ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Ancient Civilizations
ANTH-0050 Prehistoric Arch: Ancient Civilizations ANTH0050
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This 19 page Bundle was uploaded by Amy Bu on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ANTH0050 at Tufts University taught by Dr. Lauren Sullivan in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Prehistoric Archeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Tufts University.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Early Americans Mang oldest pathways from Southeast Asia to Australia and New Guinea along the coast are missing because sea levels rose after the Pleistocene Oldest radiocarbon dates for human occupation in Australia Lake Mungo Willandra Lakes Australia 46000 BP 37000 BP Kangaroo bones Mungo man Clovis People Arrival of Homo Sapiens in the Americas Clovis population quotpreClovis debate 11500 10500 ga widespread in New World Tools quotClovis projectilepointquot sharp uted points found throughout North America PreClovis tools more variety less defined not as clean quotPre projectile point crude chopping tools Clovis hunting big game in Pleistocene ice age eg Mammoths moose mastodons bison etc Mammoths began to go extinct Mammoth remains and kill sites in Texas and Wyoming Used burned rock ovens burned plant remains and animal bones and charcoal Smooth rocks used as weights for fishing Paleoindians similar to Clovis tools big game hunters late Pleistocene Clovis Migration to South America Bering Land Bridge originallg assumed Clovis to have crossed it 12000 ga Animals that also crossed mastodon mammoths woolg rhinos bison moose wolves Ice Free Corridor walked down from Canada Coastal Route problems with investigation potential earlg sites underwater Channel Islands CA projectile points crescent shaped arrowheads other artifacts 11400 12200 ga Not Clovis Used for hunting various sizes Suggests quotkelp highwayquot from Japan across Beringia and down into California Arlington Springs Woman found in 1959 13000 gears old Arlington Cangon Santa Rosa Island CA Oldest human in North America Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Solutrean Route from Asia and Europe across the Atlantic not supported Solutrean Laurel Leaf Point France 22000 18000 ya May be source of Clovis points similar shape broader like a leaf Genetic Evidence for Migration Native Arnerican thNA populations may have paused on way out of Africa for 5000 years become genetically different from other Asian populations Then entered Americas after end of last glacial maximum at 16500 ya Native Arnerican Siberian and 517 other populations 364470 SNP single nucleotide polypeptides show gene flow events from Asia Majority of modern Native Arnerican ancestry population arrived gt15000 ya There were 2 more streams from Asia into America after this Supported by linguistic data Clovis Boy 12600 ya skeleton found in Montana with Clovis tools 12 18 months old 8 0 of modern Native Americans directly descended from groups living at this time Tracking Y Chromosome similarities along Bering Strait Shares about 1 3 of genome with 24000 ya Child from Siberia Mal tal boy Shows first Arnericans came from Asia America was occupied before Clovis Migration to Greenland from Siberia 44006400 ya by boat or over ice Inuk part of Saqqaq culture earliest known people in North American Arctic Brown eyes blood type A dry ear wax shovel shaped incisors tendency to bald Hunted seals lived in tents adapted to cold Leanne burial Wilson Leonard Texas 11000 ya Buried with groundstone tool limestone slab over her 1825 ya one of most complete human skeletons in North America Kennewick Man 9300 ya banks of Columbia River near Kennewick MA 4055 years old 5398 tall 170 pounds Skeleton 90 complete Multiple injuries 6 fractured ribs projectile point in pelvis damaged left shouler 0riginally described as Caucasoid controversy Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Possible descendant from Ainu people of Japan Remains now in neutral repositorgquot between Native Arnerican tribes and scientists NAGPRA Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Federal law passed in 1990 applies to federal and tribal lands Return Native American cultural items human or objects to lineal descendants or culturallg affiliated Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations Evidence for PreClovis Occupation Meadowcroft Rockshelter PA Three lagers 1095013230 BP deepest dates are older than Clovis Topper Site SC PreClovis under 19000 BP lager earlier than 13000 Cactus Hill VA Charcoal associated with Clovis points dates 10290 BP Pre Clovis radiocarbon dates of 16670 BP associated with a cluster of blades The Gault Site TX High densitg of Clovis points in North America Pound 300000 Clovis pieces Artifact cluster below Clovis lagers mag date to 15000 gears ago Monte Verde Chile 12500 gears ago suggests ancestors entered long