New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

BIL 160: Class Notes Exam 3

by: Caitlyn Traenkle

BIL 160: Class Notes Exam 3 BIL 160

Marketplace > University of Miami > BIL 160 > BIL 160 Class Notes Exam 3
Caitlyn Traenkle
GPA 3.4
Evolution and Biodiversity
D. Krempels

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Evolution and Biodiversity
D. Krempels
75 ?




Popular in Evolution and Biodiversity

Popular in Department

This 39 page Bundle was uploaded by Caitlyn Traenkle on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to BIL 160 at University of Miami taught by D. Krempels in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


Reviews for BIL 160: Class Notes Exam 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/29/15
Lect 1 1 Prokayotes 03192013 Proka ryote Pro before Karyon knot Euka ryote Eu true 2 lineages of prokaryotes Domain archaea Domain bacteria 0 Most bacteria harmless or bene cial Archaea and eucaryota share most recent common ancestor Earliest known fossil looks like archaea Prokaryote means they LACK membrane bound organelles or nuclei 0 But lack of characteristic not good way to determine evolutionary divergence Domain Archaea nature s extremophiles Possible that rst living organism was archaean like creature Classi ed based on metabolic strategies 0 Methanogens methanegenerating archaeans ln guts of herbivores cows 0 Thermophiles archaeans living in extremely hot environments ln sulfur hot springs deep sea hydrothermal vents o Halophiles archaeans living in extremely salty environments Domain Bacteria quottruequot bacteria 0 Beta taxonomy The level of taxonomy concerned with arranging species into higher and sometimes lower taxa Modern classi cation changing as new data available this link not on test Bacterial Structure and Function 0 Can be unicellular colonial Can have division of labor shows evolution 0 Can be categorized by shape but cannot classify with this 0 Round cocci o Rodshaped bacilli o Helix spirilae spirochaetes only super cially similar 0 Bacterial shapes do not re ect phylogenetic relationship there may be 0 Convergence o A diversity of shapes in closely related bacteria 0 Know parts of bacteria 0 Ribosomes make protein no nucleolus but have nucleoid region with DNA agella nd a pic in book of it Bacteria do not undergo mitosis do replication with ssion Don t have many genes but have plasmids pieces of replicating DNA read rst three paragraphs on plasmids o Plasmids small DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA Bene t for survival bc can transmit from one bacterium to another Gram Staining Show character of cell wall 2 major types of cell wall can be distinguished just know what used for 0 gram positive stain dark 0 gram negative do not stain look pink can sometimes be link to pathogenicity o 6 often more dangerous than G pilus suface extension from bacteria that acts as bridge bw bacteria many bacteria are motile o agellum made of agellin pro and eukaryote agellin completely different 0 taxis movement positive and negative taxis o gel capsule external cell wall protects from predators Bacterial Reproduction Can produce asexually binary ssion orsexuaHy o conjugation via pilus o transformation uptake of bacterial genes from environment 0 transduction insertion of bacterial genes by virus when grow bacteria on agar gell stuff colony is called lawn endospores environmental resistant structures antibiotics substances that inhibit growth of prokaryotic cells but ONLY work for bacteria 0 many antibiotics come from fungi and bacteria Metabolic Diversity of Prokaryotes 3 basic types of organism oxygen tolerancemetabolism o obicate anaerobe fermentation 02 kills 0 obligate aerobe aerobic metabolism needs 02 o facultative anaerobe can do both Four main categories of prokaryotic energy transduction photoautotrophs photosynthetic 0 use C02 as carbon source 0 use light as energy source 0 cyanobacteria common in this group chemoautotrophs chemosynthetic 0 C02 carbon source 0 Inorganic compound oxidation energy source 0 Archaebacteria in group 0 Photoheterotrophs photosynthetic 0 organic moecue carbon source 0 light energy 0 few bacteria in this group chemoheterotrophs heterotrophic 0 energy from organic compounds 0 most bacteria in this group Prokayotes are biospheres main decomposers Many are symbiotic members of 2 different species having ecological interaction that affects both populations Obligate mutualism both organisms need each other to survive 0 Ex termite and intestinal agellate Protocooperation both bene t from relationship 0 Ex clown sh and anemone Competition 2 species vie for same habitatfoodresources 