Test 2 notes
Test 2 notes CJ 100
Popular in intro to criminal justice
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Amelia Kisling on Tuesday September 29, 2015. The Bundle belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see intro to criminal justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/29/15
Corrections Corrections refers to all programs services facilities and organizations responsible of the accused and convicted Prisons jails probation parole halfway houses education and work release programs community service etc 0 Physical incarceration settings only account for 30 correctional landscape community incarceration settings account for the majority 70 extra credit question History of Corrections in the US 0 Penitentiary prison An institute intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society so they cam re ect on their crimes and reform The Pennsylvania System solitary con nement system Criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries Separate con nement solitary con nement lnmates held in isolation from other inmates All activities including craft work took place in cells and in isolation o Solitary con nement would prevent further corruption inside prison 0 Offenders would re ect on their past transgressions and repent The New York System contract labor system Rival to Pennsylvania s concept of separate con nement Congregate system Prisoners were held in isolation at night by worked with other prisoners in shops during the day Prisoners worked under a rule of silence and were forbidden from even looking at each other 0 Industrial ef ciency should be the purpose of prison 0 Contract labor system Labor sold on a contractual basis to private employers Private employers provided the equipment and inmates made products to sell Strict discipline obedience was key Cincinnati 1870 parole system Advocated a new design for the penitentiary system Reform should be rewarded by release Indeterminate sentencing guidelines instead of xed sentences Corrections in the US present day 0 Each level of government has some responsibility for corrections local state federal o If you want to go into the eld of correctional institutes go federal not state 0 State and local government pay about 90 of the cost of all correctional activities of the nation Models of Incarceration Custodial model Emphasizes security discipline and order assumes purpose of incapacitation deterrence or retribution o majority of prisons conform to custodial 0 Rehabilitation model Emphasizes treatment programs drug courts 0 Reintegration model Emphasizes ties to family and community community corrections Federal Bureau of Prisons great agency to start in for federal law enforcement Created by Congress in 1930 0 Facilities and inmates are classi ed by security range 0 Level 1 least secure camptype settings 0 Level 5 most secure quotsuper maxquot penitentiary at Florence Colorado quotsuper maxquot means it has exceeded the security range 0 ADX Florence quotAlcatraz of the Rockiesquot only FEDERAL 39super max facility State Correctional Systems Forty states have created prisons that exceed maximum security 0 About 20000 inmates are currently held in these quotsuper maxquot pdson California Pelican Bay Private Prisons Response to prison and jail overcrowding and rising costs Argue that private enterprises can build and run prisons as effectively as government but at a lower cost to the taxpayers Private facilities hold approximately 6 of all state prisoners 15 of all federal prisoners Guaranteed occupancy rate a private prison must reach their minimum guaranteed occupancy rate otherwise the state has to provide the rest Jails are used for detention and shortterm incarceration less than one year 0 Local facilities used to detain people awaiting trial 0 Also serve as a holding facility for quotsocial misfits junkies disturbers of public order prostitutes etc The Contemporary Jail 0 Approximately 3400 jails in the US 0 Because of constant inmate turnover correctional services are usually lacking in jail o The mixture of offenders of differing ages and criminal histories is also a major problem Community Corrections 0 Community corrections seeks to build stability and success for offenders through the community 0 Finding employment opportunities is an important component of community corrections 0 Based on the goal of nding the quotleast restrictive alternativequot Probation o Conditional release into the community avoids incarceration Submitting to drug tests obeying curfews and staying away from certain people or parts of town 0 About 42 million offenders currently on probation Probation Services Probation officers can be thought of police officers upholding the law and social workers securing employment opportunities Dual mandate Supervise clients offenders to keep them out of trouble and enforce the conditions of the sentence 0 Help clients obtain housing employment and treatment Probation officers and caseloads 19305 The National Probation Association recommended a 50 unit caseload 1967 President s Commission on Law Enforcement reduced to 35 caseloads National Average today is 150 caseloads sometimes up to 300 0 Successful probation officer should have a lighter caseload How Probation Ends 0 Probation ends in one of two ways 1 Offender successfully completes the period of probation 2 The probationary status is revoked because of a technical violation fails to meet conditions and abide by rules of probation Once the probationary term is completed the sentence ends Parole o Provisional release from prison 0 Main goals Managing prison populations and incentivizing rehabilitation Types of intermediate Sanctions Fines Sum of money to be paid to the state by a convicted as punishment for an offense 0 Restitution Repayment in the form of money or service by an offender to a victim who has suffered some loss from the offense Forfeiture Government seizure of property and other assets derived from or used in criminal activity Home con nement A sentence requiring the offender to remain inside their home during speci ed periods quothouse arrestquot