Slide Quiz 1
Slide Quiz 1 ARCH 3411
U of M
Popular in Architecture History to 1750
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Architecture
This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Emma Norden on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 303 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Week 1 Pantheon Rome begun 117 CE for Emperor Hadrian In uenced many buildings Dedicated to 7 planetary gods and goddesses Round dome connected to templelike entrance very rare in Roman temples Portico with 20 Corinthian columns that used to support roof trusses Diameter 142 6 and 142 high cella with dome on top and oculus 27 in diameter Roman building closest to its original state Construction of cella is based on arches and vaults Arches inside thick walls allowed hollowed out spaces Weight of dome decreased with height Interior is more important than exterior Showed power by building in center of Rome as an already existing monument Rotunda may have represented the world the world and universe are round therefore a sphere would be the best representation to display Hadrian s power and in uence First ancient temple to be repurposed as a Christian church Week 2 Epipaleolithic and Neolithic Western Asia Gobekli Tepe Anatolia Turkey ca 10000 8000 BCE Neolithic period Transition from hunting to herding would follow animals where they grazed unless they started farming once there are settlements architecture can start to emerge Original building was filled in and another was built on top of it Stone pillars had animal and human figures on them pillars held up roof but also had architectural character Catalhoyiik Anatolia Turkey 7th millennium BCE One of the earliest known urban communities along with Jericho Israel No streets but organization of dwellings created a town wall Houses are little rooms made of mud brick with timber beams and columns rooms referred to as shrines Contained motifs of bulls and statues of Gods and Goddesses Smoke hole above hearth where you enter using a ladder Children and elderly mainly inhabited interior of stone rooms House was also a tomb sat on top of where ancestors were buried Egypt Culture that revolved around death cities for living consisted of less architecture with the exception of Tell el Almama Funerary Complex of King Zoser Sakkara Egypt ca 2750 BCE by Imhotep The first monumental stone structure in Egypt it was a stepped pyramid containing 6 stepss representing annual rebirth of nature plants appear on hillocks after a ood Exterior was dressed limestone Covering 35 acres and surrounded by a 33 high wall there is one door on southeast side leading to colonnaded processional hall that brings you to the courtyard where the stepped pyramid is Contained two burial chambers symbolizing Upper and Lower Egypt Chamber underground was his tomb and passageway was filled in with stone but did not keep grave robbers out Most available building material were reeds columns were made of reeds wood logs were rare and expensive Columns represented the idea that Egypt was in the eternal presence of pharaoh Pyramids of Cheops Khufu Giza Egypt ca 2570 BCE Chefren Khafre ca 2530 BCE Mycerinus Menkaure ca 2500 BCE The three pyramids located in Giza were built during the Fourth Dynasty 0 Pyramid of Cheops or Khufu was built first and intended to be of incredible size and rises to 481 covering a span of 13 acres at its base Material used is limestone but pharaoh s chamber is granite No stone structure beats Kufu s pyramid in size Contains three burial chambers lowest symbolizes underworld the middle one Queen s chamber was his spirit chamber the top chamber is his tomb o Pyramid of Chefren or Khafre Khufu s son was constructed next and slightly smaller In photos it appears taller but this is due to standing on elevated ground Original smooth limestone on pinnacle distinguishes this pyramid from others Contains single tomb chamber on ground oor in center of pyramid with a passageway on north side allowing access 0 Pyramid of Mycerinus or Menkaure son of Khafre is the smallest Consists of less than 110 of the Khufu s pyramid and seems to have been finished in a hurry possibly due to the fact that it was incomplete before he died Each pyramid had a temple along the Nile funeral procession happened in a boat which represented the sun prepped for burial at the temple and then brought to pyramid for burial boat was often buried with pharaoh Mortuary Temples of Mentuhotep DeirelB ahari qupt ca 2050 BCE and Hashepsut ca 1500 BCE Combination of temple and tomb Consisted of two levels of colonnaded terraces Representational mortuary temple but pharaoh was not buried in it AaXial entrance goes through square columns supporting at roof through courtyard more columns and finally Mentuhoteps tomb in the rock cliff In uenced tomb of Hashepsut Hashepsut was first female pharaoh Her temple was dedicated to the sun god Amun with whome Hashepsut was associated Ramps lead from valley to terraces with colonnades Paintings