heritage Evolution
Amy Bu
GPA 3.73
Prehistoric Archeology
Dr. Lauren Sullivan

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About this Document

Notes for Oct (Pt.II) - CONCLUDES TEST #2 The first half of notes from October are in the previous bundle, but this concludes the material for Test #2!
Prehistoric Archeology
Dr. Lauren Sullivan
#prehistoric, #archeology, #fossils, #homo, #bipeds, #neanderthals, #tools, #humans, #evolution, #hominins, #primates
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Amy Bu on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ANTH0050 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Lauren Sullivan in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Prehistoric Archeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tufts University.

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Date Created: 09/29/15
Amg Bu EEEHISTOBIC ABCI Ils c October 2014 Notes Bipedalism evolved bg environment change more open space less trees Evolution 1 Mutation 2 Natural Selection 3 Genetic Drift Miocene Z3 S mga Pliocene S Z mga Pleistocene Z 10000 before present I Iolocene recent 10000 before present Hominid include humans apes chimps gorillas 39 Hominid onlg BIPEDS BEEI IISIOEICARCHZQth0ctoberZQl4Notes Premodern Homo sapiens 400000 to 30000 BP adapted to env diversitg with two glacial periods Mindel glacial and Riss glacial and an interglacial period Includes Neanderthals 130000 to 30000 BP adapted to extreme environmental conditions Bodo Fossil Ethiopia 400000 before present BP Ndutu Skull Tanzania 450000 B Levallois tools made in a consistent wag easier to identifg standardized shapes and sizes Used bg neanderthals and other premodern Homo sapiens Schoninger Germang world39s oldest wooden tools at ca 400000 gears ago Made of spruce wood between 18 and 25 meters in association with 20 wild horses with butchering marks Neanderthal shorter stockier barrelchested probablg for strength Large 1480 cc cranial capacitg atter skull Shorter forearms legs mag be adaptation to cold like Eskimos Amg Bu Homo Neanderthalensis VS Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis different species VS different subspecies prefer latter Neanderthals Mousterian tools at least 63 diff tool tgpes greater specialization adapt to environment Borde separated to 5 types of tools groups unrelated Binford also 5 groups each is diff function Dibble can39t group because interchangeable Oldowan 6 hits Acheulean 60 hits Mousterian 100 hits to make tool Mousterian 40 inches of edges per pound of rock more ef cient Symbolism art ritual adornment mag have been underestimated Eg Lascaux cave paintings beads Neanderthals BURY THEIR DEAD With tools they could use meaning Shanidar Cave burial on pine needles owers on him Flower burial One withered arm La Ferrassie burials male and female and 2 children 39 ArcgsurCure France carved ivorg Jewelrg decoration beads maybe more free time individuality less pressure for food seeking Red pigment on beads shells bone Feathers marks on crows and birds of prey that arent traditional food sources 39 Mag have used feathers as decoration use to distinguish individuals Cannibalism 12 people 3 men 3 women 3 teen bogs 3 children including one infant Suggest males closely related Bad evolutionarg strategg Cut marks signs blades had been used to slice muscle from bone long bones had been snapped open E1 Sidron is exceptional Glue invented type of glue to help attach stone tip to wooden shaft Advanced technologg separate pitch from bark process drg distillation requires oxggen free environment with high temperature 650 F Amg Bu Speech greated range of sounds possible for humans Toothpicks evidence of palliative treatment of dental disease use wood ngotheses on evolution of modern Homo sapiens textbook pg 149 Population Replacement ngothesis Modern humans evolve in Africa move out of Africa replace Neanderthals gt means not related at all Multiregional ngothesis Modern humans evolve everywhere and continuously genetic mixing form branches gene flow evolve simultaneouslg into modern form gt verg related Middle Ground ngothesis agrees with Replacement that Africa was source of modern humans disagree with idea of replacement Propose that first modern humans evolved in Africa theg interbred with late archaic Homo sapiens limited interbreeding to create hgbrids gt little bit related Todag Multiregional Middle Ground hgpotheses most popular Earlist modern Homo sapiens early modern Hsapiens and transitional fossils found in Afar regions of eastern Ethiopia Africa H Sapiens and