before Pound bits of plants tent stakes wood seaweed potato Mastodon skin tents Magbe medicinal hut Valsequillo Reservoir Mexico Bones of extinct animals with simple unofficial stone tools Problems with dating remains no charchoal dates on shell at 22000 BP Hogo Negro Mexico Underwater cave 12000 to 13000 gears ago Teenage girl Naia fell to her death in the cave Tooth decag osteoporosis Features of Paleoindians and mtDNA similar to Native Americans Oldest and most complete skeleton in the Arnericas End of BB8Ear1gAmericans Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 PostPleistocene Changes Mesolithic EUR Archaic US Mesolithic middle after Paleolithic old before Neolithic new Epipaleolithic upper Paleolithic technology and industries merge into Mesolithic Ice age ending adapting to warmer weather Certain species extinct transition to smaller animals more fish larger varietg Neolithic Revolution develop groundstone chipped stone tools MES Europe and Israel begins after Ice Age ends at beginning of farming agriculture Dates vary from place to place 10000 7000 9a Begins earlier in Middle East Mount Sandel Ireland Wood huts settlement ate small animals Star Carr England Found hunting site and food remains and buried people Vedbaek Denmark Cemetery separate from house 22 individuals deer antlers Males buried with int knives females buried with jewelrg Over 60 species of fish Vaenget Nord Denmark Island associated with male activities Making tools woodworking killing animals No evidence of family or long stags residence ARC America proposed as second major period of human occupation after Clovis Begins after Ice Age ends at beginning of farming Dates range from 9000 3000 ga Koster site Illinois Burial of a dog suggests emotional connection keeping pets Carrier Mills Illinois Midden animal bones many species Fish hooks projectile points Cemeterg with 154 burials 21 infants Male avg32 go Female avg38 go Males buried with tools females with groundstone cooking tools Gatecliff Shelter Nevada Process bighorned sheep Grass projectile points butchered sheep fireplaces End of BB9MesolithicArchaic Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Hypotheses for Origins of Agriculture Artificial Selection choosing based on characteristics we want eg breeding dogs Agriculture causes social stratification cavities shorter stature malnutrition quotWorst mistake of humankind 7 Did hunter gatherers have easier mode of life 1 Environmental Changes Warmer Climate A Oasis Hypothesis people forced to live near water because of droughts B Sedentary Hypothesis no need to move around as much can stay in nice place 2 Cultural Evolution A Readiness Hypothesis when huntgathering you choose specific plants fruits First agriculture where no irrigation needed due to rainfall B Coevolution Hypothesis humans and plants coevolved humans protect plants interaction and proximity shape each other 3 Population Growth A Demographic Hypothesis because population increase MUST do agriculture to feed family forced to adopt agriculture practices B Marginal Habitat Hypothesis nice central area overpopulated resources depleted must move out of radius turn to agriculture C Sedentism and Population Growth Hypothesis more children born and longer life span due to lifestyle must feed more people for longer 4 Competition A Competition with people hunt small animals cannot share meat Hunters store food for themselves creates social stratification Competitive feasting different factions throw competing parties to show off food abundance and establish social rankdominance 5 Accident A Dump Heap Hypothesis inadvertently fertilized plants with trashexcrement near settlements Plants grow well create agriculture Multitude of reasons no single quotprime cause Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Recognizing Domesticated Plants 1 Seed size Seeds get larger since people replant larger fruits seeds 2 Seed coat Thinner since easier to peel off and they grow sprout faster 3 Seeddispersal mechanisms and terminal clusters tighter seed dispersal so they don t sprout seeds in eg neighbor s area Also eg Grapes clustered together so easier to harvest 4 Geographic Distribution Recognizing Domesticated Animals 1 Size Selection get smaller especially teeth Except for horses get bigger 2 Geographic Distribution 3 Population Characteristics kill more young male animals 4 Osteological Changes due to being kept in weaker bones Early Agriculture in the Old World Fertile Crescent Neolithic New Stone Age sites Between Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf Neolithic Technology for Agriculture microlith sickles sickle gloss grinding stones jars pits granaries in architecture pottery etc Near East Egypt to Israel Domesticated dogs wheat barley chickpeas lentils sheep goats pigs camels Natufian People Eastern Mediterranean Natufian Platform at the cusp of domestication With wild plants but also are settled Natufian Hayonin Cave houses