Community Service Requires the offender to perform a certain amount of unpaid labor in the community social service agencies cleaning parks and roadsides etc Day Reporting Centers Community correctional center where an offender reports each day to comply with elements of a sentence Famous Criminal Trials OJ SIMPSON Criminal Trial 0 Former football star quotThe Juicequot Elected into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1985 actor and football broadcaster Murder Trial 0 People of the State of California v Orenthal James Simpson 0 November 2 1994 jury sworn to verdict on October 3 1995 0 OJ Simpson charged with two counts of rst degree murder Murders On June 13th 1994 Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were murdered outside Nicole s condo 1210 am 0 OJ and Nicole had divorced 2 years earlier Nicole Stabbed multiple times in the head and neck with defensive wounds on her hands 0 Three separate crime scenes the condo OJ s home and OJ s car Key Evidence 0 History of abuse 0 Warrant issued for arrest OJ goes on famous car chase leaves apparent suicide note holds gun to his head Bronco had blood in it Lefthanded glove at scene of crime covered in blood Nicole Brown s home 0 OJ Simpson s house righthanded glove covered in blood blood found on Bronco socks soaked in Nicole s blood at foot of OJ s bed 0 OJ traveled to Chicago late that same night gets called back by police left hand is injuredbleeding inconsistencies in story Reasonable Doubt 0 How the crime scene was handled o Detective Mark Fuhrman Lead detective of LAPD rst on the scene had the vials of each type of blood Defense starts looking into his path 0 quotHave you ever falsi ed a police casequot quotI plead the fthquot quotDid you plant evidence in this casequot quotI plead the fthquot EDTA in speci c blood stains bloodsoaked socks on Simpson s back gate 0 EDTA is used in labs to prevent blood clotting in test tubes does not occur naturally Police inside Bronco before forensically examined New Evidence in Civil Trial 0 New Evidence bloody footprints special Bruno Magli shoes only 300 in the world 0 Simpson denies owning a pair under oath 0 Multiple photos surface of Simpson wearing these shoes Casey Anthony Criminal Trial 0 Two major charges rst degree murder not guilty aggravated manslaughter it can be an accidental death not guilty 0 Found guilty of lying to the police on four counts Prosecution Very little physical evidence 0 Delay in recovering Caylee s remains Built case around Casey s moral character party lifestyle liar etc 0 Does a liar a murderer Key Evidence 0 Strand of hair from the trunk of Casey Anthony s car 0 quotAir sampling procedurequot 0 Neither of these testing techniques that had never been used before in a court of law 0 Same testing showed chloroform was found 0 Google searches chloroform Caylee s remains were found on December 11 2008 0 Found in a trash bag with a blanket and duct tape 0 Cause of death was undetermined 0 Body had decomposed so much there was no evidence to support any kind of homicide Defense 0 Accidental drowning in family swimming pool 0 George Anthony disposed of the body 0 Defense said that Casey lied because of her dysfunctional family 0 quotFantasy forensicsquot Casey Anthony Thoughts o Prosecution vs Defensive theories 0 Prosecution premeditated murder 0 Defensive accidental Prosecution thought she would plea bargain Firstdegree vs aggravated manslaughter Beyond a reasonable doubt Burden of proof Prosecution Big mistakes 0 Over trying 0 Over charging no actual cause of death quotCaylee s Lawquot 0 Impose stricter requirements on parents to notify law enforcement of the death or disappearance of a child Felony is a parent or legal guardian fails to report a missing child in a timely manner New Evidence 0 Firefox search of quothow to suffocate around the time Caylee went missing followed by someone logging onto Casey Anthony s Myspace account 0 Was not brought to trial by prosecutors Casey Anthony Civil Trial 0 Criminal vs Civil Court Beyond a reasonable doubt vs Preponderance of evidence Zenaida FernandezGonzales defamation suit Defamation term for any statement that hurts someone s reputation not a crime but a tort civil wrong 0 Written defamation l i bel o Spoken defamation slander World Com Scheme 0 Bernie Ebbers The Juvenile Justice System 0 Most juvenile crimes are committed by young men 0 Only 29 of arrestees younger than 18 years of age are women 0 After rising from 1988 through 1994 the juvenile violent crime rate has dropped 0 Theories Behind Decrease Environmental factors involving drugs especially crack cocaine 0 Age demographics Deteriorating social and economic conditions recession of 1987 The Juvenile Rights Period 19601980 at least 3 questions on test 0 Limited the powers ofjuvenile justice officials In re Gault1967 Afforded juveniles many of the same due process rights as adults right to legal counsel to confront and examine accusers notice of charges etc o In re Winship 1970 The standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt applies to juvenile delinquency proceedings 0 Status offenders were taken out of correctional institutions ex skipping school 0 Status offender is something that would be considered criminal forjuveniles but not for adults quotKids Are Different 2005Present o Roper V Simmons 2005 was the beginning of the movement 0 Recognizes developmental differences of teens maturity impulsiveness etc o If you are under the age of 18 and you commit a crime no matter what it is you cannot receive capital punishment as the penalty Point in time when the crime was committed NOT when they are tried 0 however you CAN be tried as an adult Classi cations ofJuveniles o Delinquency Delinquent children have committed acts that are criminal in the adult world theft robbery etc 0 Status Offenses Not illegal if committed by an adult only juvenHe Neglect A neglected child is receiving inadequate care because of some action or inaction of their parents Dependency A child who has no parent or guardian or whose parents cannot give proper care
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