0 Ex brown and green anole Neutralism 2 species have no effect on each other 0 Ex just any two random separate species in environment Predation predator species kills prey species 0 Ex lion and water buffalo 0 Results of predation Crypsis camou aging coloration Aposematism warning coloration Mimicry species has evolved super cial appearance of something else a Batesian mimicry harmless mimic something dangerous I Mullerian mimicry several dangerous ones look like each other Parasitism parasite bene ts host is harmed 0 Ex tapeworm o De nite host host to adult parasite 0 Intermediate host host to juvenile parasite Parasitoidism parasitoid acts as parasite and kill host eventually 0 Ex Cricket and the worm Commensalism one bene ts other unaffected 0 Ex shark and sh that follows and eats scraps Amensalism one species impedes success of another 0 Ex the black walnut tree that produces compound that inhibits growth of other trees around it Importance of Nitrogen Metabolism Nitrogen cycle decompose into soil and taken back up into plants and air 0 Nitrogen xation atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen compounds that are usable by plants Nitrogen xing bacteria in roots of leguminous plants 0 Dentri cation nitrate l nitrite l ammonia l N2 Pseudomonas spp converts nitrite or nitrate into N2 Pathogen diseasecausing agent 0 opportunistic pathogens usually do not harm but if immune system low can be harmful and hard to get rid of Koch s Postulates criteria for a microorganisms to be declared a cause of a particular disease 0 Must be isolated from a diseased individual Must be grown in pure culture from that sample Must cause disease in healthy individual Must be isolated from newly infected individual How do bacteria cause disease Invasion of tissue 0 Exotoxins o Endotoxins Iatrogenis infection one that is caused by place of healing o Bacteriostatic drug that inhibits growth of bacterial culture Bacteriocidal drugs that kills bacteria outright Be able to recognize organisms o No evolutionary relationships 3 domains bacteria archaea prokayotes eucaryota eukaryotes Archaeans nature s extremophiles Classi ed by metabolic strategies 0 Methanogens methanegenerating o Thermophiles live in extremely hot environments 0 Halophiles live in really salty environments Bacteria Can be categorized by shape but cannot classify with this 0 Round cocci Rodshaped bacilli Helix spirilae spirochaetes only super cially similar Structure of proka ryote o PilusPili little hair on outside help with adhesion to things Ribosomes make protein 0 Cell wall for support 0 Plasma membrane Nucleoid region area where DNA is o Flagella for locomotion o Plasmids small M molecule that is physically separate from and can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA within a cell bacterial and eukaryotic agellum differ in taxis movement prokaryote agellum spins to propel propeller 0 has lament attached to hook that spins cell membrane eukaryote s waves to propel like sperm 0 has microtubules in agellum gel capsule external cell wall used to protect against predators Gram staining show character of cell wall 2 possible G stain dark 0 Very think external layer of peptidoglycan G stain light pink 0 Thin lay of peptidoglycan bw plasma membranes 0 Often more dangerous bc plasma membranes make less susceptible to antibiotics Reproduction Asexually by binary ssion splitting OR sexually o Conjugation via pius 0 Transformation uptake of genes from environment 0 Transduction insertion of bacterial genes by virus 0 Types of organisms oxygen tolerancemetabolism o Obligate anaerobe only fermentation killed by oxygen 0 Obligate aerobe aerobic metabois cannot survive wo oxygen 0 Facultative anaerobe can do either aerobic respiration or fermentation Four main categories of prokaryotic energy transduction photoautotrophs photosynthetic 0 use C02 as carbon source 0 use light as energy source 0 cyanobacteria common in this group chemoautotrophs chemosynthetic 0 C02 carbon source 0 Inorganic compound oxidation energy source 0 Archaebacteria in group 0 Photoheterotrophs photosynthetic 0 organic molecule carbon source 0 light energy 0 few bacteria in this group chemoheterotrophs heterotrophic 0 energy from organic compounds 0 most bacteria in this group Symbiosis different species having ecological interaction that affects both Obligate mutualism both populations need or die Protocooperation not needed but both bene t 0 Competition populations inhibit each other Neutralism 00 populations don t affect one another 0 Predation predator kills prey o Parasitism parasite exploits host but doesn t kill Parasitoidism parasite eventually kills