hearths Dyed oors red Natufian Sickle Blades microliths Curved from bone and rock Also scrapers Ein Mallaha Israel 12000 ya woman buried with dog No evidence of domesticated animals at the site Ali Kosh 9450 87 00 BP Bus Mordeh Phase Goats not domesticated 10 seeds domesticated Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 87 00 7950 BP Ali Kosh phase Goats domesticated 40 seeds domesticated 7950 7550 BP Mohammad Jaffar Phase Goats AND sheep domesticated 70 seeds domesticated Neolithic Sites East Asia Domesticated Rice Millet Cattle Pigs Chickens Dogs North China Millet as staple crop mostly found in XishanCishan and Yangshao XishanCishan North China Farming as early as 7000 BC Storage pits sunken house foundations Remains of groudstone hoes domestic dog bones animal remains millet Yangshao North China Originally thought to be one of the earliest Neolithic sites but preceded by Xishan Largest and best known culture of early agricultural China South China Rice as staple crop Yuchangan Cave South China Some of earliest rice found rice husks Xianrendong Cave South Central China Earliest pottery in the world 20000 ga Proves potterg was invented 10000 gears before agriculture and permanent settlements possiblg used for cooking storage brewing alcohol Lajia China Earliest noodles 4000 ga Xian China Earliest soup 2400 ga Weather getting warmer Neolithic Sites Mesoamerica Transition to Early Agriculture in the New World Domesticated Maize beans squash chili peppers sun ower dogs Tehuacan Valleg Sequence Mexico 1 Ajuereado Phase 120009000 ga hunting small non permanent sites small groups Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 less than 10 people hunt antelope jackrabbit turtles rodents gophers birds End of phase alleg became much drger hunting less important more reliance on plants 2 El Riego 90007 000 ga continue to rely on wild plants squash beans chili peppers amaranth grain and avocado More complex settlement sgstem seasonal movement groups enlarge Earliest domesticated maize may be 81700 ga Maize remains found in Mexican river valley 3 Coxcatlan 170005400 ga continue shift to larger groups rely on Wild plants migrate by season semisedentary separate into microbands Increased agriculture 4 Abejas 5400 4300 more sendentism larger groups semipermanent villages or home bases increased domesticated plants in diet 5 Purron 43003500 first use of pottery 6 Ajalpan 3500 2850 forage wild foods domesticated maize beans squash Simple irrigation canals importance of agriculture abandon nomadic wag of life Corn in Mesoamerican Diet Aztec Corn as a symbol of life and fertility honored with religious rituals In rural households tortillascorn based foods provide most of diet Teosinte Wild maize small inedible Mutation created modern corn Manioc plant roots also part of diet Chocolate Magan era 15000 ga Central Arnerica Neolithic sites North America Domesticated Dog squash sun ower sumpweed little barleg goosefoot smartweed knotweed turkey maize End of BB10EarlgAgriculture Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Early Complexitg Jericho Tower 8 Wall Wall fortifg against enemies nature Houses settlements within walls PPNA Prepotterg Neolithic A grade Mud brick dwellings etc Location Near permanent springs and oasis in the midst of hot arid Jordan Valley Pound Gazelle bones artifacts for cereal processing domesticated emmer wheat found at other locations Plastered skull and limestone statues burials masks from plaster Neolithic Citg Catalhoguk Turkeg 7000 BC Square bricklike structures 5000 6000 people Planned apartments Wall paintings of the city possible volcanoes in the background Shrine room clag female figurines Animals surrounded by male figures 0bsidian from Catalhoguk traded throughout Mediterranean and Southeast Asia Earlg Mesopotamia 01mec Mexico 01mec Heartland known for large stone heads Look like they re wearing helmets Mag be rulers Paces smashed in possiblg after the ruler loses power Some heads later carved into thrones 01mec WereJaguar downturned mouth jaguar head human body aming egebrows signifg vision represent transformation and or represent ruler Crossband motif represent crossroad between milkg wag and ecliptic skg center 01mec Las Limas figure person holding a werejaguar babg Magbe used werejaguar to explain babg deformities 01mec site quotLa Venta pgramid structure urban organized building Effigg volcano buried mosaic pavements La Venta Offering 4 people figurines suggest cranial modifications more pointed South America Caral 4500 ga tall pyramid large residential areas Ate beans sweet potatoes seafood Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Chavin de Huantar highland ceremonial site uniform art stgle jaguar motif Statues cacti people live closer to the center of the site stratification Begin to have gold Chavin grows as a pilgrimage center gold as offerings Shows wealth of site Temple Architecture U shaped sunken circular plaza depicting procession