Neanderthals interbreed Possible no universal acceptance BEEI lISmRLCARCH l1 October 201 Notes Caves in Israel modern Hsapiens appear to predate Neanderthals DNA to trace relationships Mitochondrial DNA 16600 base pairs 37 genes inherited from mother onlg rough estimate of how closely related through maternal ancestors Nuclear DNA 3 billion base pairs 70000 genes Amy Bu Ancient DNA Evidence from Neanderthal bone in Germany suggests Neanderthals are genetically DISTINCT from modern I Isapiens Neanderthal genome lt 1 billion DNA fragments analyzed mostly from Croatia Subsequent analysis suggests the only part of genome analyzed mtDNA consistently falls out of range of modern day humans no evidence of interbreeding But still possible Denisovans found in Denisova Cave in Siberia new species Genetic tests does not match Neanderthals or early modern humans no assigned species genus yet Found only a pinky nger probably female with dark skin brown eyeshair 3 of genes of people in Papua New Guinea come from Denisovans some DNA also found in the Han and Dai people from mainland China Supports multiregional hypothesis Rock layer dates 48000 and 30000 years old Sima de los I Iuesos 400000 years old oldest mtDNA found Maybe Neanderthals and Denisovans mixed Red Deer Cave People remains of stone age people found in caves in China maybe another new species 14300 11500 years old mix of primitive and modern anatomy features Different from modern jutting jaws large molars prominent brows etc Represent new evolutionary line Skulls unique Modern DNA Evidence studied mtDNA from 147 women whose ancestors were from Africa Europe Middle East Asia New Guinea Australia all descended from 0NE woman in subsaharan Africa 200000 years ago Hsapiens gr Neanderthals interbreeding Most people have 14 of Neanderthal DNA Parts of Neanderthal DNA match most closely with European and Asians the least with those from Africa Amg Bu Africa aside Chinese least Neanderthal DNA In Tuscany Italy has the most Interbreeding pretty common after humans expanded out of Africa Neanderthal population mag have been absorbed by more dominant I Isapien population 39 What we inherited FOXPZ from Neanderthals gene found in many species modern humans and Neanderthals have same version suggest high communication Human Leukocgte Antigen I ILA Neanderthal genes associated and mag contribute to immune systems and disease defense Signi cant Cultural Innovations of Upper Paleolithic 10000 ga end of ice age sedentarg agriculture Stone tool tech based on producing elongated blades rather than akes Faster development serrated quotknife edgesquot smaller and lighter Magbe simple arrows throwing materials eg Spears Borden subsistence base to include big game hunting small mammal trapping shing catching birds gr diff plant species due to better tools Increased used of bone ivory and antler to make tools found in Turkey Manufacturing nonutilitarian objects eg Personal adornment itemsjewelry eg Buttons magbe clothing Large more sedentarg settlements Dolni Vestonice pile of animals and tools and broken bones Two structures with roof one without Fire Art fired clag clag figurines eg Venus figurine Movement of raw materials across long distances implies greater social integration of distant diverse groups Elaborate burials include personal items Burials with buttons Suggests clothing Nonutilitarian items eg beads mammoth ivorg necklace fox tooth necklace carved bear teeth ochre stained skull Amg Bu Lascaux Cave excavated early 1950 s Images created with bone sticks animal hair brush hands sharp rocks Paints came from earth crushed and mixed with water Dark caverns were lit with torches and prehistoric lamps of animal fat etc Few human depictions usuallg poorlg done Animals realistic Males females depicted differentlg who did the paintings Females from handprints longer index finger Animals for food and animals they might have been afraid of Lascaux stone lamps sandstone quot quot quot CONCLUDES TEST MATERIAL quot quot quot JEOPARDY First Biped Found with animal bones with cut marks Lucy Larget teeth and jaw small brain A Afarensis footprints found where Debunked earliest use of fire here ZhouKouDian First appearance of hominids in Europe Spain Earlg I I ergaster Erectus found here outside Africa Dmanisi Georgia Used Oldowan tools Used Achulean handle Used Levallois technique Used Mouseterian tools First identified hunters I I Erectus First to use fire I I Erectus First to burg dead Neanderthals First possible signs of adornment Neanderthals


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