host Commensalism 0 one bene ts other unaffected Amensalism 0 one neg affected other unaffected Nitrogen cycle atmospheric nitrogen decompose into soil and taken back up into plants and air 0 Nitrogen xation atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogen Nitrogen xer bacteria in roots of leguminous plants 0 Dentri cation nitrate l nitrite l ammonia l N2 Dentri er bacteriaconverts nitrite or nitrate into N2 Pathogen diseasecausing agent 0 opportunistic pathogens usually do not harm but if immune system low can be harmful and hard to get rid of How do bacteria cause disease Invasion of tissue Exotoxins Endotoxins Iatrogenic infection infection cause accidentally by doctor Bacteriostatic drug that inhibits growth of bacterial culture Bacteriocidal drugs that kills bacteria outright Koch s Postulates criteria for a microorganisms to be declared a cause of a particular disease Must be isolated from a diseased individual Must be grown in pure culture from that sample Must cause disease in healthy individual Must be isolated from newly infected individual Unifying features all eukaryotes have these Cystoskeleton structure of cell that have tubulinbased microtubules and actinbased micro laments Flagella constructed of an axoneme of 9 peripheral microtubular doublets and 2 central microtubules Endomembrane system consisting of ER golgi bodies vacuoles lysosomes peroxisomes nuclear envelope 0 Multiple linear chromosomes contained in membranebound nucleus Chromosomes segregate during somatic growth through mitosis Mitochondria energytransducing organelles bound by 2 membranes 0 Unique 805 ribosomes each have 4 molecules of RNA with many proteins Has a 405 small and 605 large subunit 2 process contributed to origin of eukaryotic cells autogeny inpocketing of external plasma membrane formed complex internal network of membranes endosymbiosis small energytransducing prokaryotes either 0 were engulfed as prey by 0 took up residence as internal mutualistic symbionts insides o arger prokaryotes where they thrived Eventually host and symbiont became inextricable linked this is why horizontal combining of plastids and mitochondria going from bacteria to eukarya Protists eukaryotic singlecelled organisms Unicellular but may be 0 Aggregate just group together 0 Colonial group together for mutual bene t 0 Colonial with cellular division of labor Terrestrial and aquatic like moisture May be 0 Photoautotrophs o Chemoheterotrophs Predatory parasidic commensal mutualistic detritivorous feed on dead organic matter but not decomposing it o Mixotroph little of both 0 May be asexual or sexual o Earliest life forms were protists Tour of the Protists Main protest clades o Excavates o Chromalveolates o Rhizaria o Unikonts includes animals and fungi o Archaeplastida includes plants Excavata Names for groove that looks to be excavated on side of cell Kinetoplastids trypanosome spp causative agents of diseases 0 Chaga a disease American trypanosomiasis o Leishmaniasis from bite of sand y 0 Sleeping sickness African trypanomiasis Chromalveolata lncludes some of most important photoautotrophs diatoms brown algae Divided into 2 clades alveolata and stramenopila Alveolata linked by presence of alveolu under plasma membrance o Dino agellates responsible for red tide Not all bad all provide vital symbiotic relationship with coral o Apicomplexans all parasitic Have modi ed Golgi apparatus 0 Ciliates complex protist Stramenopila taxon named from its fuzzy agellum o Flagellated cells occur in all members of this taxon 0 Group includes Diatoms Golden algae Brown algae kelps Water molds secondarily lost chloroplasts and gained ectoplasmic gliding Haptophytes responsible for white cliffs of dover n Unicellular algae produced shells coccoliths the calcium carbonate skeletons are what make the cliffs Rhizaria no longer in chromalveolata Are specialized amoebas Have ornate shells that have threadlike pseudopods for movement and may help catch prey and provide buoyancy o Cercozoa in marine freshwater and soil ecosystems Heterotrophs some are parasites or predators o Foraminifera manufacture a test shell of calcium carbonate Found in warmer water o Radiolarian manufacture a test of silica glass Found more in colder water Archaeplastida includes red algae and green plants Rhodophyta o monophyletic clade united by synapomorphic appearance of Phycoerthrin phycocyanin allophycocyanins o All have specialized lightcoloring system phycobilisomes 0 Lack agella and centrioles 0 Source of agar and sushi wrap Unikonta clade includes groups of protists and fungi and animalia So we re related to amoebas and speci cally entamoebas Slime molds