of jaguars and mgthical figures moving towards central staircase End of BBllJerichoChavin Characteristics associated with Complex Societies Food and labor surplus controlled by elite in vessels and storage agriculture gods Labor specialization develop elaborate tools crafts Shows labor surplus not everyone has to be farmers Allows people to build large structures also social stratification Social stratification shown by jewels places buried things theg are buried with Social pgramid ruler at the apex noblemen support groups then peasants Allows projects Formal government scribe inscriptions decorative narrative things monuments Monumental public works eg Shrines temples pgramids Denselg populated settlements eg Towns and cities System for record keeping used to keep historic events or economic transactions 9000 ga clag tokens in 16 basic shapes such as spheres cglinders animals Used as symbols for goods and products found in public buildings and not homes 6000 9a 300 shapes with markings more precise record keeping 5500 ga tokens stored together in clay envelopes sealed shut 5200 ga clag tablets used to record ecomonic transactions 5100 9a writings used across southern Mesopotamia tokens disappear Becomes known as cuneiform true system of writing Abstract designs ideographs Glyphs also used by many civilizations for date keeping Incan Quipu system of record keeping knots of string with branches Sumerian writing Cuneiform on clay tablets pictoral Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Explanations for Rise of Complexity Environmental determinism you need to have hard easy enough balance that you can do extra things and are motivated to do them Unilinear evolution false Recent Hypotheses Marxism government structures develop out of need to keep people happy and regulated decrease con ict Hydraulic Hypothesis if you can irrigate crops you can create more Civilization as a result of being able to use water Circumscription need more developed society to figure out warfareimmigration when you need to expand your territory and con ict with other groups End of BBlZDefiningComplexity Emergence of Complex Societies Mesopotamia Sumerians Mesopotamian cities due to population grth after agriculture in Southwest Asia Closely linked to rivers and bodies of water Ubaid Culture Ubaid Southern Mesopotamia 55004200 BC more public architecture gurines Extended family households large central hall large houses Agriculture based upon oodplain irrigation Main crops are barkey einkorn wheat date palm ax for weaving fibers Domesticated mainly cattle pigs some sheep and goats Fishing and hunting important at some sites Each extended household specialized in producing a craft eg Pottery leather textiles Exchange for necessarily imports eg Metal obsidian Households internally stratified Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Eridu Site Ubaid temple 4000 BC housed 5000 people Increased importance of temples at Ubaid sites elite familg houses and craftsmen cluster around temple farmers farther away Layers of reconstruction over time Ziggurat lagered stepped temple elite living near mag control resource distribution Uruk Citystate Iraq settled 4200 BC surrounded by wall in a mound Population grew to about 10000 when separate communities combined Monumental architecture centered around the temple Growth of clusters around center Dominated by two big temple areas shows cultural development Limestone Temple goddess Inanna sgmbolizes fertility and sexuality White Temple skg god Anu Temples in Sumerian Economg Harness labor for constructing and maintain irrigation canals Organize labor used as storerooms for surplus As administrative centers redistribute supplies to laborers and craftsmen Cglinder seals secure items displag ownership by rolling over wet clag marks status CityState of Ur Iraq Sumerian citgstate in Mesopotamia found rogal cemeterg with deep shaft tombs 1500 burials 16 very elite or rogal burials People guards musicians chariots accompang rogal dead Queen Pu Abi buried with a cart pulled by many oxes harp 7 0 men gold drinking vessel helmet headdress dagger Fall of Ur 2004 BC Babglonian control spread Ancient Eggpt Africa Closelg linked to the Nile agricultural potential Nile Valley extremely dry desertlike on either side of oodplain One of world s longest rivers Upper and lower Eggpt united around 31 BC Seasonal oods of the Nile summer rains swelled ooded oodplain Gentle predictable oodwater provide water Agriculture wheat barley ax date palm Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Hapi God of the Nile holds central stem of palm leaf Fertility God one hand over Nile one hand over Mediterranean Length of Nile facilitated communication transporting goods trade Pelucca boats with sails used by 3500 BC Nile defined ancient Egypt as territorial state stark contrast between Nile Valley and adjacent lands fostered cultural unity for people Predynastic foundations 5000 2929 