and carvings portray her birth as daughter of Amun often she is depicted as a man wearing the traditional Pharaoh clothing Successors tried to destroy any sign of her reign Was a place for rituals and worshiping god Amun Temple of Amon Hypostyle Hall Karnak Egypt 15001100 BCE Example of a temple honoring gods and Pharaohs successive pharaohs would add or renovate older temples Hypostyle halls are great chambers created by rows of columns close together which was necessary in order to hold up stone lintels of the roof Masonry entrance gates pylons represented eastern Egyptian mountainsdirection from which the sun rises and also the passage to the underworld Processional corridor of pilons Sacred row of columns with visual narrative on columns columns weren t only utilitarian but primarily representational Week 3 Greece and the Greek World Crete Palace Knossos Crete ca 17001380 BCE Largest and most famous Minoan site Palace was designed as a labyrinth on multiple levels Function of palace is debatable could have been a temple before it became a palace Four acres of structures surround a large courtyard 174 by 87 Three story western wing is made up of ceremonial spaces but axiality of typical Egyptian culture is missing eastern side was mainly residential Was the distribution center harvest brought into palace and then distributed Edge of town meets palace in the west court where visitors entered Murals inside palace and on exterior depict procession of court Columns get narrower at bottom to support weight of building on top capitals The Lion Gate Mycenae ca 1250 BCE Mycenae civilization was led by warrior kings Was strongly fortified sitting atop elevated ground with mountains on the north and south side Walls are 1824 thick and 40 high Greeks thought work to be that of Cyclopes so it s construction if often referred to as Cyclopean Lion Gate was the main entrance constructed of two upright stones supporting 14 ton lintel with an arch atop it Triangular stone of two lions fill arch heads of lions were carved separately and are missing Major ceremonial space was a megaron at center and was the largest room in the city Tholos Tomb of Atreus Mycenae ca 1250 BCE Largest and most well preserved tomb was Tholos or beehive tomb The corbeled chamber made of stone is covered by an earthen mound except for the entranceway Originally the entranceway was decorated and interior was covered with bronze plates Temple of Hera Paestum Italy Basilica mid VI century BCE Grid plans and the temple emerged from Greek architecture during the Archaic period First Temple of Hera was one of the first temples to have Doric columns Has a column in the plane of the back and front walls odd number of columns along short side is unusual as it is typically a space for axial entry Temple of Apollo Bassae ca 430400 BCE by Iktinos means gorgeous Corinthian order appears here reason for why it does is not clear Much of sacred places are not in middle of town usually on peaks in valleys overlooking seas Temple of Apollo in Bassae is on a peak Doric columns on outsides and Ionic inside Orientation is directed south usually temples face east to the rising of the sun or star Opening in temple is unusual but allows backlight on what is thought to be first Corinthian column Athens Acropolis o Parthenon Temple of Parthenos by Ictinus and Kallicrates 447 432 BCE Greek buildings were vividly painted not originally white marble Parthenon had entablature and polychromic detail Parthenon was not originally the whole temple Possible that Corinthian columns now destroyed were part of Parthenon which would mean Corinthian columns would have appeared slightly earlier than at Bassae by same architect If building had been built absolutely straight it would appear to bend out and if columns were completely straight they would seem to sag in the middle Architects designed buildings the way they should appear to the eye perimeter is slightly curved and columns too Freize on outer walls of cella depicts Propylaia procession but is always kept in shadow o Propylaia 437432 BCE by Mnesicles Propylaia is a gate to terminus that presents the whole of Acropolis as a temple of which Propylaia is the temple front view of Propylaia from Parthenon is obscured not because architects didn t take into account visual effects but temples are where there are because that s where they ve always been and where they have to be oriented east towards the rise of sun or a particular star on particular day sacrifice to Gods is done outside of temple at altar o Erechtheion 421407 BCE place it was built didn t have a temple before tomb of original king North porch has hole in the oor with name of God Poseidon storms waves earthquakes Athens was founded by contest between Athena and Poseidon Poseidon struck earth and spring appeared but with salt water Athena smiled and an olive tree appeared Olive tree spring and scar in rock that Poseidon struck is located in temple
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