Choano agellates colonial creatures that are believe to share most recent common ancestors what is an animal Multicellular with true tissues cell are so interconnected that u can t separate and have them survive o lngestive heterotroph Energy storage 0 Long term fat 0 Short term glycogen Cells lack walls external to plasma membrane 0 Unique to animals o Nervous system 0 Muscular system Reproduce sexually Have characteristic embryonic development sequence 0 00000 Zygotes undergoes cleavages Result in blastula Produce gastrula Undergoes morphogenesis to become larva Undergoes process of metamorphosis to become adult More primitive more likely that fertilization external marine animals Tiptoe through the Taxa Tissues simple and complex 0 Body symmetry radial bilateral or none 0 Internal body cavity pseudocoelom coelom or none 0 Embryonic development and morphogenesis o Organs and organ systems O 0000 lntegumentary system protection against mechanical injury infection desiccation Digestive system food processing Nervous system Muscular system movement Reproductive system o Excretory system removal of nitrogenous waste 0 Skeletal system structural support 0 Circulatory system 0 Respiratory system gas exchange 02 in C02 out o lmmune and lymphatic systems body defense against pathogens 0 Endocrine slower coordination of body activities response to environmental stimuli 32813 Meet the Metazoa Includes everything animal includes 3 categories 0 A Poriferans sponges o B Radially symmetrical animals cnidarian ctenophora placozoa o C Bilaterally symmetrical animals everyone else Eumetazoa B and C animals with true tissues 0 From and least 2 germ layers endoectomesoderm o Originate at gastrulation ectendoderm or later 0 Blastocoel mesoderm Porifera Sponges Is a form taxon a grouping based on super cial similarities por small hole Fer the bear 0 characteristics 0 no true tissues or true plane of symmetry 0 made of 4 kinds of cells choancytes collar cells they set up water current via agellum pinacocytes form surface covering porpcytes barrelshaped cells form incurrent pores amoebocytes roving scavenger cells that feed and secret skeletal elements spicules n spicules made of 1 calcium carbonate 2 silica or 3 protein 0 have and outer pinacoderm and inner choanoderm separated by gelatinous protein cale mesohyl o totipotent cell can make any cell in the body all cells in sponge are this their entire life 0 3 main groups 0 calcarea matrix made of calcium 0 hexactinellida matrix made of silica glass 0 demospongiae bath sponges internal skeletons made of silica or collagen called spongin Eumetazoa De ned by cells that are interdependent cannot be separated and survive bc Cells are all specialized There is body symmetry Blastomeres cells of animal embryo o Diploblastic endo and ectoderm Radial taxa o Triploblastic end ecto and mesoderm Bilateral taxa Complex tissues 0 Epithelial tissue sheet of cells that covers internalexternal surface 0 Connective tissue Cells of the connective tissue a Bibroblasts manufacture and maintain extracelluar material a Adipocytes store energy a Blood Connective bers Matrix uid or gel ln vertebrates two kinds of connective tissue a Loose forms organs and soft tissues In Dense tendons ligaments bone 0 Muscle tissue Skeletal voluntary control Cardiac mostly involuntary Smooth involuntary o Nervous tissues Neurons cells conduct electrical impulses Glial cells insulation and support neurons Animals can be characterized by nature of the internal body cavity located bw ecto and endoderm listed primitive to derived Acoelomate no internal body cavity bw outer body layer and gut Pseudocoelomate internal body cavity lined with mesoderm on only one side Coelomate internal body cavity lined with mesoderm on both sides If true coelom present animal characterized by embryonic development Protostomes O O 0 000 O Blastopore becomes mouth Second opening anus Coelom formed via schizocoely way embryo develops where coelom formed by splitting mesoderm Spiral determinate cleavage at 48 cell division Circulatory system primitively dorsal Nervous system ventral Phyla Mollusca annelida arthropoda Deuterostomes 0 COO 0000 Blastopore becomes anus Second opening mouth All have complete gut Coelom formed via enterocoely mesoderm formed when pouches are pinched off Radial indeterminate cleavage at 48 cell division Circulatory system ventral Nervous system dorsal Phyla Echinodermata hemichordate chordata Metamerism Segmentation aka metamerim Tagmatization 0 Developmental fusion of groups of body segments into functionally distinct body regions tagmata Cephalization presences of head where sense organs are