BC hunter gatherers in wetter climates at Terminal Pleistocene Early sites difficult to document because oodplain sites buried Predynastic Chronological Sequence Bavarian 4300 4000 BC Amratian 4000 3500 BC Gerzean 3500 3000 BC Elite predynastic tombs Multiple chambers clays and mud brick walls rich grave goods First Pharaoh Narmer Hierakonpolis City quotFalcon Cityquot excavated burial found Narmer s Palette documents unification of Egypt Crown combines elements of Upper and Lower Egypt Egyptian writing storytelling of the King for history Contrast with Mesopotamian for economic documentation Archaic Period Early Dynastic Egypt Abydos royal burial place of first two dynasties 3100 2680 BC Mastaba tombs deep shaft tombs for royal officials relatively widespread not limited to royals Suggests that royal control was not as authoritarian yet The Old Kingdom 3rd6th Dynasties 2680 2134 BC King Djoser pyramid experiments eg early stepped pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser The Bent Pyramid larger than Pyramid of Giza but base cracked Construction of pyramids at Giza begins around 2500 BC Sphinx carved from convenient outcrop of rock by Pharaoh Khafre Controversy about when it was built Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Pharaohs buried with boats Sun god paintings Tomb paintings with gods of pharaoh being welcomed by goddesses During Old Kingdom Pharaoh considered to be embodiment of god Horus Horus falcon was son of Osiris god of underworld King had access to afterlife subjects gain access through service to king King had responsibility to maintain ma am the concept of divine order and justice which is perpetually threatened by the forces of chaos Treatment of body burial mummification practices began in 2400 BC Carefully observe rituals to preserve quotakhquot spirit Anubis god of mummification Mummies reveal info on health had polio smallpox prostrate cancer 50 lived past 33 10 lived past 50 Study 44 mummies reveal 45 had atherosclerosis hardening of arteries associated with strokes and heart attacks Last great pharaoh of Old Kingdom Pepi II 22462152 BC Central power of state decrease local leaders more independent in ruling own prvince Problems growing foods famines Some texts refer to water shortages corpses rotting in fields Nile empty people crossing over on foot39 Middle Kingdom 2040 1640 BC Reunification of Upper and Lower Egypt under new dynasty from Thebes more political stability but still unstable Second Intermediate Period 1640 1550 BC Hyksos people married into Egypt took on titles brought technology bronze making silver trade swords daggers horse drawn chariots New Kingdom 1550 1070 BC 1550 BC prince from Thebes sailed down and attacked Hyksos His son Ahmose chased them into Syria Egypt became imperial power in eastern Mediterranean area Ahmose turns Egypt into military State Irrigation innovation shaduf lever with a bucket to take water Amarna new capital 1353 BC httpwwwwhenweruledcomp59 Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Established by Akhenaten promotes focus on Sun God on lands not previously associated with other deity Change god s name to Aten shows sun shining goodness to the first family Wife Nefertiti wife of Akenaten images show her killing enemies performed rituals with husband statues of equal size to husband considered second only to the pharaoh Religious Transformation from typical image of Amun shown with two plumes on head holding ankh symbol and a scepter To Aten with sun disc However Akhenaten39s ideas were short lived 25 years family members died Amarna was occupied for 25 years royal city returned to Thebes Religious practices returned to those of New Kingdom Akhenaten never referred to directly in later texts called him quotthe enemy Letter slabs discovered in Amarna in 1800s Tutankhaman his son goes against father s reforms changed his hame to aman instead of aten Had statues of his mother being knocked down His tomb was not looted original things preserved Handlers may have made choices for his burial Decline of Egypt 1100 BC Ramses III from 1186 1155 BC known as last great power of New Kingdom Reign characterized by economic difficulties internal fighting battles with external groups Indus Valley Settlement of Indus oodplain required ood control mechanisms Farming villages go back to SOOOBC Mehrgarh site Great Mother Goddess Figure dental drilling evidence Mature Harappan Civilization ca 2500 2050 BC housed 35000 50000 people Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Mohenjodaro the largest Harappan site 296 acres Twice as large as Harrapa 1173 acres Population estimates 35000 40000 people Citadel on west of site with fortification etc Citadel on west walls water and sewage system quotThe Great Bath Seals to mark items for trade with Mesopotamia Harappa focus on sanitation 8 water control similar layout to Mohenjodaro Workshop areas for crafting pottery int metal bricks shells ivory textile