concentrated Head enters environment rst so able to sense better Mouth on head so food gathering better 0 Polarization along anteroposterior head to tail head at front business end in back Where did animals come from Animals share common ancestor with choano agellates Sponges have chancytes collar cells Colonial choano agellate formed into quotprotoanimalquot gastrea So gastrealike creatures ancestor to all Eumentazoans all are 0 Multicellular o Cilia agella 0 Radial symmetry 0 Simple gut o Diplobasty Somewhat more derived from gatrea looked wormlike ancestors of bilaterians The Cambrian Explosion o Precambrian period period right after prokaryotic organisms when metazoan life began 0 watch the movie adaptive radiation relatively rapid diversi cation of life forms from a single ancestor o Cambrian explosion was rst massive example Eumetazoan Diversity 0 De ned by gastrulation and presence of true germ layers that develop into true tissues Can divide into two groups 0 Radially symmetrical and diploblastic o Bilateral and triploblastic Radially symmetrical animals diploblastic Simplest of modern animals True plane of symmetry radial True tissues Ectoderm epidermis Endoderm gastrodermis Mesogloea gelatinous layer bw two other layers when mesogloea contains cellular components is known as mesenchyme Placozoa o Simplest of all animals 0 Jelly like plate of interdependent cells Cnidaria o Cnidarian Bauplan O 0000 Diploblastic endoectoderm Radial sym No coelom or other body cavity only simple gut Primary body axis is oral l aboral no head or tail Dimorphic alternating forms of n polp asexual reproducing feeding form ones with tentacles up n and medusa sexually reproductive form ones with tentacles facing down Unique cells called cnidoblasts contain stinging capsul the nematocyst Planula larva is a ciated gastrula 0 Major groups of extant cnidarians Hydrozoa polyp and medusa phase alternate n Hydra lots of long heads dragon n Obelia medusa n Physalia Portuguese man 0 war Scyphozoan medusa is dominant phase polyp is reduced Anthozoa polyp is dominant stage medusa reduced or absent a Sea anemones corals sea pens Ctenophora comb jellies 0 Radial sym o diploblastic o Mouth but no anus O O O 0 Doesn t sting comb jellies names for rows of cilia that wave to propel animal Suspension feeders long sticky tentacles attach to food Colorless ll Bilateria bilateral sym o Basal bilaterians atworms phylum Platyhelminthes o Acoela primitive bilaterians True bilateral symmetry and cephalization More complex true tissues In Ectoderm epidermis n Mesenchyme cellular mesogloea Primordial gut precursor Syncytium ingestive structure that creates vacuoles around ingested food Short sometimes eversible pharynx leads to syncytiumvacuole No circulatory respiratory or excretory systems No nerve ganglia or brainlike structure Cephalization vague slightly more nervous tissue at one end Only sense organs are statocysts gravity detector and sometimes light detecting ocellus Hermaphroditic but no gonads produce eggs and sperm from mesenchymal cells 0 Turbellaria freeliving nonparasitic triploblastic atworms Pretty ones in ocean o Termatoda ukes all species parasitic read link 0 Cestoda tape worms parasitic o Parasitology lingo o De nitive host organism in which the adult parasite resides 0 Intermediate host where lives when larva 0 Transmission of parasites Horizontal from one individual to another via direct contact Vertical from parent to child 0 The platyhelminth bauplan o Flatworms have lntegumentary system protects body from harm a Parasitic forms ukes and tapeworms have protective tegument external to epidermis Digestive system simple gut no anus a Reduced in trematoda n Secondarily lost in cestodes Nervous system a Welldeveloped in turbellarians a Reduced in trematodes n More reduced in cestodes bc live in bodies Sense organs n Chemoreceptors sensory receptor aplike extensions of head auricles n Photoreceptors ocelli n Statocysts gravity sensing near cerebral gangHon Muscular system a Welldeveloped in turbellarian and ukes n vestigial in cestodes Reproductive system all hermaphroditic male and female Excretory system a Tubular protonephridial system composed of anucleate ame cells waves like ame to push shit out attached to collecting tubules concentrate nitrogenous waste 0 Do not have Skeletal system Circulatory system Respiratory system Immune lymphatic or endocrine systems Bilateria Increasing Complexity 0 3 major groups 0 Lophotrochozoa o Ecdysozoa o Deuterostomia l Lophotrochozoa molluscs and annelids and more Lophotrochozoan bauplan o Bilateral o Triploblasty 0 True organs and organ systems All are Protostome coelomates Lophophorates morphologically linked by the lophophore feeding apparatus ring of tentacles o Phoronida horseshoe worms 0 Bryozoan moss animals 0 Brachiopoda the lamp shells o Trochozoans linked by trochophore larva Mollusca mollusks o Annelida segmented worms 0 Nermertea ribbon worms 0 Sipuncula peanut worms 0 o O Entroprocta many weird and wormlike creatures Pogonophora deep sea tube worms A Annelida segmented worms 0 Annelids all have 0 Protostome coelmate o Metaerism all segments similar re ected in external and internal anatomy o Coelom is large uid lling hydrostatic skeleton 0 000 O Hydrostatic skeleton provide structure through the uid lled sac and also movement with muscles working against uid pressure Developed nervous system w cephalic ganglion and ventral ganglionated nerve cord Dorsal cosed circulatory system several hearts Appendages present on each body segment Mentanephridia or protonephridia serve as excretory system Larva characteristic form called trochophore Polychaetes many bristles marine segmented worms 0 O O Freeswimming or sedentary Distint cephalization with complex sense organs Paddlelike appendages parapodia Oligochaetes few bristles earthworms their and their allies O 0000 Freeliving fresh water or terrestrial Fossorial burrowing Reduced cephaliztion reduced sense organs Small setae bristle on each segment to aid locomotion Important detritivore breaks down animalplant matter into nutrients for ecosystem Hinudinea eech O O O O Monoplyletic with oigochaetes Freeliving predatoreectoparasites Coelom very reduced body wall muscular Salivary secretion hirudin anticoagulant 0 Form clade with earthworms B Mollusca the mollusks Have soft bodies but ALL has shell 0 Even octopus but loose later in life 0 HAM hypothetical ancestral mollusk o All mollusks have O 0000 O O O Protostome coelomate characters Coelom just a gonocoel around gonads and heart Haemocoel is primary body cavity Open circulatory system Body cavity Mantle epidermalcuticular layer of skin secretes shell Muscular Foot Visceral guts mass where organs are Buccal mouth with rasplike radula feeding structure Metanephridia excretory system Trochophore larva but becomes more complex and turns into veliger before metamorphosing 0 Diversity of mollusks O Polyplacophora chitons All marine and benthic as bottom of ocean Have separate dorsal plates instead of shell Foot keeps anchored Most similar to HAM o Gastropoda snails and slugs Freeliving Marine freshwater and terrestrial High degree of cephalization well developed sense organs Torsion twisting of gut anus above head Single shell often spiral or conical cone 0 Bivalvia clams oysters mussels etc Marine and fresh water Hinged she enclosing whole body Gill for respiration and feeding Suspension lterfeeders o Cephalopoda chamberd nautius squids octopus Just marine Fast swimming predators Camera eye analogous to vertebrate eye color images nteigent Note Annelids and mollusks share trochophore larva at some stage in development o In many mouscs trochophore goes further into veiger before turning into nal product HEcdysozoa Related by process of ecdysis shedding and replacement of external cuticle as the animal grows O Cuticle contains chitin This clade includes 0 Pseudocoelmoate and coelomate animals Priapulida penis worms Nematomorpha horsehair worms Nematode round worms Onychophora velvet worms Tardigrada water bears Arthropoda jointlegged animals Nematoda roundworm Bauplan 0 00000 Unsegmented Pseudocoelomate body cavity is persistent blastocoel Simple excretory system to remove waste No circulatory or respiratory system Has only longitudinal muscles causes snake movement Very abundant and diverse Most are harmless bene cial to soil Some causes disease a Pinworms n Trichinella n Elephantiasis n Canine heartworm Onychophora velvet worms 0 Feed on small critters in leaf litter Capture prey with mucus and reeling it in Segmented with chitinous walking appendages on each segment 0 Birth live young Tardigrada Waterbears Tardigrade bauplan o Segmented o Coelomate o Paired clawed appendages on each segment 0 Aquatic fresh and marine o Shed ecdysis Model organism for sending things into space because have ability to survive in very harsh environment Arthropoda joint footed animals 0 Most diverse and abundant Have typical protostome characteristics OO 0 000000 Organs often segmentally arranged Metamerism segments similar inside and out Tagmosis fusion of body segments some have undergone this lobster Head thorax abdomen Exoskeleton made of chitin sometimes has calcium carbonate lobsters One pair ofjointed appendages per true body segment Have compound eye Good at detecting