precious stone wood seals bakeries beads etc Standardized cubical weights used in controlling trade and taxes Harappan script undeciphered Seals have been found in Mesopotamian sites and vice versa Pictographs focus on economy but also includes deities Pew clues to political organization very few images of rulers found from Mohenjodaro Evidence for social class and economic specialization from burials households Collapse ca 2000 BC Harappan civilization reached its peak at 2300 BC By 2000 BC Harappa and Mohenjodaro were in decline and were eventually abandoned Causes possibly a major river Ghaggar I Iakra River shifted changing trade route ooding of Indus Valley Deforestation and soil erosion Rise of Complexity in Maya Area Middle Preclassic lOOO 300 BC and Late Preclassic 300 BC to 300 AD Maya area Mexico Guatemala Honduras Central America Cuello village in northern Belize far ranging trade connections social stratification Beads jars vessels signify class Houses were perishable postholes and floor remain Sites are along Belize River Blackman Eddy Belize pyramids motif symbols pottery figurines jewelry chert drills to make shell jewelry Cahal Pech Plaza and temples Cunil Pottery at lowest layers lOOOBC Stone spheres cave pearls Not sure about function or origin Amy Bu ARCH Test 3 Nakbe began as small village lOOOBC grew after 6OOBC to a monumental site large platforms 18m high ball court causeways public art agricultural terraces Stela depicts two twins creation story of journey to underworld Typical center staircase masks on either side Social complexity high class symbol drill front teeth and embed jade in the surface Late Preclassic 3OOBC to 3OOAD pottery increasing signs of social status eg Pyramids Sierra Red pottery medicinal trail Belize Kaminaljuyu Grand Acropolis Mounds Construction all around the site El Chayal source of obsidian Over 250 Vessels found in burial Maya construction build on top of one another in layers Tikal Mundo Perdido not built on top of each other in layers Masks on either side of a staircase Becomes powerful in late classical period Cerros 3OOBC to 3OOAD situated on Chetumal Bay core surrounded by moat early docking facility trade and exchange raised agricultural fields fill lowline areas with land create fields rectangular raised structures Masks on structure maybe tied to Hero twins previously mentioned El Mirador ZOOBC ZOOAD Monumental site multiple complexes causeways walls Public art stucco masks El Tigre elite residences in central area built with stone and mortar elaborately stuccoed wide doorways and steps sitting and sleeping benches Probably have performances large public plaza Building cut stone stacked the plastered then painted red Drought problems with agriculture Deforestation soil erosion Mini Maya collapse Cerros and El Mirador were both abandoned Poreshadows real collapse Early Classic Mesoamerica 300 6OOAD Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Rise of Teotihuacan in Valleg of Mexico connections between Teotihuacan and the Mega area Rise of earlg classic Maga sites eg Tikal Mega Mgthologg and Worldview Codices recorded beliefs historg astronomg and calendar on manuscripts long paper strips folded accordion stgle singular codex Dresden devoted to calculation of lovation of Venus Madrid perform rites for dailg activities eg Hunting agriculture weaving Paris calendrical prophecies PopulVuh focuses on the storg of the Hero Twins and their father Begins with First Father who created three stone heart three stars in Milkg Wag First Father goes to underworld to p1ag ball impregnates daughter of Lord Of Death with the Hero Twins Father is killed Later Twins find out theg are ball plagers challenged bg Lord of Death Twins go to Underworld and avenge father Encounters challenges on the wag to Xibalba in Underworld Eg Seven macaw false sun The Big Dipper Scorpion World Tree Resurrect First Father God of Maize Triumph over Sun Moon Twins become Sun and Moon Long Count Megan Calendar Sgstem counts time from a beginning date Started 5000 gears ago on 4 Ahau 8 Cumku equivalent to August 30th 3114 BC In Maga iconographg this cgcle of the Long Count ended on December 21 2012 AD where it must begin again at zero Doomsdag prophecies Magan would commemorate completion of cgcles Site notes that 9 support gods will descend but not what will happen Inscriptions at PALENQUE predict Pacal39s accession to throne La Corona Guatemala found hieroglgphs that commemorates a visit from Calakmul Jaguar Paw in 696 AD The king had been presumed dead but went to sites to win friends and in uence people associated himself with the new beginning and longevitg Sultan Guatemala dates extend to after AD 3500 Amg Bu ARCH Test 3 Exam 3 Time period no dates Sites and why they re important quotmesolithic site etc Specifics eg Paleoindian must know gears No South Arnericallll Begins with Maga Mesopotamia Indus Valley etc
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