movement Coelong reduced to gonocoel around gonads Main body cavity is hemocoel Open circulatory system Nervous system is ventral Muscles striated high efficient locomotion Development and metamorphisis may be Complete larva distinctly different from adult n Ex butter y Simple young are just smaller versions of adult n Nymph smaller version a Ex silver sh Mixed larva somewhat different from adult n Ex dragon y o Arthropod Diversity 0 Trilobites all extinct Common in shallow waters of Paleozoic age Segmented Appendages all very similar Later arthropods show fusion of segments an specialization of appendages o Chelicerata All have a Molecular similarity n Morphological similarlity Ex cheicerae claws Xiphosura horseshoe crab n 4 extant species a compound eyes in exible carapace a walk along ocean bottom wjointed legs a feed on worms and other small prey Arachnida spiders scorpions mites ticks a Body composed of Cephalothorax head and thorax Abdomen n 8 legs a one pair cheicerae modi ed into fangs Pycnogonida sea spiders a Marine arachnids o Myriapoda centipedes millipedes and cousins Chilopoda centipedes n One pair of walking legs per segment a Head has antennae n 3 pairs of legs modi ed into mouth parts a dorsoventrally attened a terrestrial carnivores Diplopoda millipedes n 2 pair walking legs per segment a body round a herbivors an detritivorous o Hexapoda insects and cousins Vast diversity Body consists of a Head n Thorax n Abdomen 3 pairs of walking legs on thorax mouthparts formed by appendages to form mandibles entomologist someone who studies bugs 0 Crustacea Body forms a cephalothorax and abdomen Decapoda crabs lobsters shrimp named for 10 walking legs Extoskeleton harder bc calcium carbonate Most marine some fresh Deuterostomia Are all deuterostomes Like protostomes are 0 Bilateral sym o Triploblastic o Coelomate Unlike protostomes o Blastopore becomes anus 2ncl opening is mouth 0 Coelom derived via enterocoely o Cleavage is radial and indeterminate o Nervous system dorsal o Circulatory ventral Echinodermata spinnyskinned animals Slow moving Pentaradially sym o Develops from bilaterally sym Larva Internal skeleton of calcium carbonate plates ossicles Moves and feeds with water vascular system derived from coelom 0 Water intake via aboral madreporite 0 Water distributed radially via Stone canal ring canal radial canals tube feet Complete digestive tract anus aboral Excretory system absent secondarily lost Reduced circulatory system Nervous system diffuse and decentralized Echinoderm Diversity 0 Sea lilies sea stars sea urchins sea cucumbers sand dollars Hemichordata Acorn worms Has characteristics of echindermata and chordate Echinodermlike characters 0 Tornaria larva similar to echinoderm larva Chordatelike characters 0 Ciliated pharyngeal gill slits o Dorsal sometimes hollow nerve cord homology with nerve cord uncertain Spend lives burrowing thru muddy substrate C Chordata chordates 3 subphyla O O O urochordata tunicates cephalochordate anceets very old dissected one vertebrata vertebrates chordate synapomorphies 0000 O O pharyngeal gill slits dorsal cartilaginous notochord dorsal hollow nerve cord endostyle uro and ceph or homologous thyroid gland vert tai posterior to anus segmentally arranged nuscle bundles myomeres vertebrates O O vertebrate synapomorphies skeleton constructed of bone articulated dorsa vertebral column housing nerve cord bony cranium baupan head trunk postanal tai u only mammals have trunk separated by diaphragm 2layered integument n epidermis above dermis below a epidermis is ectodermal n dermis is mesodermal u made of connective tissue integument may be specialized scales feathers claws horns all surfaces lined by epithelium endoskeleton made of bone cartilage and connective Ussue n articulated vertebral column a bony cranium muscular pharynx with multiple slits primitively ventral circulatory system a heart has at least one ventricle and one atrium a closed circulatory system of arteris and veins coelom encloses internal organs n pericardium around heart a peritoneum around viscera gut 3 types of muscle smooth cardiac skeletal muscles attached via tendons to bones ligaments connect bone to bone paired kidneys remove nitrogenous waste complex nervous system a central nervous system of brain and spinal cord a peripheral nervoud system on 1012 cranial nerves spinal nerve ganglia n neurons with mylin a high degree of cephalization endocrine system glands throughout body products transports by circulatory system sexually reproducing a sequential hermaphroditism when individual reverse sex during lifetime


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.